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EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES IN EVALUATION

OF NATURAL ENEMIES (References)

(Contacts)

 

 

REFERENCES: [Additional references may be found at  MELVYL Library ]

 

 

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Ashby, J. W.  1974.  A study of arthropod predation of Pieris rapae L. using serological and exclusion techniques.  J. Appl. Ecol. 11:  419-25.

 

Aveling, C.  1981.  The role of Anthocoris species (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in the integrated control of the Damson-hop aphid (Phorodon humuli).  Ann. Appl. Biol. 97:  143-53.

 

Avise, J. C.  1974.  Systematic value of electrophoretic data.  Syst. Zool. 23:  465-81.

 

Avise, J. C.  1983.  Protein variation and phylogenetic reconstruction. In:  G. S. Oxford & D. Rollinson (eds.), Systematics Assoc. Special Vol. No. 24, "Protein Polymorphism:  Adaptive and Taxonomic Significance,"   Academic Press, London & New York.

 

Avise, J. C., J. Arnold, R. M. Ball, E. Bermingham, T. Lamb, J. E. Neigel, C. A. Reeb & N. C. Saunders.  1987.  Intraspecific Phylogeography:  The mitochondrial DNA bridge between population genetics and systematics.  Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 18:  489-522.

 

Avise, J. C. & R. A. Lansman.  1983.  Polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA in populations of higher animals.  In:  M. Nei (ed.), Evolution of genes and Proteins.  Sinauer Assoc., Inc., Sunderland, Mass.

 

Ayala, F. J., M. L. Tracey, L. G. Barr & J. G. Ehrenfeld.  1974a.  Genetic and reproductive differentiation of the subspecies, Drosophila equinoxialis caribbensis.  evol. 28:  24-41.

 

Ayala, F. J., M. L. Tracey, D. Hedgecock & R. C. Richmond.  1974b.  Genetic differentiation during the speciation process in Drosophila.  Evol. 28:  576-92.

 

Baker, A. J. & A. Moeed.  1987.  Rapid genetic differentiation and founder effect in colonizing populations of common Mynas (Acridotheres tristis).  Evol. 42:  525-38.

 

Baker, J. P.  1979.  Electrophoretic studies on populations of Myzus persicae in Scotland from October to December, 1976.  Ann. Appl. Biol. 91:  159-64.

 

Barry, R. M., J. H. Hatchett & R. D. Jackson.  1984.  Cage studies with predators of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and corn ear worm, Heliothis zea in soybeans.  J. Georgia Ent. Soc. 9:  71-8.

 

Bartlett, B. R.  1957.  Biotic factors in natural control of citrus mealybugs in California.  J. Econ. Ent. 50:  753-55.

 

Bartlett, B. R.  1968.  Outbreaks of two-spotted spider mites and cotton aphids following pesticide treatment.  I.  Pest stimulation vs. natural enemy destruction as the cause of outbreaks.  J. Econ. Ent. 61:  297-303.

 

Baumgaertner, J. U., A. P. Gutierrez & C. G. Summers.  1981.  The influence of aphid prey consumption on searching behavior, weight increase, developmental time and mortality of Chrysopa carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae.  Canad. Ent. 113:  1007-14.

 

Beckendorf, S. K. & M. A. Hoy.  1985.  Genetic improvement of arthropod natural enemies through selection, hybridization or genetic engineering techniques.  In:  M. A. Hoy & D. C. Herzog (eds.), Biological Control in Agricultural IPM Systems.  Academic Press, Inc., New York.

 

Beckingham, K.  1982.  Insect rDNA.  cell Nucleus 10:  205-69.

 

Bellows, T. S., Jr. & T. W. Fisher, (eds)  1999. Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  1046 p.

 

Bellows, T. S. & R. Van Driesche.  1999.  Construction and analysis of life tables in the evaluation of biological control agents.  In: Fisher, T. W. & T. S. Bellows, Jr. (eds)  1999. Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  1046 p.

 

Bellows, T. S., Jr., R. G. Van Driesche & J. S. Elkinton.  1989b.  Extensions to Southwood and Jepson's graphical method of estimating numbers entering a stage for calculating losses to parasitism.  Res. Popul. Ecol.  Res. Popul. Ecol. 31:  169-84.

 

Bentz, B. J. & M. W. Stock.  1986.  Phenetic and phylogenetic relationships among ten species of Dendroctonus bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 69:  527-34.

 

Bellows, T. S., Jr. & T. W. Fisher, (eds)  1999. Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  1046 p.

 

Berlocher, S. H.  1979.  Biochemical approaches to strain, race, and species discriminations.  In:  M. A. Hoy & J. J. McKelvey, Jr. (eds.), Genetics in Relation to Insect Management.

 

Berlocher, S. H.  1984a.  Genetic changes coinciding with the colonization of California by the walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa.  Evol. 38:  906-18.

 

Berlocher, S. H.  1984b.  Insect molecular systematics.  Ann. Rev. Ent.  1984.

 

Berlocher, S. H. & G. L. Bush.  1982.  An electrophoretic analysis of Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) phylogeny.  Syst. Zool. 31:  136-55.

 

Berlocher, S. H. & S. Friedman.  1981.  Loss of genetic variation in laboratory colonies of Phormia regina.  Ent. Exp. & Appl. 30:  205-08.

 

Beverley, S. M. & A. C. Wilson.  1985.  Ancient origin for Hawaiian Drosophilinae inferred from protein comparisons.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 82:  4753-57.

 

Bird, F. T. & D. E. Elgee.  1957.  A virus disease and introduced parasites as factors controlling the European spruce sawfly, Diprion hercyniae (Htg.) in central New Brunswick.  Canad. Ent. 89:  371-78.

 

Boreham, P. F. L. & C. E. Ohiagu.  1978.  The use of serology in evaluating invertebrate predator-prey relationships:  a review.  Bull. Ent. Res. 68:  171-94.

 

Breene, R. G. & W. L. Sterling.  1988.  Quantitative phosphorus-32 labeling method for analysis of predators of the cotton fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae).  J. Econ. Ent. 81:  1494-8.

 

Britten, R. J.  1986.  Rates of DNA sequence evolution differ between taxonomic groups.  Science 231:  1393-98.

 

Britten, R. J., D. E. Graham & B. R. Neufeld.  1974.  Analysis of repeating DNA sequences by reassociation, p. 363-418.  In:  L. Grossman & K. Modave (eds.), Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 29e.  Academic Press, New York.

 

Brittnacher, J. G., S. R. Sims & F. J. Ayala.  1978.  Genetic differentiation between species of the genus Speyeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).  Evol. 32:  199-210.

 

Brown, A. W. A.  1951.  Insect Control by Chemicals.  John Wiley & Sons, New York.  817 p.

 

Brown, W. M.  1983.  Evolution of animal mitochondrial DNA.  In:  M. Nei (ed.), Evolution of Genes and Proteins.  Sinauer Assoc., Inc., Sunderland, Mass.

 

Brussard, P. F., P. R. Ehrlich, D. D. Murphy, B. A. Wilcox & J. Wright.  1985.  Genetic distances and the taxonomy of checkerspot butterflies (Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae).  J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 58:  403-12.

 

Bull, C. G. & M. V. King.  1923.  The identification of the blood meal of mosquitoes by means of the precipitin test.  Amer. S. Hyg. 3:  491-96.

 

Buonaccorsi, J. P. & J. S. Elkinton.  1990.  Estimation of contemporaneous mortality factors.  Res. Popul. Ecol. 32:  1-21.

 

Bush, G. L. & G. B. Kitto.  1978.  Application of genetics to insect systematics and analysis of species differences.  In: J. A. Rouberger (ed.), Biosystematics in Agriculture, Vol. 2, Beltsville Symposia in Agricultural Research.

 

Bush, G. L. & R. W. Neck, Jr.  1976.  Ecological genetics of the screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and its bearing on the quality control of mass-reared insects.  Environ. Ent. 5:  821-26.

 

Buth, D. G.  1984.  The application of electrophoretic data in systematic studies.  Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 15:  501-22.

 

Cabrera, V. M., A. M. Gonzalez, J. M. Larruga & A. Gullon.  1983.  Genetic distance and evolutionary relationships in the Drosophila obscura group.  Evol. 37:  675-89.

 

Caccone, A., G. D. Amato & J. R. Powell.  1987.  Intraspecific DNA divergence in Drosophila:  A study on parthenogenetic D. mercatorum.  Molec. Biol. Evol. 4:  343-50.

 

Caccone, A. & J. R. Powell.  1987.  Molecular evolutionary divergence among North American cage crickets.  II.  DNA-DNA hybridization.  Evol. 41:  1215-38.

 

Caccone, A. & V. Sbordoni.  1987.  Molecular evolutionary divergence among North American crickets.  I.  Allozyme variation.  Evol. 41:  1198-1214.

 

Campbell, C. A. M.  1978.  Regulation of the Damson-hop aphid (Phorodon humuli [Schrank]) on hops (Humulus lupulus Linnaeus) by predators.  J. Hort. Sci. 53:  235-42.

 

Carl, K. P.  1982.  Biological control of native pests by introduced natural enemies.  Biol. Cont. News Info. 3:  190-200.

 

Carter,  N., I. F. G. McLean, A. E. Watt & A. G. G. Dixon.  1980.  Cereal aphids:  a case study and review. p. 272-349.  In:  T. H. Cooker (ed.), Applied Biology.  Academic Press, London.

 

Castañera, P., H. D. Loxdale & K. Nowak.  1983.  Electrophoretic study of enzymes from cereal aphid populations.  II.  Use of electrophoresis for identifying aphidiid parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).  Bull. Ent. Res. 73:  659-65.

 

Chambers, R. J., K. D. Sunderland, I. J. Wyatt & G. P. Vickerman.  1983.  The effects of predator exclusion and caging on cereal aphids in winter wheat.  J. Appl. Ecol. 20:  209-24.

 

Chang, C. K. & M. E. Whalon.  1986.  Hydrolysis of permethrin by pyrethroid esterases from resistant and susceptible strains of Amblyseius fallacis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  Pesticide Biochemistry & Physiology 25:  446-52.

 

Charboussou, F.  1965.  La multiplication par vole trophique des tetrayques a la suite des traitements pesticides.  Relations avec les phenomenes de resistance acquise.  Boll. Zool. Agrar. Bachic. 7:  143-84.

 

Charnov, E. L.  1982.  The Theory of Sex Allocation.  Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

 

Chelliah, S., L. Fabellar & A. E. Heinrichs.  1980.  Effects of sublethal doses of three insecticides on the reproductive rate of the brown planthopper, Nalaparvata lugens, on rice.  Environ. Ent. 9:  778-80.

 

CIBC.  1971.  Biological control programs against insects and weeds in Canada, 1959-1968.  Commonw. Agric. Bur. Tech. Comm., Vol. 4.  266 p.

 

Clausen, C. P.  1972.  Entomophagous Insects.  Hafner Publ. Co., New York.

 

Clausen, C. P. (ed.).  1978.  Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds:  a World Review.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Handbk. 480.  545 p.

 

Coaker, T. H.  1965.  Further experiments on the effects of beetle predation on the numbers of cabbage root fly, Eriocschia brassicae (Bouché) attacking brassica crops.  Ann. Appl. Biol. 56:  7-20.

 

Cochran, W. G.  1963.  Sampling Techniques, 2nd Ed.  John Wiley & Sons, New York.

 

Cock, M. J. W.  1985.  A review of biological control of pests in the Commonwealth Caribbean and Bermuda up to 1982.  Commonw. Agric. Bur. Tech. Commun., Vol. 9.  218 p.

 

Coen, E. S., J. M. Thoday & G. Dover.  1982.  Rate of turnover of structural variants in the rDNA gene family of Drosophila melanogaster.  Nature 295:  564-68.

 

Coyne, J. A.  1982.  Gel electrophoresis and cryptic protein variation.  Isozymes (Current Topics in Biological & Medical Research) 6:  1-32.

 

Coyne, J. A. & M. Kreitman.  1986.  Evolutionary genetics of two sibling species, Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia.  Evol. 404:  673-91.

 

Croft, B. A. & A. W. A. Brown.  1975.  Responses of arthropod natural enemies to insecticides.  Ann. Rev. Ent. 20:  285-335.

 

Crook, N. E. & K. D. Sunderland.  1984.  Detection of aphid remains in predators by ELISA.  Ann. Appl. Biol. 105:  413-22.

 

Crook, N. E., R. A. Spencer, C. C. Payne & D. J. Leisy.  1985.  Variation in Cydia pomonella granulosis virus isolates and physical maps of the DNA from three variants.  J. Gen. Virol. 66:  2423-30.

 

Daly, J. C., P. Wilkinson & D. D. Shaw.  1981.  Reproductive isolation in relation to allozymic and chromosomal differentiation in the grasshopper Caledia captiva.  Evol. 35:  1164-79.

 

DeBach, P.  1946.  An insecticidal check method for measuring the efficacy of entomophagous insects.  J. Econ. Ent. 39:  695-97.

 

DeBach. P.  1955.  Validity of insecticidal check method as a measure of the effectiveness of natural enemies of diaspine scale insects.  J. Econ. Ent. 48:  584-88.

 

DeBach, P. (ed.).  1964.  Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds.  Reinhold Publ. Corp., New York.

 

DeBach, P.  1969a.  Uniparental, sibling and semi-species in relation to taxonomy and biological control.  Israel J. Ent. 4:  11-28.

 

DeBach, P.  1969.  Biological control of diaspine scale insects on citrus in California.  Proc. 1st Int. Citrus Symp., Riverside, Calif. 2:  801-15.

 

DeBach, P.  1974.  Biological Control by Natural Enemies.  Cambridge Univ. Press, London. 

 

DeBach, P. & B. Bartlett.  1951.  Effects of insecticides on biological control of insect pests of citrus.  J. Econ. Ent. 44:  373-83.

 

DeBach, P. & B. R. Bartlett.  1964.  Methods of colonization, recovery and evaluation, p. 402-26.  In:  DeBach, P. (ed.), Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds.  Reinhold, New York.In:  DeBach, P. (ed.), Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds.  Reinhold, New York.

 

DeBach, P. & C. B. Huffaker.  1971.  Experimental techniques for evaluation of the effectiveness of natural enemies. p. 113-40.  In:  C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological Control.  Plenum Press, New York.

 

DeBach, P. & R. A. Sundby.  1963.  Competitive displacement between ecological homologues.  Hilgardia 34:  105-66.

 

DeBach, P., E. J. Dietrick & C. A. Fleschner.  1949.  A new technique for evaluating the efficiency of entomophagous insects in the field.  J. Econ. Ent. 42:  546.

 

DeBach, P., C. A. Fleschner & E. J. Dietrick.  1951a.  A biological check method for evaluating the effectiveness of entomophagous insects.  J. Econ. Ent. 44:  763-66.

 

DeBach, P., E. J. Dietrick & C. A. Fleschner.  1951.  Ants vs. biological control of citrus pests.  Calif. Citrog. 36:  312, 347-48.

 

Dempster, J. P.  1960.  A quantitative study of the predators on the eggs and larvae of the broom beetle, Phytodecta olivacea Forster, using the precipitin test.  J. Anim. Ecol. 29:  149-67.

 

Dempster, J. P.  1964.  The control of Pieris rapae with DDT 1.  The natural mortality of the young stages of Pieris.  J. Appl. Ecol. 4:  485-500.

 

Dempster, J. P.  1967.  The feeding habits of the Miridae (Heteroptera) living on broom (Sarothomnus scoparius L.).  Ent. Expt. Appl. 7:  149-54.

 

Dempster, J. P., O. W. Richards & N. Waloff.  1959.  Carabids as predators on the pupal stage of the chrysomelid beetle Phytodicta olivacea (Forster).  Oikos 10:  65-70.

 

Denno, R. F. & M. S. McClure (eds.).  1983.  Variable Plants and Herbivores in Natural and Managed Systems.  Academic Press, New York.

 

DeSalle, R. & L. V. Giddings.  1986.  Discordance of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA phylogenies in Hawaiian Drosophila.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 83:  6902-06.

 

Devonshire, A. L., G. D. Moores & R. H. Ffrench-Constant.  1986.  Detection of insecticide resistance by immunological estimation of carboxylesterase activity in Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and cross reaction of the antiserum with Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).  Bull. Ent. Res. 76:  97-107.

 

Dicke, M. & M. DeJong.  1986.  Prey preference of predatory mites:  electrophoretic analysis of the diet of Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius finlandicus (Oudemans) collected in Dutch orchards.  Bull. IOBC/WPRS 9:  62-7.

 

Diehl, S. R. & G. L. Bush.  1984.  An evolutionary and applied perspective of insect biotypes.  Ann. Rev. Ent. 29:  471-504.

 

Dittrich, V. P., P. Streibert & P. Bathe.  1974.  An old case reopened:  mite stimulation by insecticide residues.  Environ. Ent. 3:  534-39.

 

Dixon, A. F. G.  1959.  An experimental study of the search behavior of the predatory coccinellid beetle, Adalia compunctata (Linnaeus).  J. Anim. Ecol. 28:  259-81.

 

Dowden, P. B.  1962.  Parasites and Predators of Forest Insects Liberated in the United States Through 1960.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Handbk. 226.  70 p.

 

Downe, S. E. R. & A. S. West.  1954.  Progress in the use of precipitin test in entomological studies.  Canad. Ent. 86:  181-84.

 

Dykes, D., J. Fondell, P. Watkins & H. Polesky.  1986.  The use of biotinylated DNA probes for detecting single copy human restriction fragment length polymorphisms separated by electrophoresis.  Electrophoresis 7:  278-82.

 

Easteal, S. & I. A. Boussay.  1987.  A sensitive and efficient isozyme technique for small arthropods and other invertebrates.  Bull. Ent. Res. 77:  407-15.

 

Edmunds, G. F. & D. N. Alstad.  1985.  Malathion-induced sex ratio changes in black pine leaf scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 78:  403-05.

 

Ehler, L. E., K. G. Eveleens & R. van den Bosch.  1973.  An evaluation of some natural enemies of cabbage looper on cotton in California.  Environ. Ent. 2:  1009-15.

 

Ellington, J. J. & M. Southward.  1989.  Design-based sampling techniques for estimating arthropod populations in cotton over large land masses.  In:  L. McDonald et al. (eds.), Lecture Notes in Statistics, Vol. 55.  Springer-Verlag, New York.

 

Ellington, J. J. et al.  1984a.  The Insectavac:  a high-clearance, high-volume arthropod vacuuming platform for agricultural ecosystems.  Environ. Ent. 13:  259-65.

 

Ellington, J. J. et al. 1984b.  A comparison of sweepnet, absolute, and Insectavac sampling methods in cotton ecosystems.  J. Econ. Ent. 77:  599-605.

 

Ellington, J. J. et al.  1990a.  Improved Insectavac sampler.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 74.

 

Ellington, J. J.  et al.  1990b.  Quadrant size and number and their effect on sample precision and cost with a high-vacuum insect sampling machine in complex cotton ecosystems.  J. Econ. Ent. 83.

 

Elliot, J. M.  1977.  Some methods for the statistical analysis of samples of benthic invertebrates.  Sci. Publ. No. 25, Freshwater Biological Assoc.  Ferry House, United Kingdom.

 

Elvin, H. K., J. L. Stimac & W. H. Whitcomb.  1983.  Estimating rates of arthropod predation on velvetbean caterpillar larvae in soybeans.  Florida. Ent. 66:  319-30.

 

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Embree, D. G.  1966.  The role of introduced parasites in the control of the winter moth in Nova Scotia.  Canad. Ent. 98:  1159-68.

 

Embree, D. G.  1971.  The biological control of the winter moth in eastern Canada by introduced parasites, p. 217-26.  In:  C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological Control.  Plenum Press, New York.

 

Engels, W. R.  1981.  Estimating genetic divergence and genetic variability with restriction endonucleases.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 78:  6329-33.

 

Eveleens, K. G., R. van den Bosch & L. E. Ehler.  1973.  Secondary outbreak induction of beet armyworm by experimental insecticide applications in cotton in California.  Environ. Ent. 2:  497-503.

 

Faeth, S. H. & D. Simberloff.  1981.  Population regulation of a leafmining insect, Cameraria sp. nov. at increased field densities.  Ecology 62:  620-24.

 

Falcon, L. A., R. van den Bosch, C. A. Ferris, L. K. Strombert, L, K. Etzel, R. E. Stinner & T. F. Leigh.  1968.  A comparison of season long cotton-pest-control programs in California during 1966.  J. Econ. Ent. 61:  633-42.

 

Farris, J. A.  1972.  Estimating phylogenetic trees from distance matrices.  Amer. Natur. 106:  645-48.

 

Felsenstein, J.  1982.  Numerical methods for inferring evolutionary trees.  Quart. Rev. Biol. 57:  379-404.

 

Ferro, D. N. & E. E. Southwick.  1984.  Microclimates of small arthropods:  estimating humidity within leaf boundary layer.  Environ. Ent. 13:  926-29.

 

Fichter, F. L. & W. P. Stephen.  1979.  Selection and use of host-specific antigens.  Misc. Publ. Ent. Soc. Amer. 11:  25-33.

 

Fichter, F. L. & W. P. Stephen.  1981.  Time related decay in prey antigens ingested by the predator Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) as detected by ELISA.  Oecologia 51:  404-07.

 

Fichter, F. L. & W. P. Stephen.  1984.  Time related decay in prey antigens ingested by arboreal spiders as detected by ELISA.  Environ. Ent. 13:  1583-87.

 

Flanders, S. E.  1942.  Absorptive development in parasitic Hymenoptera induced by food plant of the insect host.  J. Econ. Ent. 35:  834-35.

 

Fleschner, C. A.  1950.  Studies on searching capacity of the larvae of three predators of the citrus red mite.  Hilgardia 20:  233-65.

 

Fleschner, C. A.  1958.  Field approach to population studies of tetranychid mites in citrus and avocado in California.  Proc. 10th Internat. Congr. Ent. 2:  669-74.

 

Fleschner, C. A., J. C. Hall & D. W. Ricker.  1955.  Natural balance of mite populations in an avocado grove.  Calif. Avocado Soc. Yearbk. 39:  155-62.

 

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Folsom, J. W. & F. F. Bondy.  1930.  Calcium arsenate dusting as a cause of aphid infestations.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Cir. 116, Washington, D. C.  11 p.

 

Fox, L. R. & P. A. Morrow.  1981.  Specialization:  species property or local phenomenon?  Science 211:  887-93.

 

Frank, J. H.  1967.  The insect predators of the pupal stage of the winter moth Operophtera brumata (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Hydriomenidae).  J. Anim. Ecol. 36:  375-89.

 

Frazer, B. D.  1971.  Biological control and population dynamics of the walnut aphid, Chromaphis juglandicola (Kalt.).  Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Calif., Berkeley.

 

Frazer, B. D. & N. Gilbert.  1976.  Coccinellids and aphids:  a quantitative study of the impact of adult ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) preying on field populations of pea aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae).  J. Ent. Soc. Brit. Columbia 73:  33-56.

 

Frazer, B. D. & B. Gill.  1981.  Hunger, movement and predation of Coccinella californica on pea aphids in the laboratory and in the field.  Canad. Ent. 113:  1025-33.

 

Frazer, B. D., N. Gilbert, N. Ives & D. A. Raworth.  1981a.  Predator reproduction and the overall predator-prey relationship.  Canad. Ent. 113:  1015-24.

 

Frazer, B. D., N. Gilbert, V. Nealis & D. A. Raworth.  1981b.  Control of aphid density by a complex of predators.  Canad. Ent. 113:  1035-41.

 

Futuyma, D. J. & S. C. Peterson.  1985.  Genetic variation in the use of resources by insects.  Ann. Rev. Ent. 30:  217-38.

 

Gardner, W. A., M. Shepard & R. Noblet.  1981.  Precipitin test for examining predator-prey interactions in soybean fields.  Canad. Ent. 113:  365-69.

 

Gates, D. M.  1980.  Biophysical Ecology.  Springer-Verlag, New York.

 

Geiger, H. J.  1980.  Enzyme electrophoretic studies on the genetic relationships of pierid butterflies (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) I.  European taxa.  J. Res. Lepid. 19:  181-95.

 

Gilbert, N., A. P. Gutierrez, B. Frazer & R. E. Jones.  1976.  Ecological Relationships.  Freeman & Sons, San Francisco.  156 p.

 

Giller, P. S.  1982.  The natural diets of waterbugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera):  electrophoresis is a potential method of analysis.  Ecol. Ent. 7:  233-37.

 

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1969  Legner, E. F.  1969.  Distribution pattern of hosts and parasitization by Spalangia drosophilae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Canad.

          Entomol. 101(5):  551-557.                             

 

1971  Legner, E. F.  1971.  Some effects of the ambient arthropod complex on the density and potential parasitization of muscoid Diptera in

         poultry wastes.  J. Econ. Entomol. 64(1):  111-115.

 

1979  Legner, E. F.  1979.  The relationship between host destruction and parasite reproductive potential in Muscidifurax raptor, M. zaraptor,

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1983a  Legner, E. F.  1983.  Requirements for appraisal of the role of parasitic insects in the natural control of synanthropic Diptera.  Proc. Calif.

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1983b  Legner, E. F.  1983.  Broadened view of Muscidifurax parasites associated with endophilous synanthropic flies and sibling species in

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1986   Legner, E. F.  1986.  The requirement for reassessment of interactions among dung beetles, symbovine flies and natural enemies. 

           Entomol. Soc. Amer. Misc. Publ. 61:  120-131.

                                                                                                                                  

1987  Legner, E. F.  1987.  Inheritance of gregarious and solitary oviposition in Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera:

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1988  Legner, E. F.  1988.  Hybridization in principal parasitoids of synanthropic Diptera:  the genus Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera:

           Pteromalidae).  Hilgardia 56(4):  36 pp.

                                                                                                                 

1989  Legner, E. F.  1989.  Wary genes and accretive inheritance in Hymenoptera.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 82(3):  245-249.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

1991  Legner, E. F.  1991.  Estimations of number of active loci, dominance and heritability in polygenic inheritance of gregarious behavior in

           Muscidifurax raptorellus [Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae]. Entomophaga 36(1):  1-18.

 

1964    Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1964.  Natural exposure of Hippelates eye gnats to field parasitization and the discovery of one pupal and two

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1966   Legner, E. F. & H. W. Brydon.  1966. Suppression of dung inhabiting fly populations by pupal parasites.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer.

          59(4) 638-651.                

 

1980   Legner, E. F. & T. W. Fisher.  1980.  Impact of Tilapia zillii (Gervais) on Potamogeton pectinatus L., Myriophyllum spicatum var.

           exalbescens Jepson, and mosquito reproduction in lower Colorado Desert irrigation canals.  Acta Oecologica, Oecol. Applic. 1(1):  3-14.

 

1967  Legner, E. F. & D. Gerling.  1967.  Host-feeding and oviposition on Musca domestica by Spalangia cameroni, Nasonia vitripennis, and

         Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) influences their longevity and fecundity.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 60(3):  678-691.

 

1987  Legner, E. F. & R. D. Goeden.  1987.  Larval parasitism of Rhagoletis completa (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Juglans microcarpa

           (Juglandaceae) in western Texas and southeastern New Mexico.  Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 89(4):  739-743.

 

1979  Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1979.  Influence of parasitic Hymenoptera on the regulation of pink bollworm, Pectinophora

            gossypiella, on cotton in the lower Colorado Desert.  Environ. Entomol. 8(5):  922-930.

 

1981  Legner, E. F. & C. A. Murray.  1981.  Feeding rates and growth of the fish Tilapia zillii [Cichlidae] on Hydrilla verticillata,

           Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum var. exalbescens and interactions in irrigation canals in southeastern California. 

           J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 41(2):  241-250.

                                                                                                                               

1983  Legner, E. F. & A. Silveira-Guido.  1983.  Establishment of Goniozus emigratus and Goniozus legneri [Hym: Bethylidae] on navel

           orangeworm, Amyelois transitella [Lep: Phycitidae] in California and biological control potential.  Entomophaga 28(2):  97-106.

 

1990a  Legner, E. F., W. D. McKeen & R. W. Warkentin.  1990.  Inoculation and spread of parasitic wasps to control filth flies in poultry

           houses. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 57:  146-150.

 

1990b  Legner, E. F., W. D. McKeen & R. W. Warkentin.  1990.  Inoculation of three pteromalid wasp species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

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