LIGHT BROWN APPLE MOTH
Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) Lepidoptera, Tortricidae
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Discovered in West Central California in 2007 this tortricid leafroller has been found to attack a wide range of host plants, including agricultural crops, fruits and ornamental plants. The invasion is believed to have been from Australia, where the moth is also a pest. However, its actual native home is yet to be definitely determined, although its affinity with other species in Australia would suggest that this is the continent of origin. It has also invaded other areas of the South Pacific such as New Zealand and New Caledonia. It also occurs in Hawaii and Britain. Thus, commerce tends to support its dissemination.
Identification is made through an examination of the reproductive system. The moth’s description, habits and potential control are detailed by Varela et al (2008).
Control in 2008 has focused on eradication efforts by government agencies. However, the widespread nature of the pest, and its tenacious foothold in numerous countries worldwide that have diverse climates does not bode well for the permanency of such an expensive, and upsetting to other components of the ecosystem procedure. Paul & Austen (2006) in Australia have reported the existence of parasitic insects attacking the moth. Further explorations on native host plants in more remote, nonagricultural areas of that continent as well as neighboring Indonesia might yield additional candidates for biological control. Furthermore, the native home may not always be the best place to search for effective natural enemies, as was shown with the importation of the South American Goniozus legneri Gordh to control carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), an Old World species. <ch-121.htm>
REFERENCES: [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]
Bailey, P., G. Baker, G. Caon. 1996. Field efficacy and persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki against Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in relation to larval behaviour on grapevine leaves. Aust. J. Entomol. 35: 297-302.
Bellas, T. E., Bartell, R. J., Hill, A. 1983. Identification of two components of the sex pheromone of the moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 9: 503-12.
Bradley, J. D. 1973. Epiphyas postvittana (Walker). IN: British Tortricoid Moths. Cochylidae and Tortricidae: Tortricinae. Ray Soc., London, p. 126-7.
Brockerhoff, E. G., H. Jactel, Leckie, A. C., Suckling, D. M. 2002. Species composition and abundance of leafrollers in a Canterbury pine plantation. New Zealand Plant Protect. 55: 85-9.
Buchanan, G. A. 1977. The seasonal abundance and control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on grapevines in Victoria. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 28: 125-32.
Buchanan, G. A., Stirrat, S. C., Madge, D. G. 1991. Integrated control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), in vineyards. Wine Ind. J. 6: 220-2.
California Dept. of Food & Agriculture. 2007a. Light brown apple moth host list. www.cdfa.ca.gov/phpps/PDEP/target_pest_disease_profiles/LBAM_HostList.pdf. 6 p.
California Dept. of Food & Agriculture. 2007b. Light brown apple moth project: Advisories, PSA No. 12-2007. www.cdfa.ca.gov/phpps/pdep/lbam/advisories.html. 4 p.
California Dept. of Food & Agriculture. 2007c. Light brown apple moth situation reports. www.cdfa.ca.gov/phpps/PDEP/lbam/situationreports.html. 4 p.
California Dept. of Food & Agriculture. 2007d. Plant Quarantine Manual: Light Brown Apple Moth State Interior Quarantine. http://pi.cdfa.ca.gov/pqm/manual/pdf/419.pdf. 19 p.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2007. Plant protection (phytosanitary) import requirements to prevent the entry of Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (light brown apple moth). www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/protect/dir/d-07-03e.shtml#12c.
Charles, J. G., Walker, J. T. S., White, V. 1996. Leafroller phenology and parasitism in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand, canefruit gardens, New Zeal, J. Crop Hort. Sci. 24: 123-31.
Danthanarayana, W. 1975. The bionomics, distribution and host range of the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walk.) (Tortricidae). Aust. J. Zool. 23: 419-37.
Danthanarayana, W. 1976. Environmentally cued size variation in the light-brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker.) (Tortricidae), and its adaptive value in dispersal. Oecologia 26: 121-32.
Danthanarayana, W. 1983. Population ecology of the light-brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J. Anim. Ecol. 52: 1-33.
Danthanarayana, W., Gu, H., Ashley, H. 1995. Population growth potential of Epiphyas postvittana, the light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in relation to diet, temperature and climate. Aust. J. Zool. 43: 381-94.
Dugdale, J. S., D. Gleeson, Clunie, L. H., Holder, P. W. 2005. A diagnostic guide to Tortricidae encountered in field surveys and quarantine inspections in New Zealand: Morphological and molecular characters. Ministry of Agric. & Forest., Wellington, NZ. 161 p.
Geier, P. W., Briese, D. T. 1980. The light-brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker): 4. Studies on population dynamics and injuriousness to apples in the Australian Capital Territory. Aust. J. Ecol. 5: 63-93.
Mo, J., Glover, M., Munro, S., Beattie, G. A. C. 2006. Evaluation of mating disruption for control of lightbrown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in citrus. J. Econ. Entomol. 99: 421-6.
Paull, C. Austin, A. D. 2006. The hymenopteran parasitoids of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Australia. Aust. J. Entomol. 45: 142-56.
Rogers, D. J., Walker, J. T. S., Moen, I. C. et al. 2003. Understorey influence on leafroller populations in Hawke’s Bay organic apple orchards. New Zeal. Plant Protect 56: 168-73.
Suckling, D. M., Brunner, J. F., Burnip, G. M., Walker, J. T. S. 1994. Dispersal of Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) and Planotortrix octo Dugdale (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) at a Canterbury, New Zealand orchard. New Zeal. J. Crop. Hort. Sci. 22: 225-34.
Suckling, D. M., Burnip, G. M., Walker, J. T. S. et al. 1998. Abundance of leafrollers and their parasitoids on selected host plants in New Zealand, New Zeal. J. Crop. Hort. Sci. 26: 193-203.
Suckling, D. M., Clearwater, J. R. 1990. Small scale trials of mating disruption of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Environ. Entomol. 19: 1702-9.
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service. 2007a. Federal domestic quarantine order Epiphyas postvittana (light brown apple moth) DA-2007-42. www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/iba_moth/downloads/federalorder-11-20-07.pdf. 5 p.
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service. 2007b. Light Brown Apple Moth (LBAM) Regulatory Protocol. APHIS Plant Protection and Quarantine. www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/olant_pest_info/lba_moth/downloads/lbam-regulatoryprotocol.pdf. 2 p.
Varela, L. G., M. W. Johnson, L. Strand, C. A. Wilen & C. Pickel. 2008. Calif. Agric 62(2): 57-61.
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