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FLIES  IN  ACCUMULATED  ORGANIC  WASTES

 

Musca domestica L., Stomoxys spp., etc. -- Muscidae

 

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Abbott, C. E.  1937.  The necrophilous habit in Coleoptera.  Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 32:  202-04.

 

Abbott, C. E.  1938.  The development and general biology of Creophilus villosus Grav.  J. New York Ent. Soc. 46:  49-52.

 

Ables, J. R.  1975.  Bioecological relationships between hymenopterous parasitoids and their house fly host.  Ph.D. Thesis, Clemson Univ., Clemson, South Carolina.  48 p.

 

Ables, J. R.  1977.  The occurrence of an imported parasite Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead in South Carolina.  J. Georgia Ent. Soc. 12:  114-17.

 

Ables, J. R. & M. Shepard.  1974a.  Hymenopterous parasitoids associated with poultry manure.  Environ. Ent. 3:  884-86.

 

Ables, J. R. & M. Shepard.  1974b.  Responses and competition of the parasitoids Spalangia endius and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at different densities of house fly pupae.  Canad. Ent. 106:  825-30.

 

Ables, J. R. & M. Shepard.  1976a.  Seasonal abundance and activity of indigenous hymenopterous parasitoids attacking the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae).  Canad. Ent. 108:  841-44.

 

Ables, J. R. & M. Shepard.  1976b.  Influence of temperature on oviposition by the parasitoids Spalangia endius and Muscidifurax raptor.  Environ. Ent. 5:  511-13.

 

Ables, J. R. & M. Shepard.  1976c.  Development of parasitoids, Spalangia endius and Muscidifurax raptor in relation to constant and variable temperature:  simulation and validation.  Environ. Entomol. 5:  329-332.

 

Ables, J. R., R. P. West & M. Shepard.  1975.  Response of the house fly and its parasitoids to Dimilin (Th-6040).  J. Econ. Ent. 68:  622-24.

 

Ables, J. R., M. Shepard and J. R. Holman.  1976.  Development of the parasitoids Spalangia endius and Muscidifurax raptor in relation to constant and variable temperature:  simulation and validation.  Environ. Ent. 5:  329-32.

 

Adams, R. G.  1984.  Ophyra species as predators in animal houses, with a key to species occurring in Europe (Diptera: Muscidae).  Ent. Gaz. 35:  243-46.

 

Abraham, R.  1969.  Okologische Untersuchungen an Pteromaliden (Hym., Chalcidoidea) aus dem Grenzraum Land- Meer.- Inaug. Diss., Univ. Kiel.

 

Abraham, R.  1970.  Okologische Untersuchungen an Pteromaliden (Hym., Chalcidoidea) im Grenzraum Land- Meer an der Nordseeküste Schleswie-Holsteins.  Oecologia, Berlin 6:  15-47.

 

Abraham, R.  1971.  Zur Bionomie und Okologie der Pteromalidae an der Nordseeküste von Schleswig-Holstein. 1. Teil.  Spalangiinae, Asaphinae und Panstenoninae.  Faun. Okol. Mitt., Kiel 4:  23-9.

 

Abraham, R.  1973.  Über die Bedeutung der hohen Ausbreitungsintensität bei Chalcodoidea (Hymenoptera).  Fauna Okol. Mitt., Kiel 4:  335-44.

 

Abraham, R.  1975.  Über die Wirkung der Temperatur auf die Flugaktivität parasitischer Hymenopteren.  Z. angew. Ent. Berlin-Hamburg 79:  113-23.

 

Abraham, R.  1976.  Die ökologische Potenz von Chalcidoidea also Anpassung an das Wirtsspektrum.  Verh. Dtsch. Zool. Ges., Stuttgart.  210 p.

 

Abraham, R.  1976.  Die Wirkung von Sonnenstrahlen auf die Körpertemperatur parasitischer Hymenopteren.  Ent. Germanica, Stuttgart 2:  249-57.

 

Abraham, R.  1978a.  Über die Flugaktivität einiger Pteromalide (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Abhängigkeit von Temperatur und relativer Luftfeuchtigkeit.  Zool. Jb. Syst. Jena 105:  489-501.

 

Abraham, R.  1978b.  Die Parasitierung von Phormia regina (Dipt.) durch Nasonia vitripennis (Hym., Pteromalidae) in Abhängigkeit von Temperatur und relativer Luftfeuchtigkeit im Freiland.  Mitt. dt. Ges. allg. angew. Ent., Giessen 1:  277-80.

 

Abraham, R.  1984.  Über die Insekten aus Vogelnestern.  Vogelkundl. Hefte Edertal Nr. 10:  7-10.

 

Abraham, R.  1985a.  Nasonia vitripennis an insect from bird's nests (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae).  Ent. Gen. 10:  121-24.

 

Abraham, R.  1985b.  Die Parasitoide Lebensweise als besondere Form des Parasitismus.  Mitt. dt. Ges. allg. angew. Ent. 4:  384-85.

 

Abraham, R. & H. König.  Der Einfluss der Temperatur auf die Anstichaktivität bei Nasonia vitripennis und Spalangia nigra (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae).  Entomophaga 22:  299-308.

 

Abraham, R. & K. Schmidt.  1977.  Ein Beitrag zur Faunistik Phänologie einiger Chalcididae (Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera) aus der Umgebung von Karlsruhe.  Beitr. naturk. Forsch. Südw.-dtl., Karlsruhe 36:  177-83.

 

Amonkar, S. V. & K. K. Nair.  1965.  Pathogenicity of Aspergillus flavus Link to Musca domestica nebulo Fabricius.  J. Invert. Pathol. 7:  513-14.

 

An, S.  1933.  Microorganisms found on Musca domestica in Keijo.  J. Chosen Med. Assoc. 23:  Abstr. Sect. 119.

 

Anderson, J. R.  1964.  The behavior and ecology of various flies associated with poultry ranches in northern California.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 32:  30-4.

 

Anderson, J. R.  1965.  A preliminary study of integrated fly control on northern California poultry ranches.  Proc. Calif. Mosquito Contr. Assoc. 33:  42-4.

 

Anderson, J. R. & J. H. Poorbaugh.  1964.  Observations on the ethology and ecology of various Diptera associated with northern California poultry ranches.  J. Med. Ent. 1:  131-47.

 

Anderson, J. R., W. R. Bowen, A. S. Deal, G. P. Georghiou, E.  F. Legner, E. C. Loomis & M. H. Swanson.  1972.  Fly control on poultry ranches.  Univ. of Calif. Publ. AXT-72.  18 pp.

 

Anderson, J. R., W. R. Bowen, A. S. Deal, G. P. Georghiou, E. F. Legner, & M. H. Swanson.  1975.  Fly control on poultry ranches.  Univ. of Calif. Leaflet 2505.  17 pp.

 

Andriescu, I.  1972/73.  Chalcidoidiens (Chalcidoidea, Hym., Insecta), d'importance economique de Romanie (Catalogue hote/parasite, parasite/hote.  Trav. Station "Stejarul" Ecol. Terr. et Ginetique, Pingarati.  p. 155-90.

 

Andriescu, I. & K. Fabritius.  1981.  Eupteromalus terginae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), ein Puparienparasit von Fucellia tergina Zett. (Anthomyiidae) und Musca domestica L. (Muscidae).  Nachr. Bl. bayer. Ent., München 30:  73-8.

 

Arends, J. J. & S. H. Robertson.  1986.  Integrated pest management for poultry production:  implementation through integrated poultry companies.  Poultry Sci. 65:  675-82.

 

Armitage, D. M.  1986.  Population changes of four species of insects (Col. & Dipt.) in three deep pit poultry houses.  Ent. Mon. Mag. 122:  75-77.

 

Ashmead, W. H.  1887.  Studies on the North American Chalcididae, with descriptions of new species, chiefly from Florida.  Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 14:  183-203.

 

Ashmead, W. H.  1896.  A synopsis of the Spalangiinae of North America.  Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 3:  27-37.

 

Ashmead, W. H.  1896.  Descriptions of new parasite Hymenoptera.  Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 23:  179-234.

 

Ashmead, W. H.  1904.  Classification of the chalcid flies of the superfamily Chalcidoidea, with descriptions of new species in the Carnegie Museum, collected in South America by Herbert H. Smith.  memoirs Carnegie Mus. 1:  222-551.

 

Askew, R. R.  1968.  Considerations on speciation in Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera).  Evolution 22:  642-45.

 

Aubert, J. F.  1959.  Biologie d'un hyperparasite trimorphique du groupe de Gelis corruptor Först (Hym. Ichn.).  Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon 28:  25-8.

 

Aubert, J. F.  1962.  Les ichneumonides du rivage méditerranéen francais (4°série, Alpes maritimes).  Rev. franc. Ent. 29:  124-53.

 

Aubert, J. F.  1989.  Ichneumonides pétiolées inédites obtenues d'élevages.  Bull. Soc. Ent. Mulhouse, Oct-Déc.  p. 49-58.

 

Aubert, J. F.  1991.  Types d'Ichneumonides mal étudiés.  Bull. Soc. Ent. Mulhouse, Avr.-Juin.  p. 17-22.

 

Aubert, J. F. & P. Blanchot.  1990.  Gelis agilis auct., Ichneumonide trimorphique parasite direct de pupes de Diptères.  Bull. Soc. Ent. Mulhouse, Oct.-Déc..  p. 55-60.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1961a.  New records of North American Macrochelidae (Acarina:  Mesostigmata) and their predation rates on the house fly.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 54(5): 748.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1961b.  Mites - enemies of house flies.  Farm Research 27(4): 4-5.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1963a.  Acarina occurring in domestic animal manure.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 56(5): 628-633.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1963b.  Effect of Macrochelidae (Acarina:  Mesostigmata) on house fly production from dairy cattle manure.  J. Econ. Ent. 56(3): 317-321.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1963c.  Manure-inhabiting Macrochelidae (Acarina:  Mesostigmata) predacious on the house fly.  In Advances in Acarology, Vol. 1, Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, N.Y., pp. 55-59.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1963d.  Household pests.  In North Carolina Pesticide Manual, pp. 66-67.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1963e.  A basic guide to pesticide formulation ratios.  Pest Control, pp. 9, 11-12.  May.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1964a.  Phoretic relationship of some common manure-inhabiting Macrochelidae (Acarina:  Mesostigmata) to the house fly.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 57(5): 584-7.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1964b.  Laboratory rearing of Hippelates pusio and H. bishoppi (Diptera:  Chloropidae).  J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 80(2): 163-4.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1965.  A better way.  Research project aimed at finding a better way to deal with house flies, Tarheel eye gnats.  Research and Farming.  XXIV(2): 4-5.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1966a.  Comparative toxicities of insecticides to house fly larvae and Macrocheles muscaedomesticae, a mite predator of the house fly.  J. Econ. Ent. 59(5): 1128-1130.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1966b.  Evaluations of repellents for Hippelates eye gnats.  J. Econ. Ent. 60(1): 176-180.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1968.  Integrated house fly control:  Populations of fly larvae and predaceous mites, Macrocheles muscaedomesticae, in poultry manure after larvicide treatment.  J. Econ. Ent. 61(1): 245-249.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1969a.  Macrochelidae (Acarina:  Mesostigmata) as biological control agents for synanthropic flies.  Proceedings Second International Congress of Acarology, Sutton Bonington, England, July 19-25, 1967.  Publ. Akademai Kiado, Budapest. p. 401-416.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1969b.  Macrochelidae (Acarina:  Mesostigmata) as biological control agents for synanthropic flies.  World Health Organ. WHO/VBC/69.119 17 p.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1970a.  Integrated fly control program for caged poultry houses.  J. Econ. Ent. 63(2): 400-405.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1970b.  Fly control in caged-poultry houses:  Comparison of larviciding and integrated control programs.  J. Econ. Ent. 63(6): 1734-7.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1970c.  Scanning electron microscopy of Acarina (Resume).  J. Parasitol. 56 (4) Sec. 2, Part 1: 12.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1971.  Ultralow volume aerial sprays for the control of Hippelates gnats and flies.  J. Georgia.  Ent. Soc. 6(2): 101-5.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1972.  Hippelates pusio eye gnat control by ultralow volume aerial sprays.  J. Georgia Ent. Soc. 7(2): 119-27.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1974a.  Fly control.  A vicious circle!  Egg Industry 7(2): 22, 24, 27, 28, 31.

 

Axtell, R. C. (ed.).  1974b.  Training manual for mosquito and biting fly control in coastal areas.  Univ. North Carolina Sea Grant Publication UNC-SG-74-08.  249p.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1975a.  Training and certification of mosquito control and public health pesticide applicators in North Carolina.  Proc. 62nd Annu. Mtg. Mosq. Exterm. Assoc. p. 102-5.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1975b.  ULV and Mosquito Control.  N.C.S.U. Entomology, Community Insect Control Information Note No. 1, 2 p.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1976.  Horse flies and deer flies:  (Diptera:  Tabanidae) Chapter 12, p. 415-445.  In:  Marine Insects (L. Cheng, editor).  North-Holland, Amsterdam.  581 p.

 

Axtell, R. C. 1979a.  Principles of integrated pest management (IPM) in relation to mosquito control.  Mosquito News 39(4): 709-718.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1979b.  Tarsal sensory receptors of ticks.  Proc. 4th Internat. Congr. Acarology (1974), Acad. Kiado, Budapest p. 699-672.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1980.  Management of mosquito production in coastal dredged material disposal areas.  Proc. Texas Mosquito Control Assoc. p. 2-4.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1981a.  Livestock integrated pest management (IPM):  Principles and prospects. p. 31-40, In:  Systems Approach to Animal Health and Production:  A Symposium (F.W. Knapp, ed.).  Univ. Kentucky, Lexington. 241 p.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1981b.  Use of predators and parasites in filth fly IPM programs in poultry housing. p. 26-43, In:  Status of Biological Control of Filth Flies, USDA Sci. Educ. Adm. Publ. A106. 2: F64, 212 p.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1982.  Attacking the pest problem - a systems approach to controlling livestock pests.  Animal Nutrition & Health (April), p. 16-18.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1985.  Poultry Pests.  Chapter 16, p. 269-293, In:  Livestock Entomology (Williams et al., editors), Wiley & Sons, New York.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1986a  Status and potential of biological control agents in livestock and poultry pest management systems.  In:  Biological Control of Muscoid Flies (Patterson, R.S. and D.A. Rutz, editors).  Misc. Publications Entomological Society of America. 61, p. 1-9.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1986b.  Fly control in confined livestock and poultry production.  Tech. Monograph, Ciba-Geigy Corp., Greensboro, N.C. p. 59.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1986c.  Fly management in poultry production:  Cultural, biological and chemical.  Poultry Sci. 65: 657-667.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1990.  Integration of chemical and biological methods for mosquito and filth fly control.  In:   Casida, J.E. (ed.), Pesticides and Alternatives, Elsevier, Amsterdam. p. 195-203.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1990.  Potential of biocontrol for livestock and poultry pests.  Chapter 20, p. 293-304 In:  Rutz, D.A. and Patterson, R.S. (eds.), Biocontrol of Arthropods Affecting Livestock and Poultry, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1991a  Control of northern fowl mites on poultry.  Proc. VIII Int'l Congr. Acarology (Ceske Budejovice, Czech. 1990).  in press.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1991b  Role of mesostigmatid mites in integrated fly control.  Proc. VIII Int'l Congr. Acarology (Ceske Budejovice, Czech 1990).  in press.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1992. Fly Management Simulator (FMS) User's Guide.  Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.

 

Axtell, R. C. & J. J. Arends.  1990.  Ecology and management of arthropod pests of poultry.  Annu. Rev. Ent. 35: 101-126.

 

Axtell, R. C. & T. D. Edwards.  1970d.  Hermetia illucens control in poultry manure by larviciding.  J. Econ. Ent. 63(6): 1786-7.

 

Axtell, R. C. & T. D. Edwards.  1983.  Efficacy and non-target effects of LarvadexR as a feed additive for controlling house flies in caged-layer poultry manure.  Poultry Sci. 62: 2371-2377.

 

Axtell, R. C. & D. A. Rutz.  1986.  Role of parasites and predators as biological fly control agents in poultry production facilities, p. 88-100.  In:  R. S. Patterson and D. A. Rutz (eds.), Biological control of Muscoid Flies.  Misc. Publ. Ent. Soc. Amer. 61.

 

Axtell, R. C. & R. E. Stinner.  1990.  Computer simulation modeling of fly management.  Chapter 19, p. 265-291 In:  Rutz, D.A. & Patterson, R.S. (eds), Biocontrol of Arthropods Affecting Livestock and Poultry, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.

 

Axtell, R. C. & I-Wu Chu-Wang.  1972.  Electron microscopy of sensory receptors.  Naval Research Reviews.  XXV(4): 12-22.

 

Axtell, R. C., R. Foelix, L. B. Coons & M. A. Roshday.  1971. Sensory receptors in ticks and mites.  Proc. Third Int'l Congress Acarology Aug. 31-Sept. 6, 1971, Prague, Czech. Publ. W. Junk, Hague. p. 35-40.

 

Azab, A. K., M. S. F. Tawfik & K. T. Awadallah.  1963.  Insect enemies of common flies in Giza region.  Bull. Ent. Soc. d'Egypte 47:  277-86.

 

Azab, A. K., M. F. S. Tawfik & K. T. Awadallah.  1967a.  Morphology of the early stages of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Bull. Soc. Ent. d'Egypte, Cairo 51:  457-67.

 

Azab, A. K., M. F. S. Tawfik & K. T. Awadallah.  1967.  Biology of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Bull. Soc. Ent. d'Egypte, Cairo 51:  469-82.

 

Azizov, N.  1972.  Some details on the biology of Spalangia nigroaenea (Hymenoptera, Spalangiidae).  Zool. Zurn. 51(6):  925-26.  [in Russian].

 

Baird, R. B.  1957.  Notes on a laboratory infection of Diptera by the fungus Empusa muscae Cohn.  Canad. Ent. 89:  432-35.

 

Baker, G. L., G. R. Brown & R. Pigott.  1982.  Dirhinus ruficornis (Girault) (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae, Dirhininae), a parasite of Diptera, two of which are primary parasites of Orthoptera.  Austral. Ent. Mag., Greenwich 9:  27-32.

 

Balard, G.  1921.  Un ennemi naturel du moustique.  Gaz. Hebd. Sci. Méd. Bordeaux 42:  359-60.  [Rev. Appl. Ent. B-10:  147].

 

Balduf, W. V.  1935.  The Bionomics of Entomophagous Coleoptera. Vol. I.  John S. Swift Co., St. Louis.  220 p.

 

Balfour, A.  1925.  Report on Medical and Sanitary Matters in Bermuda.  Publ., London.  91 p.

 

Balfour, A.  1928.  Health lessons from Bermuda.  Brit. Med. J. 3506:  447-8.

 

Banks, N.  1905.  A treatise on the Acarina, or mites.  Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 28:  1-114.

 

Barash, D. P. & C. A. Ryder.  1972.  Ethology laboratory:  reproductive behaviour of Mormoniella vitripennis.  Amer. Biology Teacher 34:  14-18.

 

Barrass, R.  1960a.  The courtship behaviour of Mormoniella vitripennis Walk. (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae).  Behaviour, Leiden 15(3-4):  185-209.

 

Barrass, R.  1960b.  The effect of age on the performance of an innate behaviour pattern in Mormoniella vitripennis Walk. (Hymenoptera< pteromalidae).  Behaviour, Leiden 15(3-4):  210-18.

 

Barrass, R.  1961.  A quantitative study of the behaviour of the male Mormoniella vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) towards two constant stimulus-situations.  Behaviour, Leiden 18(4):  288-312.

 

Barrass, R.  1962.  Contacts between males in Mormoniella vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Anim. Behaviour, London 10:  p. 385.

 

Barrass, R.  1965.  Variations in the receptivity of the female Mormoniella vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae).  Proc. 12th Internatl. Congr. Ent., London 1964.  p. 299.

 

Barrass, R.  1969.  Preening and abdomen dipping by the male Mormoniella vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) after courtship.  Behaviour, Leiden 35(3-4):  304-12.

 

Barrass, R.  1976a.  Courtship behaviour in Meraporus graminicola (Hymenoptera) and other Pteromalinae.  Physiol. Ent. 1:  77-81.

 

Barrass, R.  1976b.  Inhibitory effects of courtship in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis and a new interpretation of the biological significance of courtship in insects.  Physiol. Ent. 1:  229-34.

 

Barrass, R.  1976c.  Rearing jewel wasps Mormoniella vitripennis (Walker) and their use in teaching biology.  J. Biol. Educ., Dorchester 10(3):  119-26.

 

Barrass, R.  1979.  The survival value of courtship in insects, p. 403-16.  In:  M. S. Blum & N. A. Blum (eds.), Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition.  Academic Press, NY., London.

 

Bartlett, K. A.  1939.  Introduction into Puerto Rico of beneficial insects for control of the horn fly.  Puerto Rico Agr. Expt. Sta., USDA Agric. Notes No. 88:  6 p.

 

Bathon, H., & K. Fabritius.  1985.  Der Fliegenpuppenparasit Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), ein Neufund für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland.  Z. angew. Zool. 72(3):  343-47.

 

Bay, E. C.  1972b.  Biological control and its applicability to biting flies.  Proc. Symp. Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, May 16-18, 1972:  65-70.

 

Bay, E. C.  1976.  Part I:  Parasites and predators introduced against arthropod pests.  Diptera, p. 339-46.  In:  C. P. Clausen (ed.), Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds:  a world review.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Handb. 480.

 

Bay, E. C., C. O. Berg, H. C. Chapman & E. F. Legner.  1976.  Biological control of medical and veterinary pests, pp. 457-79.  In:  Theory and Practice of Biological Control, C. B. Huffaker & P. S. Messenger (eds.).  Academic Press, New York & London.  788 p.

 

Beard, R. L.  1964a.  Parasites of muscoid flies.  Bull. World Health Org. 31:  491-93.

 

Beard, R. L.  1964b.  Pathogenic stinging of housefly pupae by Nasonia vitripennis (Walker).  J. Insect Path. 6:  1-7.

 

Beard, R. L.  1972.  Effectiveness of paralyzing venom and its relation to host discrimination by braconid wasps.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 65:  90-3.

 

Beard, R. L. & D. C. Sands.  1973.  Factors affecting degradation of poultry manure by flies.  Environ. Ent. 2:  801-06.

 

Beard, R. L. & G. S. Walton.  1965.  An Aspergillus toxin lethal to the larvae of the house fly.  J. Invert. Pathol. 7:  522-23.

 

Beck, A. F. & E. C. Turner, Jr.  1985.  A comparison of five house-fly (Diptera: Muscidae) population monitoring techniques.  J. Med. Ent. 22:  346-48.

 

Belizin, V. I.  1963.  Cynipids:  parasites of synanthropous flies in Uzbekistan (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea).  Zool. Zhurnal, Moskva 42(11):  1652-58.  [in Russian].

 

Belizin, V. I.  1964.  Parasitierende Cynipoidea des Tribus Kleidotomini (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Eucoilidae).  Ent. Obozrenie, Leningrad 43:  185-92.  [in Russian].

 

Bellini, R., B. A. Mullens & J. B. Jespersen.  1992.  Infectivity of two members of the Entomophthora muscae complex (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) for Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).  Entomophaga 37:  (in press).

 

Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.).  1999. Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, New York.  1046 p.

 

Bendel-Janssen, M.  1977.  Zur Biologie, ókologie und Ethologie der Chalcidoidea (Hym.).  Mitt. Biol. Bundesanst. Land- u. Forstwirtsch., Berlin-Dahlem H-176:  163 p.

 

Bennett, F. D. & E. F. Legner.  1967.  Memorandum on the possibilities of biological control of the muscid flies by hymenopterous parasites.  Wld. Hlth. Org. VBC/67.22.  12 pp.

 

Berlese, A.  1904.  Acari nuovi.  Manipulus ii.  Redia 1:  258-80.

 

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Fabritius, K.  1978.  Laborzucht von Muscidifurax raptor Gir. & Sand. (Hym., Chalcidoidea) und sin Einsatz für die biologische Bekämpfung synantroper Fliegen.  Mitt. dtsch. Ges. allg. angew. Ent. 1:  231-33.

 

Fabritius, K.  1979a.  Coptera inaequalifrons Jansson (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae), ein polyphager Fliegenpuparienparasit.  Muz. Brukenthal Sibiu. Stud. com. St. nat. 23:  319-22.

 

Fabritius, K.  1979b.  Indicele sexual si importanta sa in tehnologia de inmultire in conditi de laborator, a parazitului Muscidifurax raptor Gir. and Sand.  Luc. Ses. St. I>I>S>B.-B, Bucuresti 14:  68-9.

 

Fabritius, K.  1980a.  Stocarea pupariilor de Musca domestica L. parazitate de Muscidifurax raptor Gir. et Sand. (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea).  St. cerc. biol., Ser. biol. anim. 32(1):  83-8.

 

Fabritius, K.  1980e.  Laborversuche mit Muscidifurax raptor Gir. & Sand. (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea), Sex ratio - Parasitierungsleistung - Wirtsgrösse.  Studii si Comunicári, Muz. Brukenthal, St. Nat., Vol. 24:  445-8.

 

Fabritius, K.  1980f.  Cercetári ecologice privind relatiile dintre dipterele sinantrope si unii paraziti specifici ai acestora, in vederea cunoasterii posibilitátilor de combatere biologicá.  Lucrare multiplicatá la I.I.S.P., Bucuresti.  58 p.  [in Romanian].

 

Fabritius, K.  1981a.  Über das natürliche Vorkommen und den Wirtskreis von Parasiten synanthropic Fliegen.  Z. angew. Zool. 68(2):  139-49.

 

Fabritius, K.  1981b.  Guided biological control of the synanthropic fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera, Muscidae) by the parasite Muscidifurax raptor Gir. & Sand. (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae).  St. cerc. biol., Seria biol. anim. T-33(1):  89-92.  [in Romanian w/ English summary].

 

Fabritius, K.  1981c.  The influence of relative humidity on the biological potential of Muscidifurax raptor Gir. & Sand. (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae).  Stud. cerc. biol., Seria biol. anim. T-34(1):  62-9.  [in Romanian w/ English summary].

 

Fabritius, K.  1981.  Die Puparienparasiten von Musca domestica L. (Diptera, Muscidae) und die Verwendung dieser in der gesteuerten biologischen Bekämpfung.  Luc. Stiintifice, Inst. Inv. sup. Constanta, Biologie.  p. 11-17.  [in Romanian w/ German summary].

 

Fabritius, K.  1983a.  Utilizarea in tehnologia de inmultire a entomofagului Muscidifurax raptor Gir. & Sand. (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) a pupariilor de Musca domestica L. omorite.  St. cerc. biol., Seria biol. anim. T-35(1):  49-51.  [in Romanian w/ English summary].

 

Fabritius, K.  1983b.  Parazitoizii larvelor si pupariilor de Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).  [Larval & pupal parasitoids of Musca domestica L. (Diptera, Muscidae)].  St. Cerc. Biol. Ser. Biol. Anim. 35(2):  82-6.  [in Romanian w/ English summary].

 

Fabritius, K.  1983c.  Michael Czakul un chirurg transilvánean la curtea domnitorilor moldoveni, p. 185-92.  In:  G. Brátescu (ed.), Momente din trecutul medicinii.  Medicalá Bucuresti.  [in Romanian].

 

Fabritius, K.  1983d.  Die Puparienparasiten der synanthropen Fliegen Eristalomyia tenax L. und Lathyrophthalmus aeneus Scop. (Syrphidae, Diptera).  Studii si Comunicári, Mus. Brukenthal, Sibiu. St. Nat., Vol. 25:  347-50.  [in Romanian w/ German summary].

 

Fabritius, K.  1984a.  Untersuchungen über eine inzucht von Muscidifurax raptor unter Laborbedingungen.  Ent. Genet. 9:  237-41.  [English summary].

 

Fabritius, K.  1986a.  Die Parasitoiden von Musca domestica L. (Diptera, Muscidae):  Eine zusammenfassende übersicht.  Entomologentagung DGaaE, Wuppertal, Rezumate.  p. 44.

 

Fabritius, K.  1986b.  Die biologische Bekämpfung von synanthropen Fliegen mit Entomophagen.  Luc. III. Conf. Nat. Entomologie, Iasi 1983.  p. 535-41.  [in Romanian w/ German summary].

 

Fabritius, K.  1986c.  Das biologische Potential des Entomophagen Muscidifurax raptor Gir. & Sand. (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) unter Laborbedingungen in 48 Generationen.  Luc. III. Conf. Nat. Entomologie, Iasi 1983.  p. 543-48.  [in Romanian w/ German summary].

 

Fabritius, K.  1987a.  Die Parasiten von Musca domestica L. (Diptera - Muscidae):  Eine zusammenfassende Ubersicht..  Mitt. dtsch. Ges. allg. angew. Ent. 5:  174-81.  [English summary].

 

Fabritius, K.  1987b.  Reconsideration of the synanthropic fly Chrysomyia albiceps Wied. in Romania.  Igiena, Bucuresti. 36(4):  303-6.  [in Romanian w/ English summary].

 

Fabritius, K.  1988a.  The hygienic doubtfulness and epidemiogenous risk of synanthropic flies.  Z. gesamte Hyg., Jahrg. 34, H-1:  59-61.  [in German w/ English summary].

 

Fabritius, K.  1988b.  Puparienparasiten synanthroper Fliegen in Rumänien und ihre Eignung für die biologische Bekämpfung dieser Fliegen.  12th Internatl. Symp. Entomofaunistik (SIEEC), Kiew 1988, abstr p. 48.

 

Fabritius, K.  1988c.  Monomorium pharaonis L ants, an important vector in Romania.  Igiena, Bucuresti. 37(1):  61-3.  [in Romanian w/ English summary].

 

Fabritius, K.  1988d.  Man and synanthropic insects.  4th Conf. Nat. Ent. Cluj 1986, Napoca.  p. 55-58.  [in Romanian w/ English summary].

 

Fabritius, K.  1988e.  Anthropobiocoenosis in the recreation areas.  Igiena, Bucuresti.  Vol. 37(3):  209-14.  [in Romanian w/ English summary].

 

Fabritius, K.  1990.  Entomofagii mustelor sinantrope din Romania:  parazitoizii larvelor si ai pupariilor.  Luc. Simpoz. "Entomofagii si rolul lor i pástrarea echilibrului natural, Univ. "Al. I. Cuza," Iasi 1989.  p. 23-30.  [in Romanian w/ English summary].

 

Fabritius, K. & I. Andriescu.  1984.  Hemisynthropic flies as providers of natural parasitoids (Hymenoptera) for the biological control of eusynanthropes.  Abstr. 17th Internatl. Cong. Ent., Hamburg.

 

Fabritius, K. & V. Gherasim.  1976-77.  Okologische Beziehungen zwischen einigen in der Landwirtschaft schädlichen und synanthropen Fliegen-Arten.  Trav. Station "Stejarul."  Ecologie Terrestre et Génetique, Pingarati.  p. 261-64.  [in Romanian w/ German summary].

 

Fabritius, K. & R. Klunker.  1991.  Die Larven- und Puparienparasitoide von synanthropen Fliegen in Europa.  Beilage zu angew. Parasitol. 32:  1-24.

 

Fabritius, K. & G. Romanca.  1984.  Un capturator pentru muste sinantrope.  St. cerc. biol., Seria biol. anim., Bucuresti. T-36(2):  107-10.  [in Romanian w/ English summary].

 

Fabritius, K. & G. Romanca.  1985.  Ecologia si combaterea vectorilor.  In:  S. Mánescu (ed.), Tratatul de Igiená.  Vol. II, Medicalá:  80-97.  [in Romanian].

 

Fabritius, K. & G. Romanca.  1988.  Creophily of synanthropic flies.  Stud. cerc. biol., Seria biol. anim., Bucuresti.  T-40(1):  9-13.  [in Romanian w/ English summary].

 

Fabritius, K. & E. Totescu.  1988.  Ecological aspects regarding the role of synanthropic flies during the tourist season.  6th Cong. Nat. Igiená, Medicina Muncii, Mediciná Socialá, Bucuresti- rezumate.  p. 23-4.  [in Romanian w/ English summary].

 

Fabritius, K. & A. Ursu.  1980.  The role of biotechnological cards in selecting the strains of parasite Hymenoptera efficient for guided biological control.  Stud. cerc. biol., Seria biol. anim. T-32(2):  181-3.  [in Romanian w/ English summary].

 

Fabritius, K. & A. Ursu.  1981.  Cerceti ecologice privind relatille dintre dipterele sinantrope si unii paraziti specifici al acestora, in vederea cuncasterii posibilitatilor de combatere biologicà.  Rez. Lucr. Ses. St. II. SP.B, 16:  103-113.

 

Fabritius, K., E. Totescu & G. Romanca.  1985.  Bacteriological carrying by synanthropic flies, a sanitary indicator of pollution with Enterobacteriaceae.  Igiena, Bucuresti. Vol. 34(4):  305-12.  [in Romanian w/ English summary].

 

Fabritius, K., E. Totescu & G. Romanca.  1986a.  Synanthrope Fliegen an menschlichen Fäkalien und ihre Bedeutung als Vektor von Enterobacteriaceen.  11th Internatl. Symp. SIEEC, Gotha, rezumate.  p. 26.

 

Fabritius, K., E. Totescu & G. Romanca.  1986c.  Synanthrope Fliegen an menschlichen Fäkalien und ihre Bedeutung als Vektor von Enterobacteriaceen.  Z. gesamte Hyg. 32(8):  474-77.  [English & Russian summaries].

 

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Farish, D. J. & R. C. Axtell.  1966.  Sensory functions of the palps and first tarsi of Macrocheles muscaedomesticae (Acarina: Macrochelidae), a predator of the house fly.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 59:  165-70.

 

Farish, D. J. & R. C. Axtell.  1971.  Phoresy redefined and examined in Macrocheles muscaedomesticae (Acarina: Macrochelidae).  Acarologia 13:  16-29.

 

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Figg, D. E., R. D. Hall & G. D. Thomas.  1983.  Host range and eclosion success of the parasite Aphaereta pallipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) among dung-breeding Diptera in central Missouri.  Environ. Ent. 12:  993-5.

 

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Filipponi, A.  1955b.  Sulla natura dell' associazione tra Macrocheles muscae domesticae e Musca domestica.  Riv. Parassit. 16:  83-102.

 

Filipponi, A.  1957.  Arrenotachia in Macrocheles subbadius (Acarina, Mesostigmata).  Riv. Parasit. 18:  27-33.

 

Filipponi, A.  1960.  Macrochelidi (Acarina, Mesostigmata) foretici di mosche.  Risultati parziali di una indagine ecologica in corso nell'Agro Pontino.  Parasitologia 2:  167-72.

 

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Filipponi, A. & L. Cervone.  1957.  Isolamento sessuale tra due speecie di Macrocheles, foretiche e predatrici di Musca domestica.  Riv. Parassit. 18:  17-26.

 

Filipponi, A. & A. Ilardi.  1958.  Sulla validità di tre specie del sottogenere berlesiano Macrocheles (Acarina, Mesostigmata).  Riv. Parassit. 19:  117-30.

 

Filipponi, A. & F. Pegazzano.  1960.  Acari del genere Glyptholaspis nom. nov. pro Macrocheles (Macrocheles) Berl., 1918 (Mesostigmata, Macrochelidae).  Redia 45:  133-71.

 

Filipponi, A. & M. G. Petrelli.  1967.  Autecologia capacitá moltiplicativa di Macrocheles muscaedomesticae (Scopoli) (Acari: Mesostigmata).  Riv. Parassitol. 28:  129-56.

 

Filipponi, A. & L. Seganti.  1957.  Arrenotochia in Macrocheles subbadius (Acarina, Mesostigmata).  Riv. Parassit. 18:  27-33.

 

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Fischer, M.  1971.  Untersuchungen über die europäischen Alysiinae mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Fauna Niederösterreiches (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).  Polskie Pismo Ent., Warszawa, Wroclaw 41:  19-160.

 

Fischer, M.  1986.  Neue Bestimmungsschlüssel für paläarktische Opiinae, neue Subgenera, Redeskriptionen und eine neue Art (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).  Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 88/89:  607-62.

 

Flanders, S. E.  1934.  The secretion of the collateral glands in the parasitic chalcidids.  J. Econ. Ent. 27:  861-62.

 

Flanders, S. E.  1935.  An apparent correlation between the feeding habits of certain pteromalids and the conditions of their ovarian follicles.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 28:  438-44.

 

Flanders, S. E.  1946.  Control of sex and sex-limited polymorphism in the Hymenoptera.  Quart. Rev. Biol. 21:  135-43.

 

Flanders, S. E.  1956.  The mechanisms of sex-ratio regulation in the (parasitic) Hymenoptera.  Insectes Sociaux, Paris 3:  325-34.

 

Flanders, S. E.  1962.  The parasitic Hymenoptera: Specialists in population regulation.  Canad. Ent. 94:  1133-47.

 

Fletcher, M. G., R. C. Axtell & R. E. Stinner.  1990.  Longevity and fecundity of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) as a function of temperature.  J. Med. Ent. 27:  922-26.

 

Fletcher, M. G., R. C. Axtell, R. E. Stinner & L. R. Wilhoit.  1991.  Temperature-dependent development of immature Carcinops pumilio (Coleoptera: Histeridae), a predator of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).  J. Ent. Sci. 26:  99-108.

 

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Fried, C. S.  1986.  Host parasitism and progeny production of two strains of the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae).  Environ. Ent. 15:  439-42.

 

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Froggatt, W. W.  1914b.  The sheep-maggot fly (Calliphora rufifacies) and its parasite.  Agr. Gaz., N.S. Wales 25:  107-113.

 

Froggatt, W. W.  1916.  A new parasite on sheep-maggot flies.  Notes and description of a chalcid parasite (Chalcis calliphorae).  Agr. Gaz. N.S. Wales 27:  505-7.

 

Froggatt, W. W.  1917.  "Policemen flies."  Fossorial wasps that catch flies.  Agr. Gaz. N.S.W. 28:  667-9.

 

Froggatt, W. W.  1919.  The digger chalcid parasite (Dirhinus sarcophagae n. sp.) on Sarcophaga aurifrons.  Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, Australia 30:  853-55.

 

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Laird, M.  1973.  Environmental impact of insect control by microorganisms.  Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 217:  218-26.

 

Laird, M.  1977.  Enemies and diseases of mosquitoes their natural population regulatory significance in relation to pesticide use, and their future as marketable components of integrated control.  Mosq. News 37:  331-39.

 

Laird, M.  1980.  Biocontrol in veterinary entomology.  Adv. Vet. Sci. Comp. Med. 24:  145-77.

 

Laird, M.  1986.  The role of biological vector control in integrated health protection, p. 305-24.  In:  J. M. Franz (ed.), Biological Plant and Health Protection.  Fortschr. Zool., Stuttgart/NY. 32.

Lancaster, J. L., Jr.  1979.  Rearing parasitoids of housefly pupae.  Arkansas Farm Res., Fayetteville 28:  4.

 

Landin, B. O.  1961.  Ecological Studies on Dung Beetles.  Opuscula Entomologica Suppl. 19:  228 p.

 

Lange, R.  1964.  Der Einfluss der Nahrung von Musca domestica L. auf die Mortalität des Endoparasiten Aphaereta pallipes (Say) (Hym., Braconidae).  Z. angew. Ent. 54:  213-18.

 

Lange, R. & J. F. Bronskill.  1964.  Reactions of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) to parasitism by Aphaereta pallipes (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with special reference to host diet and parasitoid toxin.  Z. Parasitenkde, Berlin 25:  193-210.

 

Laurence, B. R.  1954.  The larval inhabitants of cowpats.  J. Anim. Ecol. 23:  234-60.

 

Lazarus, W. F., D. A. Rutz, R. W. Miller & D. A. Brown.  1989.  Costs of existing and recommended manure management practices for house fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) control on dairy farms.  J. Econ. Ent. 82:  1145-51.

 

Leech, H. B.  1946.  List of some Philonthus from British Columbia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).  Proc. Ent. Soc. British Columbia 43:  23-4.

 

Legner, E. F.  1965a.  Un complejo de los artrópodos que influyen los estadios juveniles de Musca domestica L. en Puerto Rico.  Carib. J. Sci. 5(3-4):  109-115.

 

Legner, E. F.  1966a.  Parasites of the house fly and other filth-breeding Diptera in southern California.  J. Econ. Entomol. 59(4):  999-1001.

 

Legner, E. F.  1967a.  The status of Nasonia vitripennis as a natural parasite of the house fly, Musca domestica.  Canad. Ent. 99:  308-309.

 

Legner, E. F.  1967b.  Behavior changes the reproduction of Spalangia cameroni, S. endius, Muscidifurax raptor and Nasonia vitripennis [Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae] at increasing fly host densities.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 60:  819-26.

 

Legner, E. F.  1969c.  Reproductive isolation and size variation in the Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders complex.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 62(2):  382-385.

 

Legner, E. F.  1970a.  Contemporary considerations on the biological suppression of noxious brachycerous Diptera that breed in accumulated animal wastes.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 38:  88-89.

 

Legner, E. F.  1971a.  Some effects of the ambient arthropod complex on the density and potential parasitization of muscoid Diptera in poultry wastes.  J. Econ. Ent. 64:  111-15.

 

Legner, E. F.  1972.  Observations on hybridization and heterosis in parasitoids of synanthropic flies.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 65(1):  254-263.

 

Legner, E. F.  1976b.  Low storage temperature effects on the reproductive potential of three parasites of Musca domestica.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 69(3):  435-441.

 

Legner, E. F.  1977a.  Temperature, humidity and depth of habitat influencing host destruction and fecundity of muscoid fly parasites.  Entomophaga 22:  199-206.

 

Legner, E. F.  1978a.  Natural enemies imported in California for the biological control of face fly, Musca autumnalis DeGeer, and horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.).  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 46:  77-79.

 

Legner, E. F.  1978c.  Part I:  Parasites and predators introduced against arthropod pests.  Diptera.  In:  Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds:  a World Review (C. P. Clausen, ed.), pp. 335-39;  346-55.  Agr. Handbk. No. 480, ARS, USDA, U. S. Govt. Printing Off., Wash., D. C.  545 pp.

 

Legner, E. F.  1983.  Requirements for appraisal of the true role of parasitic insects in the natural control of synanthropic Diptera.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 51:  97-98.

 

Legner, E. F.  1979a.  Prolonged culture and inbreeding effects on reproductive rates of two pteromalid parasites of muscoid flies.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 72(1):  114-118.

 

Legner, E. F.  1979b.  Reproduction of Spalangia endius, Muscidifurax raptor and M. zaraptor on fresh vs. refrigerated fly hosts.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 72(1):  155-157.

 

Legner, E. F.  1979g.  The relationship between host destruction and parasite reproductive potential in Muscidifurax raptor, M. zaraptor, and Spalangia endius [Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae].  Entomophaga 24(2):  145-152.

 

Legner, E. F.  1981.  Improving commercial biological control of filth flies with parasites.  pp. 5-10.  In:  U. S. Dept. Agr. Publ. A-106.2F64, "Status of Biological Control of Filth Flies."  212 pp.

 

Legner, E. F.  1983c.  Broadened view of Muscidifurax parasites associated with endophilous synanthropic flies and sibling species in the Spalangia endius complex.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 51:  47-48.

 

Legner, E. F.  1985b.  Effects of scheduled high temperature on male production in thelytokous Muscidifurax uniraptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Canad. Entomol. 117(3):  383-389.

 

Legner, E. F.  1985c.  Natural and induced sex ratio changes in populations of thelytokous Muscidifurax uniraptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 78(3):  398-402.

 

Legner, E. F.  1986a.  Importation of exotic natural enemies.  pp. 19-30.  In: Franz, J. M., "Biological Control of Plant Pests       and of Vectors of Human and Animal Diseases."  Fort. der Zool. Bd. 32:  341 p.

 

Legner, E. F.  1986b.  Risk categories of biological control organisms.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 53:  79-82.

 

Legner, E. F.  1986d.  Breeding superior parasitoids of Diptera using a novel extranuclear inheritance mechanism.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 44:  156-159.

 

Legner, E. F.  1987e.  Inheritance of gregarious and solitary oviposition in Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Canad. Entomol. 119(9):  791-808.

 

Legner, E. F.  1988c.  Hybridization in principal parasitoids of synanthropic Diptera:  the genus Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Hilgardia 56(4):  36 pp.

 

Legner, E. F.  1988d.  Studies of four thelytokous Puerto Rican isolates of Muscidifurax uniraptor [Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae].  Entomophaga 33(3);  269-280.

 

Legner, E. F.  1989a.  Wary genes and accretive inheritance in Hymenoptera.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 82(3):  245-249.

 

Legner, E. F.  1989d.  Fly parasitic wasp, Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) invigorated through insemination by males of different races.  Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 14(2):  291-300.

 

Legner, E. F. & M. E. Badgley.  1982.  Improved parasites for filth fly control.  Calif. Agr. 36(9 & 10):  27.  (Referee review).

 

Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1970a.  The introduction of natural enemies in California for the biological control of noxious flies and gnats.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 37:  126-129.

 

Legner, E. F. & W. R. Bowen.  1973.  Influence of available poultry manure breeding habitat on emergence density of synanthropic flies (Diptera).  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 66(3):  533-538.

 

Legner, E. F. & E. J. Dietrick.  1972.  Inundation with parasitic insects to control filth breeding flies in California.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 40:  129-130.

 

Legner, E. F. & E. J. Dietrick.  1974.  Effectiveness of supervised control practices in lowering population densities of synanthropic flies on poultry ranches.  Entomophaga 19(4):  467-478.

 

Legner, E. F. & E. J. Dietrick.  1989.  Coexistence of predatory Muscina stabulans and Ophyra aenescens [Dipt.: Muscidae] with dipterous prey in poultry manure.  Entomophaga 34(4):  453-461.

 

Legner, E. F. & R. E. Eastwood.  1973.  Seasonal and spatial distribution of Tinea fuscipunctella on poultry ranches.  J. Econ. Entomol. 66(3):  685-687.

 

Legner, E. F. & D. Gerling.  1967.  Host-feeding and oviposition on Musca domestica by Spalangia cameroni, Nasonia vitripennis, and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) influences their longevity and fecundity.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 60(3):  678-691.

 

Legner, E. F. & D. J. Greathead.  1969.  Parasitism of pupae in East African populations of Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 62(1):  128-133.

 

Legner, E. F. & C. W. McCoy.  1966a.  The housefly, Musca domestica Linnaeus, as an exotic species in the Western Hemisphere incites biological control studies.  Canad. Entomol. 98(3):  243-248.

 

Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1968a.  The biological method and integrated control of house and stable flies in California.  Calif. Agr. 22(6):  1-4.

 

Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1968b.  Activity of parasites from Diptera: Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, and species of Fannia, Muscina and Ophyra  II.  at sites in the Eastern Hemisphere and Pacific area.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 61: 1306-14.

 

Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1970.  Worldwide survey and comparison of adult predator and scavenger insect populations associated with domestic animal manure where livestock is artificially congregated.  Hilgardia 40(9):  225-266.

 

Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1975.  Filth fly sources in decaying melon fields in southern California's low deserts.  Calif. Agr. 29(1):  10-11.

 

Legner, E. F. & J. H. Poorbaugh, Jr.  1972.  Biological control of vector and noxious synanthropic flies:  a review.  Calif. State Dept. Publ. Health, Vector Views 19(11):  81-100.

 

Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay & C. W. McCoy.  1965.  Parasitic natural regulatory agents attacking Musca domestica L. in Puerto Rico.  J. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico 49(3):  368-376.

 

Legner et al.  (with V. E. Burton, A. S. Deal, W. C. Fairbanks, G. P. Georghiou, E. C. Loomis & M. H. Swanson).  1966d.  Fly control on poultry ranches.  Univ. of Calif. Agr. Ext. Serv. Publ. AXT-72, Rev. 16 pp.

 

Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay & E. B. White.  1967.  Activity of parasites from Diptera:  Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Fannia canicularis and F. femoralis, at sites in the Western Hemisphere.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 60(2):  462-468.

 

Legner et al.  (with Anderson, J. R., A. S. Deal, E. C. Loomis & M. H. Swanson).  1968.  Fly control on poultry ranches.  Univ. of Calif. Agr. Ext. Serv. Publ. AXT-72.  Rev.  13 pp.

 

Legner, E. F., W. R. Bowen, W. D. McKeen, W. F. Rooney & R. F. Hobza.  1973a.  Inverse relationships between mass of breeding habitat and synanthropic fly emergence and the measurement of population densities with sticky tapes in California inland valleys.  Environ. Entomol. 2(2):  199-205.

 

Legner, E. F., R. D. Sjogren & I. M. Hall.  1974a.  The biological control of medically important arthropods.  Critical Reviews in Environmental Control 4(1):  85-113.

 

Legner, E. F., W. R. Bowen, W. F. Rooney, W. D. McKeen & G. W. Johnston.  1975a.  Integrated fly control on poultry ranches.  Calif. Agr. 29(5):  8-10.

 

Legner, E. F., G. S. Olton, R. E. Eastwood & E. J. Dietrick.  1975g.  Seasonal density, distribution and interactions of predatory and scavenger arthropods in accumulating poultry wastes in coastal and interior southern California.  Entomophaga 20(3):  269-283.

 

Legner, E. F., I. Moore & G. S. Olton.  1976b.  Tabular keys and biological notes to common parasitoids and synanthropic Diptera breeding in accumulated animal wastes.  Entomol. News 87(3 & 4):  113-144.

 

Legner, E. F., D. J. Greathead & I. Moore.  1980c. Population density fluctuations of predatory and scavenger arthropods in accumulating bovine excrement of three age classes in equatorial East Africa.  Bull. Soc. Vect. Ecol. 5:  23-44.

 

Legner, E. F. et al. (with E. C. Loomis, J. R. Anderson, W. R. Bowen, A. S. Deal, R. A. Ernst & G. P. Georghiou).  1981a.  Integrated management of pest flies on poultry ranches.  Univ. of Calif. Leaflet 2505:  18 pp.

 

Legner, E. F., D. J. Greathead & I. Moore.  1981b.  Equatorial East African predatory and scavenger arthropods in bovine excrement.  Environ. Entomol. 10(5):  620-625.

 

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Morgan, P. B. & R. S. Patterson.  1975.  Field parasitization of house flies by natural populations of Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani), Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, and Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis.  Fla. Ent. 58: 202.

 

Morgan, P. B. & R. S. Patterson.  1975.  Possibilities of controlling stable flies and other muscoid flies with parasitic wasps.  In:  Proceedings 46th Annual Meeting Florida Anti‑Mosquito Association, pp. 29‑35.

 

Morgan, P. B. & R. S. Patterson.  1977.  Sustained release of Spalangia endius to parasitize field populations of three species of filth breeding flies.  J. Econ. Ent. 70: 450‑452.

 

Morgan, P. B. & R. S. Patterson.  1978.  Facilities for culturing microhymenopteran pupal parasitoids, pp. 32‑33.  In: Facilities for Insect Research & Production, USDA Technical Bulletin 1576.

 

Morgan, P. B. & R. S. Patterson.  1986.  The interrelationship between non-sting parasitoid wasps (Pteromalidae: Hymenoptera) and dung inhabiting flies (Muscidae: Diptera), p. 165.  In: Abstracts of the First International Congress of Dipterology, Budapest, Hungary. 

 

Morgan, P. B. & R. S. Patterson.  1989.  Efficiency of target formulations of pesticides plus augmentative releases of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to suppress populations of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) at poultry installations in the southeastern United States.  In: R. S. Patterson & D. A. Rutz (eds.), Biocontrol of Arthropods Affecting Livestock and Poultry.  Ent. Soc. of Amer. Misc. Pub.  (Accepted by R. S. Patterson, February 13, 1989).

 

Morgan, P. B., G. C. LaBrecque, & H. G. Wilson.  1966.  Tests  with larvicides for the control of house flies, Musca domestica   (Diptera: Muscidae), in poultry houses.  Fla. Ent. 49: 91‑93.

 

Morgan, P. B., G. C. LaBrecque, C. N. Smith, D. W. Meifert & C. M. Murvosh.  1967.  Cumulative effects of substerilizing dosages of apholate and metepa on laboratory populations of the house fly.  J. Econ. Ent. 60: 1064‑1067.

 

Morgan, P. B., M. C. Bowman & G. C. LaBrecque.  1968.  Uptake and persistence of metepa and hempa in the house fly.  J. Econ. Ent.  61: 805‑808.

 

Morgan, P. B., M. C. Bowman & G. C. LaBrecque.  1972.  Malathion in house flies:  Its rate of uptake, translocation‑distribution, and loss of malathion in house flies after administration by injection and after contact with treated surfaces.  J. Econ. Ent. 65: 1269‑1272.

 

Morgan, P. B., D. E. Wagoner & R. L. Fye.  1973.  Genetic manipulations used against a field population of house flies.  3.  Males and females bearing a heterozygous translocation:  Releases begun after initial seasonal peak population level reached.  Environ. Ent. 2: 779-782.

 

Morgan, P. B., I. H. Gilbert & R. L. Fye.  1974.  Evaluation of (Z)‑9‑tricosene for attractancy for Musca domestica the field.  Fla. Entomologist.  57: 136‑140.

 

Morgan, P. B., G. C. LaBrecque, D. E. Weidhaas & A. Benton. 1975a.  The effect of methroprene, an insect growth regulator, on Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).  Can. Ent. 107: 413‑417.  1975.

 

Morgan, P. B., R. S. Patterson, G. C. LaBrecque, D. E. Weidhaas, A. Benton &  T. Whitfield.  1975b.  Rearing and release of the house fly pupal parasite Spalangia endius Walker.  Environ.  Ent. 4: 609‑611.

 

Morgan, P. B., R. S. Patterson, G. C. LaBrecque, D. E. Weidhaas & A. Benton.  1975c.  Suppression of a field population of house flies with Spalangia endius.  Science 189: 388‑389.

 

Morgan, P. B., R. S. Patterson & G. C. LaBrecque.  1976a.  Controlling house flies at a dairy installation by releasing a protelean parasitoid Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)  J. Georgia Ent. Soc. 11: 39-43.

 

Morgan, P. B., A. Benton & R. S. Patterson.  1976b.  The potential use of parasites to control flies in the Caribbean area.  Virgin Islands Agriculture & Food Fair.

 

Morgan, P. B., R. S. Patterson & G. C. LaBrecque.  1976c.  Host‑ parasitoid relationship of the house fly, Musca domestica L., and the protelean parasitoid, Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae and Diptera: Muscidae).  J. Kans. Ent. Soc.  49: 483‑488.

 

Morgan, P. B., G. C. LaBrecque & R. S. Patterson.  1978a.  Mass culturing the microhymenopteran parasite, Spalangia endius  (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  J. Med. Ent. 14: 671‑673.

 

Morgan, P. B., D. E. Weidhaas & G. C. LaBrecque.  1978b.  Host-parasite relationship of the house fly, Musca domestica L., and the microhy­menopteran parasite, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani).  Southwestern Ent. 3: 176-181.

 

Morgan, P. B., D. E. Weidhaas & G. C. LaBrecque.  1979a.  Host‑parasite relationship of the house fly, Musca domestica L., and the microhy­menop­teran pupal parasite, Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders (Diptera: Muscidae and (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 52: 276‑281. 1979.

 

Morgan, P. B., G. C. LaBrecque, D. E. Weidhaas & R. S. Patterson.  1979b.  Interrelationship between two species of muscoid flies, and the pupal parasite, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  J. Med.  Ent. 16: 331‑334.

 

Morgan, P. B., D. E. Weidhaas & R. S. Patterson.  1981b.  Programmed releases of Spalangia endius and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) against estimated populations of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).  J. Med. Ent. 18: 158‑166.

 

Morgan, P. B., D. E. Weidhaas & R. S. Patterson.  1981c.  Host‑Parasite Relationship: Augmentative releases of Spalangia endius Walker used in conjunction with population modeling to suppress field populations of Musca domestica L. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae and Diptera: Muscidae).  J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 54: 496‑504.

 

Morgan, P. B., G. D. Thomas & R. D. Hall.  1983a.  Annotated bibliography of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), including references on other species belonging to the genus Stomoxys.  Univ. Missouri, Columbia, MO.  Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 1049.

 

Morgan, P. B., R. S. Patterson & D. E. Weidhaas.  1983b.  A life‑history study of Carcinops pumilio Erichson (Coleoptera: Histeridae).  J. Ga. Ent. Soc. 18: 353‑359.

 

Morgan, P. B., B. J. Smittle & R. S. Patterson.  1986a.  Use of radiated pupae to mass culture the microhymenopteran pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  I.  Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).  J. Ent. Sci. 21: 222-7.

 

Morgan, P. B., R. S. Patterson & G. D. Propp.  1986b.  Manure management as a means of controlling filth flies at agricultural installations.  Fla. Ent. 71: 44-49.

 

Morgan, P. B., C. J. Jones, R. S. Patterson & D. Milne.  1988.  Use of electrophoresis for monitoring purity of laboratory colonies of exotic parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), pp. 525-31.  In: V. K. Gupta (ed.), Advances in Parasitic Hymenoptera Research.

 

Morgan, P. B., H. Hoyer & R. S. Patterson.  1989.  Life History of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a microhymenopteran pupal parasite of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae).  J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 62: 381-386

 

Morgan, P. B., J. A. Hogsette, & R. S. Patterson.  1990. Life history of Trichopria stomoxydis (Hymenoptera: Proctotorupoidea: Diapriidae) a gregarious endoparasite of Stomoxys calcitrans from Zimbabwe, Africa. Fla. Ent. 73: 497-502.

 

Morgan, P. B., E. Berti-Filho & V. A. Costa.  1991.  Life history of Spalangia gemina Boucek (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) a fast-breeding microhymenopteran pupal parasitoid of muscoid flies.  Med. and Vet. Ent. 5: 277-281.

 

Morrison, R. K. & E. G. King.  1977.  Mass production of natural enemies, Ch. 6, p. 183-217.  In:  R. L. Ridgway & S. B. Vinson (eds.), Biological control by augmentation of natural enemies.  Plenum Press, NY/London.

 

Mortimer, R. K. & R. C. von Borstel.  1963.  Radiation-induced dominant lethality in haploid and diploid sperm of the wasp Mormoniella.  Genetics, Austin 48:  1545-9.

 

Mourier, H.  1971a.  Seasonal occurrence of pupal parasitoids from the housefly Musca domestica (Diptera) in Denmark.  Vidensk. Meddr. dansk naturh. Foren. 134:  109-18.

 

Mourier, H.  1971b.  Survey of the importance of natural enemies of house flies in Denmark.  Danish Pest Infest. Lab., Ann. Rept. 1970:  51-2.

 

Mourier, H.  1972a.  Survey of the importance of natural enemies of houseflies in Denmark.  Danish Pest Infest. Lab., Ann. Rept., Lyngby.  p. 44-5.

 

Mourier, H.  1972b.  Release of native pupal parasitoids of houseflies on Danish farms.  Vidensk. Medd. dansk naturh. Foren. 135:  129-37.

 

Mourier, H. & S. Ben Hannine.  1969.  Activity of pupal parasites from Musca domestica (Diptera) in Denmark.  Vidensk. Medd. dansk naturh. Foren. 132:  211-16. 

 

Moursi, A. A.  1946b.  The effect of temperature on development and reproduction of Mormoniella vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea-Pteromalidae).  Bull. Soc. Fouad I Ent. 30:  39-61.  [Rev. Appl. Ent. B-36:  202].

 

Moursi, A. A.  1946c.  The effect of temperature on development and reproduction of Mormoniella vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae).  Bull. Soc. Fouad Ier d'Entomol., Cairo 30:  39-62.  [Rev. Appl. Ent. B-36:  202].

 

Muesebeck, C. F. W.  1961.  A new Japanese Trichopria parasitic on the housefly (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae).  Mushi 35:  1-2.

 

Muesebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein & H. K. Townes et al.  1951.  Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico. Synoptic Catalog.  Agr. Monogr., Washington, D.C. 2.  1420 p.

 

Mullens, B. A.  1986.  A method for infecting large numbers of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) with Entomophthora muscae (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae).  J. Med. Ent. 23:  457-58.

 

Mullens, B. A.  1990.  Entomophthora muscae (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) as a pathogen of filth flies, p. 231-45.  In:  D. A. Rutz & R. S. Patterson (eds.), Biocontrol of Arthropods Affecting Livestock and Poultry.  Westview Press, San Francisco.

 

Mullens, B. A., J. A. Meyer & J. D. Mandeville.  1986.  Seasonal and diel activity of filth fly parasites (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in caged-layer poultry manure in southern California.  Environ. Entomol. 15:  56-60.

 

Mullens, B. A., J. L. Rodriguez & J. A. Meyer.  1987a.  An epizootiological study of Entomophthora muscae in muscoid fly populations on southern California poultry facilities, with emphasis on Musca domestica.  Hilgardia 55(3):  41 p.

 

Mullens, B. A., J. A. Meyer & T. L. Cyr.  1987b.  Infectivity of insect parasitic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, Heterorhbditidae) for larvae of some manure-breeding flies.  Envrion. Ent. 16:  769-73.

 

Mullens, B. A., J. A. Meyer & R. Georgis.  1987c.  Field tests of insect parasitic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) against larvae of manure-breeding flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on caged layer poultry facilities.  J. Econ. Ent. 80:  438-42.

 

Müller, G. W.  1931.  Über Mermithiden.  Z. Morph. Okol. Tiere 24:  82-147.

 

Müller, H. P.  1971.  Zur Biologie der Schlupfwespe Phygadeuon fumator Grav. (Recte Trichops Ths.) (Hymenopt: Ichneum.), eines Parasiten der kleinen Kohlfliege (Phorbia brassicae Bouché).  Entomophaga 16:  45-9.

 

Müller, P.  1982.  Zur Bedeutung der Musca domestica-Antogonisten Ophyra aenescens (Diptera: Muscidae) III. Laborversuche zur Wechselwirkung zwischen den Larven von M. domestica und O. aenescens.  Angew. Parasitol. 23:  143-54.

 

Müller, P., H. Schumann, P. Betke, H. Schultka, R. Ribbeck & T. Hiepe.  1981.  Zur Bedeutung der Musca domestica-Antagonisten Ophyra aenescens (Diptera: Muscidae). I. Zum Auftreten von Ophyra aenescens in Anlagen der Tierproduktion.  Angew. Parasitol. 22:  212-16.

 

Müller-Kögler, E.  1959.  Zur Isolierung und Kultur insektenpathogener Entomophthoraceen.  Entomophaga 4:  261-74.

 

Müller-Kögler, E., A. Krieg & C. Vago.  1960.  Deuxième liste de souches de germes entomopathogènes.  Entomophaga 5:  355-7.

 

Murphy, S. T.  1980.  Foraging behaviour of some pupal parasitoids of Musca domestica L.  ?Thesis, London Univ., London.  277 p.

 

Murphy, S. T.  1982.  Host-finding behaviour of some hymenopterous parasitoids of Musca domestica.  Ann. Appl. Biol. 101:  148-51.

 

Myers, J. G.  1927.  The habits of Alysia manducator Panz. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).  Bull. Ent. Res. 17:  219-29.

 

Myers, J. G.  1929.  Further notes on Alysia manducator and other parasites (Hym.) of muscoid flies.  Bull. Ent. Res. 19:  357-60.

 

Myers, J. G.  1938.  Report on the natural enemies in Haiti of the horn fly (Lyperosia irritans) and the green tomato bug (Nezara viridula).  J. Coun. Sci. & Ind. Res. 11:  35-46.

 

Nagel, W. P.  1962.  The population dynamics of an experimental parasite-host system, with Nasonia vitripennis (Walk.) (Pteromalidae, Hymenoptera) as the parasite and Musca domestica L. (Muscidae, Diptera) as the host.  Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.  168 p. (Diss. Abstr 23(1963)(9):  3563-64.)

 

Nagel, W. P. & D. Pimentel.  1963.  Some ecological attributes of a pteromalid parasite and its housefly host.  Canad. Ent. 95:  208-13.

 

Nagel, W. P. & D. Pimentel.  1964.  The intrinsic rate of natural increase of the pteromalid parasite Nasonia vitripennis (Walk.) on its muscoid host Musca domestica L.  Ecology 45:  658-60.

 

Nakasuji, F.  1963.  Spalangia nigra Latreille, new to Japan.  Kontyu, Tokyo 31:  248.  [in Japanese].

 

Nakasuji, F.  1965.  Difference of the activity of hymenopterous parasites with special reference to the depth of the pupation site of fly larvae.  Kontyu, Tokyo 33:  441-45.  [in Japanese].

 

Nakata, G.  1958.  Studies on the fly control in winter seasons, with special reference to the biology of overwintering fly pupae and their hymenopterous parasites.  Eisei Gaichu [Insects Injurious to Health, Kyoto] 3:  1-26.  [in Japanese].

 

Nasca, A. J.  1975.  Cría de Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rond.) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) sobre pupas de Drosophila spp.  Rev. Agron. Noroeste Argent., Sa Miguel de Tucumán 12:  175-6.

 

Nasca, A. J. & A. Agüere.  Parasitísmo comparativo de Pachycrepoideus vindemiae sobre Drosophila melanogaster y Ceratitis capitata en condiciones de laboratorio.  Rev. Agron. Noroeste Argent., San Miguel de Tucumán 13:  69-75.

 

Negi, P. S.  1933.  The small red ant Solenopsis geminata sub sp. rufa Jerdon, and its usefulness to man.  J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 36:  1018-21.  [Rev. Appl. Ent. B-22:  102].

 

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Newman, L. J.  1928.  Sheep maggot fly parasite (Alysia manducator).  J. Dept. Agric. W. Australia 5:  150-51.

 

Newman, L. J. & H. G. Andrewartha.  1930.  Blowfly parasite, the red-legged chalcid, Stenoterys fulvoventralis (Dodd.).  J. Dept. Agric. W. Australia 2:  89-95.

 

Nikolskaja, M. N.  1952.  The chalcid fauna of the U.S.S.R. (Chalcidoidea).  Keys from the fauna of the USSR, nr. 44.  Izdatelstvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moskva-Leningrad  593 p.  [English trans. by A. Birron & Z. S. Cole.  Israel Prog. Scientif. Transl., Jerusalem 1963; Off. Tech. Serv., U. S. Dept. Commerce, Washington, D.C. 1963].

 

Nikolskaya, M. N.  1960a.  Fauna and ecology of the insects of Turkmen SSR.  Results of expeditions 1951-1953. Part I.  Chalcididae and Leucospidae of middle Asia (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea).  Trudy Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 27:  220-57.  [in Russian].

 

Nikolskaya, M. N.  1960b.  Chalcids of families Chalcididae and Leucospidae.  Fauna SSSR, Hymenoptera.  Izdatelstvo Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moskva, Leningrad 7.  221 p.  [in Russian].

 

Nixon, G.(C.?) E. J.  1940.  A new African diapriid (Hym., Proctrupoidea).  Bull. Ent. Res. 31:  59-60.  [Rev. Appl. Ent. B-28:  198].

 

Nixon, C.(G.?) E. J.  1980.  Diapriidae (Diapriinae) (Hymenoptera, Proctotrupoidea).  Handb. Identif. Brit. Insects. VIII 3:  1-55.

 

Nolan, M. P. III & J. B. Kissam.  1985.  Ophyra aenescens:  a potential biocontrol alternative for house fly control in poultry houses.  J. Agr. Ent. 2:  192-95.

 

Nolan, M. P. III & J. B. Kissam.  1987.  Nuisance potential of a dump fly, Ophyra aenescens (Diptera: Muscidae), breeding at poultry farms.  Environ. Ent. 16:  828-31.

 

Nostvik, E.  1954a.  Biological studies of Pachycrepoideus dubius Ashmead (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae), a pupal parasite of various Diptera.  Oikos 5(11):  195-204.

 

Nuorteva, P. & E. Lavrikainen.  1964.  Synanthropy of blowflies (Dipt., Calliphoridae) on the island of Gotland, Sweden.  Ann. Ent. Fenn. 30:  187-90.

 

Nuorteva, P. & T. Vesikari.  1966.  The synanthropy of blowflies (Diptera, Calliphoridae) on the coast of the Arctic Ocean.  Ann. Med. Exper. Fenn. 44:  544-48.

 

Oakley, B. & J. M. Palka.  1967.  Prey capture by dragonfly larvae.  Amer. Zool. 7:  727-28.

 

O'Donnell, A. E. & R. C. Axtell.  1965.  Predation by Fuscuropoda vegetans (Acarina: Uropodidae) on the house fly (Musca domestica).  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 58:  403-04.

 

O'Donnell, A. E. & E. L. Nelson.  1967.  Predation by Fuscuropoda vegetans (Acarina: Uropodidae) and Macrocheles muscaedomesticae (Acarina: Macrochelidae) on the eggs of the little house fly, Fannia canicularis.  J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 40:  441-43.

 

Oehlke, J.  1969.  Beiträge zur Insektenfauna der DDR: Hymenoptera-- Bestimmungstabellen bis zu den Unterfamilien.  Beitr. Ent., Berlin 19(7/8):  753-801.

 

Ohgushi, R.  1959a.  Effect of host upon the reproductive ability of a parasitic wasp, Mormoniella vitripennis (Wlk.), parasitic on fly puparia.  Zool. Mag., Tokyo 68:  426-30.  [in Japanese].

 

Ohgushi, R.  1959b.  The longevity, egg laying capacity and number of hosts parasitized by one female of Mormoniella vitripennis (Walker) (Pteromalidae, Hymenoptera) reared on three species of fly puparia.  Insect Ecol. 8:  46-57.  [in Japanese].

 

Ohgushi, R.  1960.  Studies on the host selection by Nasonia vitripennis (Wlk.), parasitic on house fly pupae.  Physiol. Ecol., Kyoto 9:  11-31.  [in Japanese].

 

Ohgushi, R.  1961.  Effect of host upon the quiescence of Nasonia vitripennis (Wlk.), a parasitic wasp of fly pupae.  Japan. J. Appl. Ent. Zool., Tokyo 5:  154-55.

 

Ohgushi, R. & S. Kato.  1959.  Ecological study on the parasitic wasp of flies. I. Experiment on the parasitization of Mormoniella vitripennis against the fly pupae in different media.  Japan J. Sanit. Zool. 10:  172-76.  [in Japanese].

 

Olckers, T. 7 P. E. Hulley.  1984.  Facultative predation of house fly larvae by larvae of Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Muscidae).  J. Ent. Soc. So. Afr. 47:  231-37.

 

Olton, G. S.  1971.  Bioecological studies of Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoid of synanthropic Diptera.  Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Calif., Riverside.

 

Olton, G. S. & E. F. Legner.  1973.  House fly breeding and associated parasitoids in decaying melon fields.  J. Econ. Ent. 66:  909-11.

 

Olton, G. S. & E. F. Legner.  1974.  Biology of Tachinaephagus zealandicus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoid of synanthropic Diptera.  Canad. Ent. 106:  785-800.

 

Olton, G. S. & E. F. Legner.  1975.  Winter inoculative releases of parasitoids to reduce houseflies in poultry manure.  J. Econ. Ent. 68:  35-38.

 

Omar, A. H.  1987a.  Effect of juvenile hormone analogue ZR-515 on the parasite, Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) via its host Chrysomyia albiceps (Wiedemann).  J. Egypt. Soc. Parasit. 17:  503-9.

 

Omar, A. H.  1987b.  Laboratory studies on the biology and behaviour of Nasonia vitripennis (Walk.) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) reared on Chrysomyia albiceps (Wiedemann) pupae.  J. Egypt. Soc. Parasit. 17:  625-32.

 

Orzack, S. H. & E. D. Parker, Jr.  1986.  Sex ratio control in a parasitic wasp, Nasonia vitripennis. I. Genetic variation in facultative sex-ratio adjustment. II. Experimental analysis of an optimal sex-ratio model.  Evolution 40:  331-40, 341-56.

 

Otten, E.  1944.  Fliegenlarven-Befall an Schmelzkäse und Beobachtungen über Auftreten eines Fliegenpuppenparasiten aus der Familie der Schlupfwespen.  Z. Fleisch.-Milch-Hyg. 54:  222.

 

Panicker, K. N. & R. Srinivasan.  1986.  Preliminary studies of Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and its potential for controlling houseflies.  Indian J. Med. Res. 84:  159-62.

 

Parker, E. D., Jr. & S. H. Orzack.  1985.  Genetic variation for the sex ratio in Nasonia vitripennis.  Genetics, Austin 110:  93-105.

 

Parker, H. L.  1924.  Recherches sur les formes postembryonnaires des chalcidiens.  Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Paris 93:  261-379.

 

Parker, H. L. & W. R. Thompson.  1925.  Notes on the larvae of the Chalcidoidea.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 18:  384-95.

 

Parker, H. L. & W. R. Thompson.  1928.  Contribution á la biologie des Chalcidiens entomophages.  Ann. Soc. Ent. France, paris 97:  425-65.  [Rev. Appl. Ent. B-17:  101].

 

Patterson, R. S.  1981.  Importance of monitoring house fly and stable fly immature and adult populations in IPM programs using biocontrol, p. 95-102.  In:  Patterson, R. S., P. G. Koehler, P. B. Morgan & R. L. Harris (eds.), Status of Biological Control of Filth Flies.  Proc. Workshop, Feb. 4-5, 1981, Gainesville, Florida.  Sci. Educ. Admin., USDA, Washington, D.C.  212 p.

 

Patterson, R. S. & P. B. Morgan.  1986a.  Factors affecting the use of an IPM scheme at poultry installations in a semi-tropical climate, pp. 101-107.  In: R. S. Patterson & D. A. Rutz (eds.), Biological Control of Muscoid Flies.  Ent. Soc. Amer. Misc. Publ. No. 61.

 

Patterson, R. S. & P. B. Morgan.  1986b.  Management of stable fly populations in cattle feedlots through integrated control strategies, pp. 57-65.  In: Stable Fly Biology and Control in Cattle Feedlots.  Department Report, Garden City Branch Station, Garden City, Kansas.

 

Patterson, R. S. & D. A. Rutz (eds.).  1986c.  Biological Control of Muscoid Flies.  Misc. Publ. Ent. Soc. Amer., College Park, MD. 61:  174 p.

 

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