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SPINY BOLLWORMS

 

Earias insulana Boisduval, E. fabia Stoll, E.  cupreoviridis Walker, E. huegeli

Rogenhofer, etc. -- Family: Arctiidae

(Contacts)

 

 

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Overview

 

The genus Earias, spiny or spotted bollworms, is a group of Palearctic, Ethiopian, Asiatic and Australasian pests that can cause extensive damage to cotton, Gossypium hirsutum.  The origin of this group covers a greater geographical range than Pectinophora gossypiella, but some species in both genera are coincident in cotton producing areas outside of the Western Hemisphere.  However, developmental stages of Earias are relatively more exposed on the plant than with Pectinophora, making them more vulnerable to attack by predators and nonspecialized parasitoids.  Thus far Earias is absent from the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. 

 

Species studied include Earias bipalaga Walker, E. chlorana (L.), E. cupreoviridis Walker, E. fabia Stoll, E. huegeli Rogenhofer,  E. insulana Boisduval, E. vernana (Hübner), & E. vittella Fab.

 

Parasites & Predators

 

Parasitism of spiny bollworms is heavy in northwestern Australia and at times in India.  Because of interference with insecticidal sprays in commercial cotton, it is not absolutely possible to determine if natural enemies would reduce abundance of these pests to economically acceptable levels.  However, Stam & Elmosa (1990) in Syria showed that predator numbers were significantly reduced with insecticide applications followed by significant increases in bollworm populations.  They also reported that parasitoids were not important for the control of lepidopterous pests in cotton.  The high activity of parasitoids in northwestern Australia (Legner & Altmann, unpub. data) suggests that classical biological control attempts be made.

 

Maximum parasitism in India reported by Sekhon & Varma (1983) were as follows:  egg attacking parasitoids:  Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja & Nagarkatti (61%), Trichogramma chilonis Ichii (15%), Trichogrammatoidea sp. nr. guamensis Nagaraja (MS) 42%, larval parasitoids, Bracon greeni Ashmead <5%, Rogas sp. 13%, Elasmus johnstoni Ferrière 0.43%, and pupal parasitoid Brachymeria nephantidis Gahan 57%.  Other parasitoids reported from India include egg-attacking Chelonus heliopae Patel, larva-attacking Rogas kampurensis Mani, and Strobliomyia nana (Curr.), Actia aegyptia Vill., Bracon brevicornis Wesmael, Centrochalcis sp., Chelonus rufus Lyle, Rogas testaceus Spinola, Phanerotoma hendecasisella Cameron, and pupa-attacking Goryphus nursei (Cameron), Brachymeria tachardiae Cameron, Brachymeria responsator Walk and Brachymeria sp..  In Pakistan, the pupal parasitoid Brachymeria bicolorata Khokhar et al. and the larval parasitoids Elasmus orientalis Khokhar et al. and E. dorsalis Khokhar et al. are known.  In Uganda the parasitoids Apanteles diparopsidis Lyle, Agathis aciculata (Brues), Rogas sp., Netelia sp. and Trichogramma sp. have been reared on Earias.  In Taiwan Brachymeria obscurata (Walker) was reared from Earias pupae.  In Syria Bracon brevicornis Wesm. is highly active, while in Iran Bracon lefroyi (D. & G.) is most active.

 

Kashyap & Verma (1987) summarized the following parasitoids, predators and pathogens attacking Earias spp. naturally throughout their distribution range:

 

Egg Parasitoids:  Erythemelus sp., Gonatocerus sp., Trichogramma achaeae, T. brasiliensis Ashmead, T. chilonis Ishii, T. evenescens Westwood, Trichogramma sp., Trichogrammatoidae bactgrae Nagaraja, Trichogrammatoidae sp. nr. guamensis Nagaraja and Trichogrammatoidae sp., Trichogrammatoidea lutea Gir.

 

Egg-larval Parasitoids:  Chelonus blackburni Cameron, C. heliopae (Gupta).

 

Larval Parasitoids:  Actia aegyptie Vill., A. hyalinata Mall., Actia sp., Agathus aciculatus (Brues), Agathus sp., Apanteles spp., Bracon (Microbracon) brevicornis (Wesmael), B. greeni (Ashm.) (lefroyi) (Dudgeon & Geough), B. hebetor (Say), Bracon sp., Bassus spp., Brachymeria tenuicornis (Kieff), Chelonus blackburni Cameron, Chelonus sp., Elasmus johnstoni Ferriere, Elasmus sp., Exorista spp., Microbracon gelechidiphagus, Prolodaspis spp., Rhogas aligarhensis Quadri, R. lefroy Ashm., R. testaceous Grav., Rhogas sp. nr. pallidater (Thnd.), Rhogas sp.,

 

Larval-pupal Parasitoids:  Chrysis obliterata Moesary, Coryphnus sp.

 

Pupal Parasitoids:  Brachymeria apantelesi, B. lasus, B. responsonator (Walker), B. nephanttidis Gah., B. tachaididae (Cameron), Brachymeria (Chalsis) spp., Chelonus rofus Lyle, Chelonus spp., Centrochalcis spp., Chrysis habrobracon, Goryphus (Melcha) nursei (Cameron), and Goryphus sp.

 

Predators:  Brumoides suturalis (F.), Geocoris sp., Cartheconidea furcellata (Woeff), Eumenes petiolata, Menochilus sexmaculatus and Phanerotoma hendecasisella.

 

Fungi:  Fusarium moniliformae var. subglutinams, Serratia marcescens and Bacillus cereus.

 

 

 

REFERENCES:            [ Additional references may be found at:   MELVYL Library ]

 

Anonymous.  1960.  Cotton growing countries of the world, the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic.  Liverpool Raw Cotton Annual.  p. 71-167.

 

Anonymous.  1981.  Half monthly report No. 704, for the 2nd half of July 1981.  Cotton Bureau, Aleppo Min. Agr. Agrar. Ref. S.A.R.  12 p.

 

Abdel-Fattah, M. I., M. M. Hosny & G. El-Saadany.  1980.  The spacing and density of cotton plants as factors affecting populations of the bollworms, Earias insulana Boisd. and Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.).  Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt 60:  85-94.

 

Abdel-Fattah, S. A. S., I. M. F. Sharaf, A. El-Sebae, & A. El-Sebae.  1983.  Performance of flucythrinate (Cybolt) against a wide spectrum of agricultural pests in Egypt.  Arab. J. Plant Prot. 1: 74-8.

 

Abdel-Rahim, W. A., S. M. I. Metwally & F. El-Dakrousy.  1980.  Effect of certain physical and chemical characteristics of cotton varieties on susceptibility to infestation by pink and spiny bollworm.  Plant Prot. Dept., Tanta Univ., Kaft-el-Sheikh, Egypt.  p. 727-31.  (RAE, A:  69:  5118).

 

Abid, M. K., A. Ghobrial, P. Sl Elhaideri & S. A. Abbs.  1978.  Dimilin (TH-6040):  Effects on the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd. (Lepid: Phalaenidae).  Z. angew. Ent. 85:  321-4.

 

Abul-Nasr, S. & M. M. Megahed.  1971.  Infestation of the cotton plant by the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).  Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 55:  339-54.

 

Abul-Nasr, S., M. M. Megahed & A. A. M. Mabrouk.  1972.  A study on three host plants of the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana (Boisd.), other than cotton and maize.  Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 56:  151-61.

 

Abul-Nasr, S., E. D. Ammar & A. I. Merdan.  1978/1979.  The control of the cotton bollworms, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) and Earias insulana (Boisd.).  Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt, Econ. Ser. 11:  35-9.

 

Abul-Nasr, S., E. D. Ammar & S. M. Farrag.  1979.  Rates of infestation by Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders and Earias insulana Boisd. on flowering sites of the cotton plant (Lep.).  Deutsche Entomologische Z. 26:  165-72.

 

Afify, A. M. & A. I. Merdan.  1969.  On tracing the response of some Egyptian cotton worms in different larval ages to Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner.  Z. angew. Ent. 63:  263-7.

 

Agarwal, R. A. & G. P. Gupta.  1986.  Recent advances in cotton pest management.  Plant Prot. Bull. 38(1-4):  51-4.

 

Agarwal, R. A. & K. N. Katiyar.  1979.  An estimate of losses of seed kapas and seed due to bollworms on cotton in India.  Indian J. Ent. 41:  143-8.

 

Agarwal, R. A. & K. N. Katiyar.  1974.  Ovipositional preference and damage by spotted bollworm (Earias fabia Stoll) in cotton.  Cotton Development 4:  28-30.

 

Ahmad, T. & G. Ullah.  1939.  Ecological studies on the spotted bollworms of cotton and their parasites. I. The preimaginal development and viability of Earias fabia and Microbracon lefroyi under different conditions of temperature and humidity.  Indian J. Ent. 1:  17-47.

 

Ahmed, M.  1943.  The morphology and biology of Rhogas testaceous (Spin.) a braconid internal parasite of spotted bollworms of cotton.  Indian J. Ent. 5:  189-205.

 

Ahmed, T. & G. Ullah.  1939.  Ecological studies on the spotted bollworms of cotton and their parasites II.  The fecundity and longevity of Earias fabia and Microbracon lefroyi under different conditions of temperature and humidity.  Indian J. Ent. 1:  17-47.

 

Al-Azawi, A. F.  1964.  Studies on the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. on the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd. and other lepidopterous insects.  Entomophaga 9:  137-45.

 

Allah Noor.  1984.  Integration of biological and chemical control methods in management of cotton bollworms in India.  Pap. Nat. Seminar on Integr. Pest Management, Nagpur, 5-7 Jan. 1984.

 

Arsahd, M. & M. A. Quayyoom.  1984.  Distinguishing larval features in Earias insulana (Boisd.) and E. vitella (Fab.).  Pak. J. Zool 16:  171-3.

 

Awate, B. G. & L. M. Naik.  1981  Efficacy of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against bollworms (Earias spp and Pectinophora gossypiella S.) on cotton in Maharashtra State.  Cotton Development 11:  65-6.

 

Awate, B. G., L. M. Naik & G. Y. Parlekar.  1977.  Possibility of introducing exotic parasite Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead in the integrated control of cotton bollworms.  Cotton Development 7:  21-2.

 

Balasubramanian, G., M. Biasubramanian & R. Kulandeivelu.  1981.  Prediction of bollworms' damage in cotton in relation to weather factors.  Madras Agr. J. 68:  657-9.

 

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Borker, S. G., J. P. Verma & R. P. Singh.  1980.  Transmission of Xanthomonas malvacearum (Smith) Dowson the incitant of bacterial blight of cotton through spotted bollworms.  Indian J. Ent. 42:  390-7.

 

Bottrell, D. G. & P. L. Adkisson.  1977.  Cotton insect pest management.  Annu. Rev. Ent. 22:  451-81.

 

Broodryk, S. W.  1971.  Some ecological observations on Earias spp. [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae].  Rhod. J. Agr. Res. 9:  41-3.  (Rev. Appl. Ent. A-63 No. 3082).

 

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Butani, D. K.  1976.  Spotted bollworms of cotton, Earias spp. (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera).  Cotton Development 6:  17-22.

 

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Chakravarthy, A. K.  1982.  Bollworms infestation in relation to the phenology of Arboreum cotton.  Ph.D. Thesis, Punjab Agr. Univ., Ludhiana.  165 p.

 

Chakravarthy, A. K.  1985.  Distribution patterns, sample-size and samping Earias spp. on cotton in Ludhiana (Punjab).  Insect Sci. Applic 6(4):  517-20.

 

Chakravarthy, A. K., A. S. Sidhu Joginder-Singh & J. Singh.  1985.  Effect of plant phenology and related factors on insect pest infestations in arboreum and hirsutum cotton varieties.  Ins. Sci. & Appl 6:  521-32.

 

Chang, G. S., H. L. Meng & J. S. Bao.  1963.  The status of the spotted bollworms, Earias labia (Stoll) and E. insulana (Boisd.) after the changes of the cultural cystem in Au Kian Posshan District, Yannan Province.  Acta Ent. Sin. 2:  21-8.

 

Chatterjee, P. N.  1941.  Note on some parasites of Shisham defoliators at Allahabad and Dehradun, India.  Indian J. Ent. 3:  157-70.

 

Cherian, M. C. & H. S. Kylasam.  1941.  Preliminary notes on the parasites of the spotted and pink bollworms of cotton in Coimbatore.  Proc. Indian Acad. Sci B-14:  517-28.

 

Cherian, M. C. & V. Margabnadu.  1943.  Preliminary trials with Trichogramma parasites for the control of cotton boll worms.  Madras Agr. J. 31:  107-11.

 

Cork, A., P. S. Beevor, D. R. Hall, B. F. Nesbitt & D. G. Campion.  1985.  A sex attractant for the spotted bollworm, Earias vittella.  Trop. Pest Manage. 31:  2, 158.

 

Couilloud, R.  1983.  Les Earias du cotonnier en Cote d'Ivoire: Earias insulana (Boisd.); Earias biplaga (Wlk.) (Lep. Noctuidae Westermanniinae).  Variation de l'importance relative de chacune des especes et variations morphologiques intraspecifiques (suite et fin).  Cot. Fibr. Trop. 38:  253-64.

 

Croizier, G., A. Amargier, P. Jacquemard, R. Couilloud & L. Croizier.  1981.  Polyédrose cytoplasmique d'Earias biplaga Wlk. (Lépidoptère, Noctuidae) due à un Recovirus à tropisme tissulaire large.  Cot. Fib. Trop. 36:  127-35.

 

Croizier, G., P. Jacquemard, A. Amargier, L. Croizier & R. Couilloud.  1983.  Une polyédrose cytoplasmique d'Earias insulana Boisduval, nouvelle affection à Reovirus chez les lépidoptères Noctuidae du genre Earias.  Cot. Fib. Trop. 38:  280-5.

 

Das, B. B. & A. K. Basu.  1977.  Studies on natural enemies of cotton bollworms (Pectinophora gossypiella, Earias insulana, Earias vittella, biological control).  Sci. Cult. 43:  129-31.

 

David, B. V., P. M. Srinivasan & A. Janagrajan.  1967.  The control of major pests of irrigated cotton in the southern districts of Madras State.  Madras Agr. J. 54:  343-52.

 

Delattre, R.  1947.  Insectes du cotonnier nouveaux ou peu connus en Côte d'Ivoire (II).  Coton Fibr. Trop. 2:  97-100   (Rev. Allpl Ent. A-38:  461.).

 

Deshpande, B. P. & N. T. Nadkarny.  1936.  The spotted bollworm of cotton, Earias fabia Stoll and Earias insulana Boisd., in south Gujarat, Bombay Presidency.  Indian Coun. Agr. Res. Sci. Monogr 10:  1-208.

 

Dhawan, A. K. & A. S. Sidhu.  1984.  Incidence and relative abundance of different species of spotted bollworms on okra at Ludhiana, Punjab.  J. Res., Punjab Agr. Univ. 21:  533-42.

 

Dhawan, A. K., A. S. Sidhu & G. S. Simwat.  1988.  Assessment of avoidable loss in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and G. arboreum) due to sucking pesta and bollworms.  Ind. J. Agr. Sci. 58:  290-2.

 

Dhurve, S. B., Y. M. Taley & K. R. Thakare.  1980.  Effect of insecticides on the control of cotton bollworms and their natural enemies.  Punjabrao Krishi Vidyapeeth J. Res. 4:  41-5.

 

Dimetry, N. Z. & M. H. Mansour.  1971.  Effect of some inorganic salts as a deterrent agent against the greasy cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon Hfn. and spiny bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd.  Z. angew. Ent. 69:  315-7.

 

Dongre, T. K. & G. W. Rahalkar.  1980.  Growth and development of spotted bollworm, Earias vitella on glanded and glandless cotton and on diet containing gossypol.  Ent. Exptal. et Appl. 27:  6-10.

 

Duhoon, S. S. & M. Singh.  1980.  Resistance to spotted bollworm Earias spp. in cotton, Gossypium arboreum Linn.  Indian J. Ent. 42:  116-21.

 

Huhoon, S. S., M. Singh & A. K. Basu.  1981.  Preferential behaviour of the spotted bollworm (Earias spp.) to two varieties of desi cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.).  Cotton Development 11:  71.

 

Dunkelblum, E., M. Kehat, J. T. Klug & S. Shani.  1984.  Trimerization of Earias insulana sex pheromone (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal, a phenomenon affecting trapping efficiency.  J. Chem. Ecol. 10:  421-8.

 

Dutt, G. R. & M. S. Patel.  1943.  The cotton bollworms (Earias fabia Stoll, Platyedra gossypiella Saund. and Heliothis obsoleta Fabr.) in the central provinces and Berar.  Indian J. Agr. Sci. 13:  1-17.

 

El-Husseini, M. M. & A. I. Afifi.  Effect of Entobakterin-3 on the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana.  Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt Econ. Ser. O(12):  59-70.

 

El-Husseini, M. M., A. I. Afify & M. M. El-Husseini.  1980.  Effect of Entobakterin-3 on the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana (Boisd.).  Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt 12:  59-70.

 

El-Husseini, M. M., A. I. Afify & M. M. El-Husseini. 1981.  Increasing the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner against the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd., by adding a feeding stimulant.  Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 63:  37-41.

 

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Hosny, M. M., G. Saadany, R. Iss-Hak, E. A. Nasr, G. Moawad, M. Naguib, A. A. Khidr, S. H. Elnagar, D. G. Campion, B. R. Critchley, K. Jones, D. J. McKinley, L. J. McVeigh, C. P. Topper & R. Iss-Hak.  1983.  Techniques for the control of cotton pests in Egypt to reduce the reliance on chemical pesticides.  Proc. 10th Intrnatl Cong. Plant Protect., Brighton Eng., 20-25 Nov. 1983.  1: 270.

 

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Hussain, M., A. Askari & G. Asadi.  1976.  A study of Bracon lefroyi [Hymenoptera: Braconidae] from Iran.  Ent. News 87:  299-302.

 

Ibrahim, A. M.  1963.  An indication of the effect of widespread use of pesticides on the population of some predators in cotton fields.  Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypt 46.

 

Ingram, W. R. & S. M. Green.  1972.  Sequential samping for bollworms on raingrown cotton in Botswana.  Cotton Grow. Rev. 49:  265-75.

 

Jutsum, A. R., G. J. Marrs, R. F. S. Gordon, d. G. Campion, B. R. Critchley, L. J. McVeigh, A. Cork, D. R. Hall, B. F. Nesbitt, M. M. Hosny & E. A. Nasr.  1983.  Control of crop pests with microencapsulated insect pheromones.  Proc. 10th Internatl. Cong. Plant Prot., Brighton, Eng., 20-25 Nov, 1983. 1:  266-7.

 

Kashyap, R. K. & A. N. Verma.  1982.  Seasonal incidence of spotted bollworm, Earias spp. on okra at Hisar, India.  Indian. J. Ecol. 9:  158-9.

 

Kashyap, R. K. & A. N. Verma.  1987.  Management of spotted bollworms (Earias spp.) in cotton-- a review.  Internatl. J. Trop. Agr. 5:  1-27.

 

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