Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) -- Pseudococcidae
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Believed to originate in Asia, the hibiscus mealybug was introduced to Egypt where it became the most injurious species of mealybug (Dahlsten & Hall 1999). This insect is severe on Hibiscus, Bauhinia, Grevillia, mulberry, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia arabica, Robinia pseudacacia, Cajanus cajan, guava and Parkinsonia aculeatus. Several species of natural enemies were introduced from other species of mealybugs around 1920. An encyrtid imported from Java, Anagyrus kamali Moursi gave complete biological control after interacting with another Acrysopophagus sp. (Clausen 1978).
For further details on this biological control effort, please see the following (Hall 1921, 1926, 1927; Moursi 1948, Kamal 1951, Rao 1967).
REFERENCES: [ Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]
Clausen, C. P. 1978 (ed.). Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds: A world review. U. S. Dept. Agric., Agric. Handbk. No. 480. 545 p.
Dahlsten, D. L. & R. W. Hall. 1999. Biological control of insects in outdoor urban environments. In: Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, New York. 1046 p.
Hall, W. J. 1921. The hibiscus mealybug (Phenacoccus hirsutus Green). Min. AGric. (Egypt) Bull. 17. 28 p.
Hall, W. J. 1926. The hibiscus mealybug (Phenacoccus hirsutus Green) in Egypt in 1925 with nots on the introduction of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls. Min. Agric. Tech. Sci. (Egypt) Serv. Bull. 70. 15 p.
Hall, W. J. 1927. The introduction of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls. into Egypt. Bull. Ent. Res. 17: 385-92.
Kamal, M. 1951. Biological control projects in Egypt with a list of introduced parasites and predators. Bull. Soc. Fouad Ier Ent. 35: 205-20.
Moursi, A. A. 1948. Anagyrus kamali Moursi, a parasite of the hibiscus mealybug, Phenacoccus hirsutus Green. Bull. Soc. Fouad Ier Ent. 32: 9-16.
Rao, V. P. 1967. Biological control projects of the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Indian Station, Gangalore 6, India. Internatl. Adv. Commonwealth Biol. Control, Biol. Control Inform. Bull. 2: 16.