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EUROPEAN PINE SHOOT MOTH

Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiffermüller) -- Olethreutidae

(Contacts)

 

 

This species occurs throughout Europe and parts of Asia where it is a major pest of pine plantations.  It was first discovered in North America at New York in 1914 and was later also found on imported nursery stock in Canada in 1925.  While its distribution extended throughout the northeastern United States and eastern Provinces of Canada, as well as in British Columbia and the northwestern United States, it was considered an important pest only in the red pine plantations in the northeastern United States and southern Ontario (Dahlsten & Mills 1992). 

 

In 1927, the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control was engaged to collect parasitoids in Great Britain for introduction into Canada and this led to the release of eight species during the period 1928-43 and an additional five species from material collected in continental Europe during 1954-58 (McGugan & Coppel 1962).  Two additional species were released during 1968-74, one from Germany and one from Argentina (Syme 1981).  A similar program of parasitoid introductions was carried out in the New England states from 1931-37 (Dowden 1962).  This program is another example of the multiple introduction approach where emphasis is placed on the need to provide rapid results without detailed preintroduction studies.  Of the 15 species of parasitoids released in New England and in southern Ontario, only three larval parasitoids, the braconid Orgilus obscurator (Nees), and the ichneumonids Eulimneria rufifemur (Thoms.) and Temelucha interruptor (Grav.), became firmly established.  However, it was not until the early 1960's that T. interruptor was disclaimed as a cleptoparasitoid detrimental to the potential impact of O. obscurator (Arthur et al. 1964).

 

Orgilus obscurator is a specific larval parasitoid with a high fecundity and an efficient host finding ability that permits it to avoid both superparasitism and very low host density situations (Syme 1977).  In contrast, T. interruptor is a more general parasitoid of Microlepidoptera and while it also has a high fecundity it is inefficient at host finding and oviposits most successfully in host larvae previously attacked by O. obscurator.  Both parasitoids attack young host larvae and only develop further when the host larvae approach maturity.  However, the first instar larva of T. interruptor is competitively superior to that of O. obscurator, which is killed at an early stage to ensure the successful development of the cleptoparasitoid (Schroeder 1974).

 

Although the biological control program against pine shoot moth in North America is considered to be unsuccessful, there are isolated reports of high levels of parasitism by O. obscurator followed by the collapse of shoot moth populations at Dorcas Bay in Ontario (Syme 1971) and near Quebec City (Béique 1960).  The occurrence of wild carrot, Daucus carota (L.) at Dorcas Bay where parasitism by O. obscurator reached 92% prompted further investigations on the influence of this nectar and pollen source on parasitism in Ontario.  Syme (1977) demonstrated the beneficial influence of flowers on the longevity and fecundity of O. obscurator and was able to show increased rates of parasitism and elimination of pine shoot moth populations when the parasitoid was released into plantations where D. carota was plentiful (Syme 1981).

 

Please refer also to the following refrences for details on host and natural enemy biologies and biological control efforts (Thorpe 1930, Dowden 1934, Coppel & Arthur 1954, Watson & Arthur 1959, Arthur & Juillet 1961, Juillet 1960a,b, 1959, 1961; Harris 1960, Turnbull & Chant 1961, Pointing 1961, 1963; Eichhorn 1965, Eichhorn et al. 1965, Schindler 1965, Pointing & Miller 1967).

 

 

REFERENCES:  [Additional references may be found at:   MELVYL Library ]

 

 

Arthur, A. P. & J. A. Juillet.  1961.  The introduced parasites of the European pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae), with a critical evaluation of their usefulness as control agents.  Canad. Ent. 93:  297-312.

 

Arthur, A. P., J. E. R. Stainer & A. L. Turnbull.  1964.  The interaction between Orgilus obscurator (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Temelucha interruptor (Grav.) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae),  parasites of the pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae).  Canad. Ent. 96:  1030-34.

 

Béique, R.  1960.  The importance of the European pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) in Quebec City and vicinity.  Canad. Ent. 92:  858-62.

 

Coppel, H. C. & A. P. Arthur.  1954.  Notes on the introduced parasites of the European pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Ontario.  Ent. Soc. Ontario 84th Ann. Rept. (1953):  55-8.

 

Dahlsten, D. L. & N. J. Mills.  1999.  Biological Control of Forest Insects.  In: T. Bellows & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Principles and Application of Biological Control.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  1046 p.

 

Dowden, P. B.  1934.  Recently introduced parasites of three important forest pests.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 27:  599-603.

 

Dowden, P. B.  1962.  Parasites and predators of forest insects liberated in the United States through 1960.  USDA, Forest Service, Agric. Handbook No. 226, 70 pp.

 

Eichhorn, O.  1965.  Uber einige lärchenschädlinge und ihre Parasiten in Japan, Europa und Kanada.  Betr. Ent. 15:  111-26.

 

Eichhorn, O, H. Pschorn-Walcher & D. Schröder.  1965.  Neue Untersuchungen zur biologischen Bekämpfung verschleppter Forstinsekten.  2.  Bericht über die Arbeiten der europäischen Station des Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Delémont, Switzerland.  Pt. II.  Anz. Schädlingsk. 38:  104-09.

 

Harris, P.  1960.  Natural mortality of the pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae), in England.  Canad. J. Zool. 38:  755-68.

 

Juillet, J. A.  1959.  Morphology of immature stages, life-history, and behaviour of three hymenopterous parasites of the European pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae).  Canad. Ent. 91:  709-19.

 

Juillet, J. A.  1960a.  Immature stages, life histories and behaviour of two hymenopterous parasites of the European pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae).  Canad. Ent. 92:  342-46.

 

Juillet, J. A.  1960b.  Resistance to low temperatures of the overwintering stages of two introduced parasites of the European pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae).  Canad. Ent. 92:  701-04.

 

Juillet, J. A.  1961.  Observations on the arthropod predators of the European pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae), in Ontario.  Canad. Ent. 93:  195-98.

 

McGugan, B. M. & H. C. Coppel.  1962.  A review of the biological control attempts against insects and weeds in Canada.  II.  Biological control of forest insects, 1910-1958.  Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Control Tech. Comm. No. 2:  35-216.

 

Pointing, P. J.  1961.  The biology and behaviour of the European pine shoot moth, Ryacionia buoliana (Schiff.), in southern Ontario. I.  Adult.  Canad. Ent. 93:  1098-1112.

 

Pointing, P. J.  1963.  The biology and behaviour of the European pine shoot moth, Ryacionia buoliana (Schiff.), in southern Ontario.  II.  Egg, larva, and pupa.  Canad. Ent. 95:  844-63.

 

Pointing, P. J. & W. E. Miller.  1967.  European pine shoot moth Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.).  In:  Important Forest Insects and Diseases of Mutual Concern to Canada, the United States and Mexico.  Canada. Dept. Forest and Rural Development. p. 163-66.

 

Schindler, U.  1965.  Zur Parasitierung des Kieferknospentriebwicklers (Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff.) in Nordwestdeutschland.  Ztschr. f. angew. Ent. 55:  353-64.

 

Schroeder, D.  1974.  A study of the interactions between the internal larval parasites of Rhyacionia buoliana (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae).  Entomophaga 19:  145-71.

 

Syme, P. D.  1971.  Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.), European pine shoot moth (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae).  Comm. Inst. Biol. Control Tech. Comm. 4:  194-205.

 

Syme, P. D.  1977.  Observations on the longevity and fecundity of Orgilus obscurator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the effects of certain foods on longevity.  Canad. Ent. 109:  995-1000.

 

Syme, P. D.  1981.  Chapter 66.  Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.), European pine shoot moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), p. 387-94.  In:  J. S. Kelleher & M. A. Hulme (eds.), Biological Control Programmes Against Insects and Weeds in Canada, 1969-1980.  Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, London, England.  410 p.

 

Thorpe, W. H.  1930.  Observations on the parasites of the pine-shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff.  Bull. Ent. Res. 21:  387-412.

 

Turnbull, A. L. & D. A. Chant.  1961.  The practice and theory of biological control of insects in Canada.  Canad. J. Zool. 39:  697-753.

 

Watson, W. Y. & A. P. Arthur.  1959.  Parasites of the European pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.), in Ontario.  Canad. Ent. 91:  478-84.