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WHITE PEACH SCALE

 

Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) -- Diaspididae

 

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This scale is a polyphagous species of almost cosmopolitan distribution.  It is believed to have originated in the Far East, but has invaded many tropical and subtropical regions of the world, was well as certain temperate regions (Simmonds 1958). 

 

Introduced into Bermuda in 1917, the white peach scale by 1920 threatened oleander, Nerium oleander L. with extinction (Bennett & Hughes 1959).  Natural enemies were sought in Italy and the United States.  Aphytis diaspidis (Howard) from Italy immediately reduced white peach scale densities to a substantial control level (Howard 1912, Bastine 1913, Berlese 1909, 1913, 1915, 1960; Bennett & Hughes 1959, Dahlsten & Hall 1999).  Several years later, resurgence of white peach scale was observed in certain areas, and these outbreaks were subsequently found to be associated with the interference of road dust with the activity of P. berlesei.  Tarring the roads usually resulted in the reestablishment of control (Malenotti 1927, 1931).  Later investigations suggested that other natural enemies, such as predatory coccinellids, the ectoparasitoid Aphytis diaspidis (Howard), and the endoparasitoid Archenomus orientalis Silvestri had been more effective than P. berlesei in control (Silvestri 1939).  But most workers believed that P. berlesei was the main factor in control in Italy. 

 

In South America P. berlesei was as spectacular a parasitoid as it was in Europe.  Formerly heavily infested orchards were practically cleaned up and the scale ceased to be a serious pest.  In Argentina the introduced predator, Lindorus lophanthae (Blaisd.) and certain native species were recorded as useful, but the successful control of the pest was attributed mainly to P. berlesei.  In Puerto Rico Chilocorus cacti was so efficient that it completely eliminated white peach scale as well as several other scale insects and then disappeared from the island due to lack of food.  The predator was last seen in Puerto Rico in 1943.  By 1955, heavy infestations of white peach scale were again observed (Wolcott 1958. 1960).

 

Please also see the following for additional information on host and natural enemy biologies and biological control (Marlatt 1902, 1906; Silvestri 1908, 1909, 1915, 1939; Berlese 1909. 1913, 1915, 1916; Berlese 1911, 1915, 1916; Salvadores 1913, Anonymous 1914, Bolle 1914, Gustine 1913, Bolle 1914, 1916; Freire 1915, Barroetavena & Girola 1916a,b; Gallardo 1916, Voglino 1916, Poutiers 1919, Ogilvie 1926, Malenotti 1927, 1931; Howard 1930, Ferris 1937, Bartlett 1938, Lopes 1920, Campos-Novaes 1922, Lepage 1942, Grandi 1951, Monti 1955, Simmonds 1955, 1958a,b; Bennett 1956, Clausen 1956, Rubtzov 1957, Bennett & Brown 1958, Benassy 1957, 1958a,b; Benassy & Bianchi 1957, Wolcott 1958, 1960; Bennett & Hughes 1959, Franz 1961, Shchepetilnikova & Chumakova 1964, Smith 1965).

 

 

REFERENCES:          [ Additional references may be found at:   MELVYL Library ]

 

Anonymous.  1914.  La Diaspis pentagona ed il modo di combatterla.  L'Agric. Pratico, Genoa 7:  5-6.  (Abs. In Rev. Appl. Ent. 2:  292.)

 

Bartlett, K. A.  1938.  The introduction into Puerto Rico of a parasite of the white scale of papaya.  Puerto Rico Agric. Expt. Sta., Agric. Notes. 85.  2 p.

 

Benassy, C.  1957.  Influence du facteur "Exposition" sur la répartition des microhyménoptéres parasites de Coccoidea-Diaspididae.  Entomophaga 2:  283-91.

 

Benassy, C.  1958a.  Prospaltella berlesei How. (Hym.: Aphelinidae) et son efficacite pratique en France vis-a-vis de Pseudaulacapsis pentagona Targ. (Hom.: Diaspidinae).  Entomophaga 3:  67-70.

 

Benassy, C.  1958b.  Etude bio-écologique de Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targ. et de son parasite spécifique Prospaltella berlesei Howard en France.  Ann. des Epiphyt. (Paris) 9:  425-96.

 

Benassy, C. & H. Bianchi.  1957.  Incidence des traitements insecticides sur les parasite de coccides.  Action des traitements "d'Hiver" contre Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targ., sur son parasite spécifique:  Prospaltella berlesei How.  Phytiat. Phytopharm. 6:  135-41.

 

Bennett, F. D.  1956.  Some parasites and predators of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targ.) in Trinidad, B.W.I.  Canad. Ent. 88:  704-05.

 

Bennett, F. D. & S. W. Brown.  1958.  Life history and sex determination in the diaspine scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targ.) (Coccoidea).  Canad. Ent. 90:  317-25.

 

Bennett, F. D. & I. W. Hughes.  1959.  Biological control of insect pests in Bermuda.  Bull. Ent. Res. 60:  423-36.

 

Barroetavena, F. A. & C. D. Girola.  1916a.  Segundo resçmen de los trabajos efectuados por la comisión nacional, designada por el Ministerio de Agricultura para propagar de la Prospaltella (Prospaltella berlesei How.), como medio de destruír la Diaspis (Diaspis pentagona Targ.), durante el segundo período desde abril a noviembre de 1915.  Brazil Bol. Minist. Agric. 20:  314-24. (Abs. in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A), 4:  515.

 

Barroetavena, F. A. & C. D. Girola.  1916b.  Destrucción de la Diaspis por la Prospaltella.  Tercer resçmen de los trabajos efectuados por la comisión nacional, designada por el Ministerio de Agricultura para propagar la Prospaltella (Prospaltella berlesei How.), como medio de destruír la Diaspis (Diaspis pentagona Targ.) durante el tecer período, desde abril a octubre de 1916.  Brazil Bol. Minist. Agric.  39 p.

 

Berlese, A.  1909.  La diffusione della "Prospaltella berlesei" How. Nell'-alta Italia.  Soc. Agric. Ital. Bol. 14:  1092-1109.

 

Berlese, A.  1911.  Come progredisce la Prospaltella berlesei in Italia.  Redia 7:  436-61.

 

Berlese, A.  1913.  The control of the Japanese fruit scale (Ciaspis pentagona).  Internatl. Inst. Agric., Monthly Bull. Agr. Intell. (Rome):  697-703.  (Abs. in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A), 1:  188).

 

Berlese, A.  1915.  La distruzione della Diaspis pentagona a mezzo della Prospaltella berlesei.  Redia 10:  151-218.

 

Berlese, A.  1916.  Gli insetti entomofagi nella loro applicazione in vantaggio dell'agricoltura.  Bol. Mens. Inform. Agr. Patol. Veg. 7:  1-12.

 

Bolle, J.  1914.  Die Schildlaus des Maulbeerbaumes (Diaspis pentagona T.T.) und deren biologische Bekämpfung.  Ztschr. f. angew. Ent. 1:  196-213.

 

Bolle, J.  1916.  Der volle Erfolg der biologischen Bekämpfung der Schildlaus der Maulbeerbaumes (Diaspis pentagona T.T.).  Ztschr. f. angew. Ent. 3:  124-26.

 

Campos-Novaes, J. de.  1922.  A Prospaltella berlesei How., parasita de Diaspis pentagona Targ.  Bol. Agric. (Sao Paulo) 23:  343-66.

 

Clausen, C. P.  1956.  Biological control of insect pests in the continental United States.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1139.  151 p.

 

Dahlsten, D. L. & R. W. Hall.  1999.  Biological control of insects in outdoor urban environments. In: Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, New York.  1046 p.

 

Ferris, G. F.  1937.  Atlas of the Scale Insects of North America, Series II.  Family Diaspididae.  Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, Calif.

 

Franz, J. M.  1961.  Biological control of pest insects in Europe.  Ann. Rev. Ent. 6:  183-200.

 

Freire, R.  1915.  Memoria de la Defensa Agrícola.  1915.  Uruguay Min. de Indus.  91 p.

 

Gallardo, A.  1916.  Introducción de la Diaspis pentagóna y lucha contra esta plaga en la Rep. Argentina.  An. de Zool. Aplicada (Santiago de Chile) 3:  33-50.

 

Gastine, G.  1913.  La lutte contre la Diaspis pentagona en Italie.  Ann. du Serv. des Epiphyt. 1:  196-219.

 

Grandi, G.  1951.  Introduzione allo Studio dell'Entomologia, Vol. I.  Ediz. Agric. (Bologna). 950 p.

 

Howard, L. O.  1906.  On the parasites of Diaspis pentagona.  Ent. News 17:  291-93.

 

Howard, L. O.  1912.  The activity of Prospaltella berlesei Howard against Diaspis pentagona Targ. in Italy.  J. Econ. Ent. 5:  325-28.

 

Howard, L. O.  1916.  Further notes on Prospaltella berlesei How.  J. Econ. Ent. 9:  179-81.

 

Howard, L. O.  1930.  A History of Applied Entomology.  Smithsonian Inst. Misc. Collect. 84(3065).  564 p.

 

LePage, H. S.  1942.  A "Cochonilha branca" das amoreiras, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targ. Tozz.).  Biologico 8:  105-09. (Abs. in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A), 31:  414).

 

Lopes, G.  1920.  Una praga do passegueiro, como a Prospaltella berlesei Terminou como Diaspis pentagona.  Bol. Agric., Sao Paulo. 21:  730-40 (Abs. in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A), 10:  146.

 

Marlatt, C. L.  1902.  Preliminary report on the importation and present status of the Asiatic ladybird.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Div. Ent. Bull. 37:  78-84.

 

Marlatt, C. L.  1906.  The San Jose or Chinese scale.  U. S. Dept. Agric., Bur. Ent. Bull. 62:  89 p.

 

Malenotti, E.  1927.  Una speciale questione diaspidica.  Il Coltivatore, 1927(13):  8 p. (Abs. in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A), 15:  377).

 

Malenotti, E.  1931.  Osservazioni sui rapporti fra Diaspis pentagona Targ. e Prospaltella berlesei How.  Atti. Accad. Agric. Sci. Lett. (Verona)9:  97-106.  (Abs. in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A), 19:  663).

 

Monti, L.  1955.  Richerche etologische su due coccidi diaspini:  "Diaspis pentagona" Targ. e "Mytilococcus ulmi" L. nella regione Romangnola.  Bol. 1st Ent. Univ. Bologna 21:  141-64 (cited by Bennett & Brown 1958).

 

Olgilvie, L.  1926.  Report of the plant pathologist for the year 1925.  Bermuda Dept. Agric. Ann. Rept. 1925:  36-63. 

 

Poutiers, R.  1919.  Note sur Prospaltella berlesei How. (Hym., Chalcididae) parasite de Diaspis pentagona Targ.  Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 18:  334-35.  (Abs. in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A), 8:  121).

 

Rosen, D. & P. DeBach.  1978.  Diaspididae.  In:  C. P. Clausen (ed.), Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds:  A World Review.  U. S. Dept. Agric., Agric. Handbk. No. 480.  545 p.

 

Rubtzov, I. A.  1957.  Etat et problemes de l'etude et de la'utilisation en U.R.S.S. des entomophages dans la lutte biologique contre les insectes nuisibles.  Entomophaga 2:  125-28.

 

Salvadores, A. Z.  1913.  El durazno.  Bol. Argentina Minist. Agr.  33 p. (Abs. in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A), 2:  207.)

 

Shchepetilnikova, V. A. & B. M. Chumakova.  1964.  Current problems of entomophagous acclimatization in the U.S.S.R.  All-Union Sci. Res. Inst. Plant Protect. Proc. 21:  5-13.  [in Russian with English summary].

 

Silvestri, F.  1908.  Coleotteri esotici introdotti in Italia.  Riv. Coleotteri Ital. 6:  242-43.

 

Silvestri, F.  1909.  Parassiti entrodotti in Italia nel 1909 per combattere la "Diaspis pentagona" Targ.  Soc. degli Agric. Ital. Bol. 14:  1125-33.

 

Silvestri, F.  1915.  A proposito di predatori e di Prospaltella nella lotta control la Diaspis.  Bol. Inform. Seriche 2:  654-57.

 

Silvestri, F.  1939.  Compendio di Entomologia Applicata.  V.  1.  Bellavista, Portici.  974 p.

 

Simmonds, F. J.  1955.  Present status of the oleander scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targ.) in Bermuda.  Bermuda Dept. Agric., Agric. Bull. 25:  33-40.

 

Simmonds, F. J.  1958a.  The oleander scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targ.), (Homoptera, Coccidae) in Bermuda.  Bermuda Dept. Agric., Agric. Bull. 31.  44 p.

 

Simmonds, F. J.  1958b.  The effect of lizards on the biological control of scale insects in Bermuda.  Bull. Ent. Res. 49:  601-12.

 

Smith, B. C.  1965.  Chilocorus similis Rossi:  Disinterment and case history.  Science 148:  1614-16.

 

Voglino, P.  1916.  Prospaltella berlesei against Diaspis pentagona in Peidmont in 1915.  Internatl. Rev. Sci. Pract. Agric., Monthly Bull. Agric. Intel. & Plant Dis., Rome 7:  905-06. (Abs. in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A), 5:  31).

 

Wolcott, G. N.  1958.  The evanescence of perfect biological control.  10th Internatl. Cong. Ent. Proc. (1956) 4:  511-13.

 

Wolcott, G. N.  1960.  Efficiency of ladybeetles (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) in insect control.  Puerto Rico Univ. J. Agric. 44:  166-72.