FILE:  <ch-25.htm>                                                                                                                                                                   GENERAL INDEX                   [Navigate to   MAIN MENU ]

 

CITRUS MEALYBUG

Planococcus citri (Risso) -- Pseudococcidae

(Contacts)

 

 

Citrus mealybug is highly polyphagous and is especially important on citrus in many parts of the world (Kennett et al. 1999).  Following its introduction into California around 1880, citrus mealybug became serious in coastal citrus (Clausen 1915).  Biological control was initiated in 1892 with the introduction of the coccinellid Cryptolaemus montrouzieri from eastern Australia.  Although originally reducing heavy infestations of the mealybug, this predator never became fully effective, and preferred the milder climates of the immediate coast (Smith & Armitage 1920).  The parasitoid Leptomastidea abnormis (Girault) was imported from Sicily in 1914 (Smith 1917), and although becoming established it failed to give complete control (Clausen 1956, 1978). 

 

Smith & Armitage (1920, 1931) developed a method for mass production of the mealybug on etiolated potato sprouts, which they adapted to mass culture of Leptomastidea abnormis.  Later the same technique was applied to mass culture of Cryptolaemus (Kennett et al. 1999).  Sixteen insectaries were formed during 1916-30 for the propagation of Cryptolaemus (Fisher 1963).  Although millions of Cryptolaemus were colonized each year, the number of insectaries was reduced to four by 1963, which was believed due to the successful biological control of the more serious citrophilus mealybug in 1930 (Kennett et al. 1999).

 

In 1934 another parasitoid, Leptomastix dactylopii Howard, was introduced from Brazil (Compere 1939), and Pauridia peregrina Timberlake was brought in from southern China in 1950 (Flanders 1951).  However, neither species was established (Clausen 1956).  These two parasitoids were then periodically colonized, in addition to Cryptolaemus, which gradually reduced the frequency of P. citri outbreaks (DeBach & Hagen 1964).  Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) and other mealybug parasitoids were introduced during 1950-56, but all failed to establish (Bartlett & Lloyd 1958).

 

In other parts of the world biological control of citrus mealybug varied.  Kennett et al. (1999) report that in Western Australia, where P. citri and other mealybug species were serious pests of citrus, highly successful control was obtained simply by transferring Cryptolaemus from New South Wales (Wilson 1960).  In other areas, results following introduction of Cryptolaemus have generally followed the patter shown in California, with failure of the beetle to become permanently established attributed to its inability to overwinter (Wood 1963, Rosen 1967, Argyriou 1969, Beingolea 1969, Greathead 1976).  The beetle established only in more tropical climates such as Florida and Hawaii and in some Mediterranean countries (Muma 1955, Greathead 1976).  Reports from Spain (Gomez-Clemente 1954) and Italy (Mineo 1967) point to the production and periodic colonization of Cryptolaemus giving some success.  Parasitoid introductions were of course also made into other countries, but with limited success (Zinna 1960, Bartlett 1978, Luck 1981).  Beingolea (1969) reported that Arthopoideus peregrina effective controlled P. citri in Perus, however.  The parasitoids L. abnormis, A. pseudococci and L. dactylopii were considered important in the successful control of citrus mealybug in Chile (also see Branigan 1916, Armitage 1920, Marchal 1921, 1922; Poutiers 1922, Speare 1922, Bodenheimer & Guttfeld 1929, Bishop 1931, Essig 1931, Swezey 1931, Myers 1932, Watson 1932, Constantino 1935, Stepanov 1935, Marchal & Pussard 1938, Quayle 1938, Ferriera 1939, Gomez Clemente 1928, 1929, 1932, 1951; Mason 1941, Joubert 1943, Durán 1944, Bachthaler 1955, Muma 1954, Marcovitch 1954, Beingolea 1957, Simmonds 1957, Wille 1958, Bennett & Hughes 1959, Rivnay 1960, 1968; Rozanova & Loseva 1963, Szent-Ivany 1963, Liotta 1965, Liotta & Mineo 1965, Gonzalez & Rojas 1966, Rosen & Rössler 1966, McKenzie 1967). 

 

 

REFERENCES:     [Additional references may be found at:   MELVYL Library ]

 

 

Argyriou, L. C.  1969.  Biological control of citrus insects in Greece.  Proc. 1st Intern. Citrus Symp., Riverside, Calif. 2:  817-22.

 

Armitage, H. M.  1920.  Report of the biological control work directed against the mealybugs.  Calif. Dept. Agric.Monthly Bull. 9:  441-51.

 

Bachthaler, G.  Uber die einburgerung des schlidlausparasiten (Leptomastix dactylopii) und anderer nützlinge im spanisch zitrusanbau.  Pflanzenschutz 7:  23-25.

 

Bartlett, B. R.  1978.  Coccidae.  In:  C. P. Clausen (ed.), Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Agric. Handbk. No. 480, Washington, D.C.  545 p.

 

Bartlett, B. R. & D. C. Lloyd.  1958.  Mealybugs attacking citrus in California--a survey of their natural enemies and the release of new parasites and predators.  J. Econ. Ent. 51:  90-93.

 

Beingolea, G. O.  1957.  Una evaluación aproximada de la eficiencia de los enemigos biológicos de Pseudococcus citri Risso, en algodonero. (Peru) Lima Estac. Expt. Agric. Molina, Informe Mens. 31:  23-5.

 

Beingolea, O.  1969.  Biological control of citrus pests in Peru.  Proc. 1st Intern. Citrus Symp., Riverside, Calif. 2:  827-38.

 

Bennett, F. D. & I. W. Hughes.  1959.  Biological control of insect pests in Bermuda.  Bull. Ent. Res. 50:  423-36.

 

Bishop, H. J.  1931.  Biological control of the citrus mealybug.  Farming in South Africa 64.  7 p.

 

Bodenheimer, F. S. & M. Guttfeld.  1929.  Uber die Möglichkeiten einer biologischen Bekämpfung von Pseudococcus citri Risso. (Rhy., Cocc.) in Palastina.  Ztschr. f. angew. Ent. 15:  67-136.

 

Branigan, E. J.  1916.  A satisfactory method of rearing mealybugs for use in parasite work.  Calif. State Hort. Comm., Monthly Bull. 5:  304-06.

 

Clausen, C. P.  1915.  Mealybugs of citrus trees.  Calif. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 258, p. 19-48.

 

Clausen, C. P.  1956.  Biological Control of Insect Pests in the Continental United States.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. No. 1139.  151 p.

 

Clausen, C. P.  1978.  Biological control of citrus insects.  Chapter 6, Vol. IV.  In:  The Citrus Industry.  Univ. of Calif. Div. Agric. Sci., Berkeley, Calif.  362 p.

 

Compere, H.  1939.  Mealybugs and their insect enemies in South America.  Univ. Calif. Publs. Ent. 7:  57-73.

 

Constantino, G.  1935.  Un enemico del cotonello degli agrumi:  Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls.  Acireale R. Staz. Sper. di Fruttic. e Agrumic. Bol. (n.s.) 6.  7 p.

 

DeBach, P. & K. S. Hagen.  1964.  The conservation and augmentation of natural enemies.  In:  P. DeBach (ed.), Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds.  Reinhold Publ. Corp., New York.  844 p.

 

Durán, M. L.  1944.  Enemigos naturales del genero Pseudococcus establecidos en Chile. (Agric. Tech. Santiago, Chile 4:  102.

 

Essig, E. O.  1931.  A History of Entomology.  MacMillan Co., New York.  1029 p.

 

Ferriera, L.  1939.  A luta contra o Pseudococcus citri Risso e o problema geral de luta biologica.  Palestras Agron. 2:  17-47. [in Italian].

 

Fisher, T. W.  1963.  Mass culture of Cryptolaemus and Leptomastix--natural enemies of citrus mealybug.  Calif. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 797.  39 p.

 

Flanders, S. E.  1951.  Citrus mealybug.  Four new parasites studied in biological control experiments.  Calif. Agric. 5(7):  11.

 

Gomez-Clemente, F.  1928.  Acclimatación en Espańa de "Cryptolaemus montrouzieri" Muls., para combatir el "Cotonet" del Naranjo (Pseudococcus citri Risso).  Bol. Patol. Veg. Ent. Agr. 3:  106-23.

 

Gomez-Clemente, F.  1929.  El Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls., parásito del Pseudococacus citri Risso.  Estac. Reg. Patol. Veg., Valencia.  45 p.

 

Gomez-Clemente, F.  1951.  Experiments on the acclimatization of L. dactylopii, a parasite of Planococcus citri.  Bol. Patol. Veg. Ent. Agric. 18:  21-8.  [in Spanish].

 

Gomez-Clemente, F.  1954.  The present situation in the biological control of some citrus scales (Planococcus citri and Icerya purchasi).  Bol. Patol. Veg. Ent. Agric. 19:  19-35.

 

Gonzalez, R.  1969.  Biological control of citrus pests in Chile.  Proc. 1st Intern. Citrus Symp., Riverside, Calif. 2:  839-47.

 

Gonzalez, R. H. & S. P. Rojas.  1966.  Estudio analítico del control biológico de plagas agrícolas en Chile.  Agric. Tech. 26:  133-47.

 

Greathead, D. J.  1976.  A review of biological control in western and southern Europe.  Tech. Comm. No. 7, CIBC.  Commonw. Agr. Bur., Farnham Royal, Slough, England.  182 p.

 

Joubert, C. J.  1943.  The introduction into the Union of South Africa of some natural enemies of mealy bugs.  J. Ent. Soc. South AFrica 6:  131-36.

 

Kennett, C., J. A. McMurtry & J. Beardsley.  1999.  Subtropical and tropical crops.  In:  Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, New York.  1046 p

 

Liotta, G.  1965.  Acclimatation de Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls. en Sicile et lutte biologique contre Pseudococcus citri R.  12th Intern. Cong. Ent. Proc. 567.

 

Liotta, G. & G. Mineo.  1965.  Prove di "lotta biologica artificiale" control lo Pseudococcus citri R. (Cotonello degli agrumi).  Bol. Inst. Ent. Agric. Osserv. Fitopat., Palermo (1963-64)5:  129-42.

 

Luck, R. F.  1981.  Parasitic insects introduced as biological control agents for arthropod pests.  Handbk. Pest Management in Agric. 2:  125-284.  CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida.

 

Marchal, P.  1921.  Utilisation des coccinelles contre les insectes nuisibles aux cultures dans le midi de la france.  C. R. Hebdom. Acad. Sci., Paris 172:  105-07.

 

Marchal, P.  1922.  Utilisation d'une coccinelle australienne (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls.) dans la lutte contre les cochenilles blanches et son introduction en france.  Ann. du Serv. des Epiphyt. 8:  1-2.

 

Marchal, P. & R. Pussard.  1938.  Acclimatation de Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls.  C. R. Acad. Agric. Fr. 24:  972-76.

 

Marcovitch, S.  1954.  The insect pest situation in Israeli agriculture.  J. Econ. Ent. 47:  19-23.

 

Mason, F. R.  1941.  Notes on mealybugs and ther parasites.  In:  Ann. Rept. Dept. Agric. & Fisheries (Palestine) for the year ended Mar. 31, 1941:  4-15.  Jerusalem.

 

McKenzie, H. L.  1967.  Mealybugs of California.  Univ. of California Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles.  526 p.

 

Mineo, G.  1967.  on Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls. (Observations on morphology and bionomics).  Bool. 1st Ent. Agric. Fitopath. Palermo 6:  99-143.

 

Muma, M. H.  1954.  Lady beetle predators of citgrus mealybugs.  Citrus Mag., Apr. 1954:  16-17.

 

Muma, M. H.  1955.  Factors contributing to the natural control of citrus insects and mites in Florida.  J. Econ. Ent. 48:  432-38.

 

Myers, L. E.  1932.  Two economic greenhouse mealybugs of Mississippi.  The citrus mealybug and the Mexican mealybug.  J. Econ. Ent. 25:  891-96.

 

Poutiers, R.  1922.  L'acclimatation de Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls. dans le midi de la france.  Ann. des Epiphyt. 8:  3-18.

 

Quayle, H. J.  1938.  Insects of Citrus and Other Subtropical Fruits.  Comstock Publ. Co., Ithaca, New York.  583 p.

 

Rivnay, E.  1960.  Notes on parasites of Planococcus citri Risso in Israel.  Ktavin 10:  223-24.

 

Rivnay, E.  1968.  Biological control of pests in Israel (a review 1905-1965).  Israel J. Ent. 3:  1-156.

 

Rosen, D.  1967.  Biological and integrated control of citrus pests in Israel.  J. Econ. Ent. 60:  1422-27.

 

Rosen, D. & Y. Rössler.  1966.  Studies on an Israel strain of Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).  I.  Morphology of the adults and developmental stages.  Entomophaga 11:  269-77.

 

Rozanova, A. A. & V. G. Loseva.  1963.  The vine mealybug and its parasites.  Zashch. Rast. pt. 3:  53.  [in Russian].

 

Simmonds, F. J.  1957.  A list of the Coccidae of Bermuda and their parasites.  Bermuda Dept. Agric., Agric. Bull. 30.  12 p.

 

Smith, H. S.  1917.  On the life history and successful introduction into the United States of the Sicilian mealybug parasite.  J. Econ. Ent. 10:  262-68.

 

Smith, H. S. & H. M. Armitage.  1920.  Biological control of mealybugs in California.  Bull. Calif. Dept. Agric. 9:  103-58.

 

Smith, H. S. & H. M. Armitage.  1931.  The biological control of mealybugs attacking citrus.  Calif. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 509.  74 p.

 

Speare, A. T.  1922.  Natural control of the citrus mealybug in Florida.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 1117.  18 p.

 

Stepanov, E. M.  1935.  The biological method of controlling pests of plants in Abkhazia.  Rev. Appl. Ent. (A), 24.  674.

 

Swezey, O. H.  1931.  Records of introduction of beneficial insects into the Hawaiian Islands.  In:  F. X. Williams (ed.), Handbook of the Insects and Other Invertebrates of Hawaiian Sugar Cane Fields.  Hawaii. Sugar Planters' Assoc. Expt. Sta.  400 p.

 

Szent-Ivany, J. J. H.  1963.  A biological control experiment against coffee mealybug in the Wau Valley.  Highlands Quart. Bull. New Guinea 4:  8-9.

 

Watson, J. R.  1932.  Report of the Department of Entomology.  Florida Agric. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept. 1930-1931:  70-80.

 

Wille, J. E.  1958.  El control biológico de los insectos agrícolas en el Peru.  10th Intern. Congr. Ent. Proc. (1956):  4:  519-23.

 

Wilson, F.  1960.  A review of the biological control of insects and weeds in Australia and Australian New Guinea.  Tech. Commun. No. 1, CIBC. Commonw. Agric. Bur., Farnham Royal, Slough, England.  102 p.

 

Wood, B. J.  1963.  Imported and indigenous natural enemies of citrus coccids and aphids in Cyprus, and an assessment of their potential value in integrated control programmes.  Entomophaga 8:  66-82.

 

Zinna, G.  1960.  Esperimenti di lotta biologica controil cotonello degli agrumi (Pseudococcus citri (Risso)) nell'Isola di Procida mediante l'impiego di due parassiti esotica, Pauridia peregrina Timb. e Leptomastix dactylopii How.  Boll. Lab. Ent. Agric. "Filippo Silvestri."  Portici 28:  257-84.