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LIFE TABLES & NATURAL ENEMY EVALUATION

(References)

 

(Contacts)

 

 

 

REFERENCES:  [Additional references may be found at  MELVYL Library ]

 

 

Alexandrakis, V. & P. Neuenschwander.  1980.  Le role d' Aphytis chilensis [Hym.: Aphelinidae], parasite d' Aspidiotus merii [Hom.: Diaspididae] sur oliver en Crete.  Entomophaga 25:  61-71.

 

Amidon, E. L.  1966.  MIADS2... An alphanumeric map information assembly and display system for a large computer.  U. S. Dept. Agr. For. Serv. Res. Paper PS@-38.  12 p.

 

Andres, L. A. & R. D. Goeden.  1971.  The biological control of weeds by introduced natural enemies, pp. 143-62.  In:  C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological Control.  Plenum Press, New York.

 

Auer, C.  1968.  Erste Ergebnisse einfacher stochastischer Modelluntersuchungen über die Ursachen der Populationsbewegung des grauen Larchenwicklers Zeiraphera diniana Gm. (= Z. griseana Hb.) im Oberengadin, 1949-66.  Zeit. angew. Ent. 62:  202-35.

 

Bartlett, B. R.  1964.  Patterns in the host-feeding habit of adult parasitic Hymenoptera.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 57:  344-50.

 

Bedard, W. D., P. E. Tilden, D. L. Wood, R. M. Silverstein, R. G. Brownlee & J. O. Rodin.  1969.  Western pine beetle:  Field response to its sex pheromone and synergistic host terpene, myrcene.  Science 164:  1284-85.Berryman, A. A.  1967.  Preservation and augmentation of insect predators of the western pine beetle.  J. Forestry 65:  260-63.

 

Beddington, J. R., C. A. Free & J. H. Lawton.  1978.  Modeling biological control:  on the characteristics of successful natural enemies.  Nature 273:  513-19.

 

Bellows, T. S. & M. H. Birley.  1981.  Estimating developmental and mortality rates and stage recruitment from insect stage frequency data.  Res. Popul. Ecol. 23:  232-44.

 

Bellows, T. S., Jr. & T. W. Fisher, (eds)  1999. Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 1046 p.

 

Bellows, T. S., Jr. & R. G. van Driesche.  1999.  Construction and Analysis of Field Life Tables in the Evaluation of Biological Control agents.  In: Bellows, T. S., Jr. & T. W. Fisher, (eds)  1999. Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

 

Bellows, T. S., Jr., M. Ortiz, J. C. Owens & E. W. Huddleston.  1982a.  A model for analyzing insect stage-frequency data when mortality varies with time.  Res. Popul. Ecol. 24:  142-56.

 

Bellows, T. S., Jr., J. C. Owens & E. W. Huddleston.  1982b.  Predation of range caterpillar, Hemileuca oliviae, at various stages of development by different species of rodents in New Mexico during 1980.  Environ. Ent. 11:  1211-15.

 

Bellows, T. S., Jr., R. G. Van Driesche & J. S. Elkinton.  1989a.  Life tables and parasitism:  estimating parameters in joint host-parasitoid systems.  pp. 70-80.  In:  L. B. McDonald, J. Manly, O. Lockwood & J. Logan (eds.), Estimation and Analysis of Insect Populations.  Springer-Verlag, New York.  492 p.

 

Bellows, T. S., Jr., R. G. Van Driesche & J. S. Elkinton.  1989b.  Extensions to Southwood and Jepson's graphical method of estimating numbers entering a stage for calculating mortality due to parasitism.  Res. Popul. Ecol.  (in press).

 

Berryman, A. A.  1970a.  Procedures employed in sampling the populations of insect predators attacking developing broods of the western pine beetle, p. 66-74.  In:  R. W. Stark & D. L. Dahlsten (eds.), Studies on the Population Dynamics of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicornis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  Univ. Calif., Div. Agr. Sci.

 

Berryman, A. A.  1970b.  Evaluation of insect predators of the western pine beetle, p. 102-12.  In:  R. W. Stark & D. L. Dahlsten (eds.), Studies on the Population Dynamics of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicornis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  Univ. Calif., Div. Agr. Sci.

 

Berryman, A. A., C. J. DeMars, Jr., & R. W. Stark.  1970.  the development of sampling methods for "within-tree" populations of the western pine beetle, p. 33-36.  In:  R. W. Stark & D. L. Dahlsten (eds.), Studies on the Population Dynamics of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicornis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  Univ. Calif., Div. Agr. Sci.

 

Birley, M.  1977.  The estimation of insect density and instar survivorship functions from census data.  J. Anim. Ecol. 46:  497-510.

 

Blower, S. M. & J. Roughgarden.  1989.  Parasites detect host spatial pattern and density:  a field experimental analysis.  Oecologia 78: 138-41.

 

Brodeur, J. & J. N. McNeil.  1989.  Seasonal microhabitat selection by an endoparasitoid through adaptive modification of host behavior.  Science 244:  266-28.

 

Buckner, C. H.  1969.  The common shrew (Sorex araneus) as a predator of the winter moth (Operophtera brumata) near Oxford, England.  Canad. Ent. 101:  370-75.

Bulmer, M. G.  1975.  The statistical analysis of density dependence.  Biometrics 31:  901-11.

 

Burnett, T. A.  1958.  A model of host-parasite interaction.  Proc. X Intern. Cong. Ent., Montreal (1956)2:  679-86.

 

Campbell, A. & M. Mackauer.  1975.  The effect of parasitism by Aphidius smithi (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) on reproduction and population growth of the pea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae).  Canad. Ent. 107:  919-26.

 

Campbell, R. W., T. R. Torgensen & R. C. Beckwith.  1982.  Disappearing pupae:  A source of possible error in estimating population density.  Environ. Ent. 11:  105-06.

 

Carey, J. R.  1989.  The multiple decrement life table:  a unifying framework for cause-of-death analysis in ecology.  Oecologia 78:  131-37.

 

Carter, N., D. P. Aikman & A. F. G. Dixon.  1978.  An appraisal of Hughes' time-specific life table analysis for determining aphid reproductive and mortality rates.  J. Anim. Ecol. 47:  677-87.

 

Caylor, J. A. & G. A. Thorley.  1970.  Sequential aerial photography as an aid in the evaluation of bark beetle population trends in west-side Sierra forests, p. 8-32.  In:  R. W. Stark & D. L. Dahlsten (eds.), Studies on the Population Dynamics of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicornis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  Univ. Calif., Div. Agr. Sci.

 

Chua, T. H. & V. A. Dyck.  1982.  Assessment of Pseudogonatopus flavifemur E. & H. (Dyrinidae: Hymenoptera) as a biocontrol agent of the rice brown planthopper.  Proc. Intl. Conf. Plant Protect.  Tropics.  p. 253-65.

 

Collins, M. D., S. A. Ward & A. F. G. Dixon.  1981.  Handling time and the functional response of Aphelinus thompsoni, a predator and parasite of the aphid Drepanosyphum plantanoides.  J. Anim. Ecol. 50:  479-87.

 

Dahlsten, D. L. & R. W. Bushing.  1970.  Insect parasites of the western pine beetle, p. 113-18.  In:  R. W. Stark & D. L. Dahlsten (eds.), Studies on the Population Dynamics of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicornis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  Univ. Calif., Div. Agr. Sci.

 

DeBach, P.  1943.  The importance of host-feeding by adult parasites in the reduction of host populations.  J. Econ. Ent. 36:  647-58.

 

DeBach, P. & H. S. Smith.  1941a.  Are population oscillations inherent in the host-parasite relation?  Ecology 22:  363-69.

 

DeBach, P. & H. S. Smith.  1941b.  The effect of host density on the rate of reproduction of entomophagous parasites.  J. Econ. Ent. 34:  741-45.

 

Deevey, E. S.  1947.  Life tables for natural populations of animals.  Quart. Rev. Biol. 22:  283-314.

 

Deming, W. E.  1943.  Statistical adjustment of data.  John Wiley, New York.

 

Dolph, R. E. & J. F. Wear.  1963.  A survey of western pine beetle damage on the Fremont National Forest using color photographs.  U. S. Dept. Agr. For. Serv. Pac. NW Region Rept.  18 p.

 

Dowell, R. B., G. E. Fitzpatrick & J. A. Reinert.  1979.  Biological control of citrus blackfly in southern Florida.  Environ. Ent. 8:  595-97.

 

Drea, J. J.  1968.  Castration of male alfalfa weevils by Microctonus spp.  J. Econ. Ent. 61:  1291-95.

 

Dudley, C. O.  1969.  A sampling design for the egg and first instar larval populations of the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicornis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in ponderosa pine.  Univ. Calif. M.S. Thesis.  115 p.

 

Elkinton, J. S., R. G. Van Driesche & T. S. Bellows, Jr.  1990a.  Time-specific estimates of mortality in insect populations.  J. Econ. Ent. 83:  (in press)

 

Elkinton, J. S., J P. Buonaccorsi, T. S. Bellows, Jr. & R. G. Van Driesche.  1990b.  The marginal probability of dying, k-values and percentage mortality in life tables.  J. Econ. Ent. 83:  (in press).

 

Embree, D. G.  1965.  The population dynamics of the winter moth in Nova Scotia, 1954-1962.  Mem. Ent. Soc. Canad. 46.  57 p.

 

Embree, D. G.  1966.  The role of introduced parasites in the control of the winter moth in Nova Scotia.  Canad. Ent. 98:  1159-68.

 

Embree, D. G. & I. S. Otvos.  1984.  Operophtera brumata (L.) winter moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), pp. 353-57.  In:  J. S. Kelleher & M. A. Hulme (eds.), Biological Control Programmes Against Insects and Weeds in Canada 1969-1980.  Commonw. Agric. Bur., Slough, England.

 

Frank, J. H.  1967.  The effect of pupal predators on a population of winter moth Operophtera brumata (L.).  J. Anim. Ecol. 36:  611-21.

 

Frick, K. E., G. G. Hartley & E. G. King.  1983.  Large scale production of Bactra verutana (Lep.: Tortricidae) for the biological control of nutsedge.  Entomophaga 28:  107-16.

 

Gaston, K. J. & J. H. Lawton.  1987.  A test of statistical techniques for detecting density dependence in sequential censuses of animal populations.  Oecologia 74:  404-410.

 

Geier, P. W.  1966.  Management in insect pests.  Ann. Rev. Ent. 11:  471-90.

 

George, F. H.  1965.  Cybernetics and Biology.  University Reviews in Biology.  W. H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco.  130 p.

 

Giese, R. L.  1966.  From cradle to computer-- the Columbian timber beetle.  Proc. North Cent. Br., Ent. Soc. Amer. 21:  85-92.

 

Godwin, P. A. & T. M. O'Dell.  1981.  Intensive laboratory and field evaluations of individual species:  Blepharipa pratensis (Meigen) (Diptera: Tachinidae), pp. 375-94.  In:  C. D. Doane & M. L. McManus (eds.), The Gypsy Moth:  Research Toward Integrated Pest Management.  U. S. For. Serv. Tech. Bull. 1584.

 

Godwin, P. A. & K. S. Shields.  1984.  Effects of Blepharipa pratensis [Dip.: Tachinidae] on the pathogenicity of nucleopolyhedrosis virus in stage V of Lymantria dispar [Lep.: Lymantriidae].  Entomophaga 29:  381-86.

 

Gould, J. R., J. S. Elkinton & W. E. Wallner.  1990a.  Density-dependent suppression of experimentally created gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), populations by natural enemies.  J. Anim. Ecol. 59:  (in press).

 

Gould, J. R., J. S. Elkinton & R. G. Van Driesche.  1990b.  Assessment of potential methods of measuring parasitism by Brachymeria intermedia (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) of pupae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).  J. Econ. Entomol. 83: (in press).

 

Griffiths, K. J. & C. S. Holling.  1969.  A competition submodel for parasites and predators.  Canad. Ent. 101:  785-818.

 

Hagvar, E. B. & T. Hofsvang.  1986.  Parasitism by Ephedrus cerasicola (Hym.: Aphidiidae) developing in different stages of Myzus persicae (Hom.: Aphididae).  Entomophaga 31:  337-46.

 

Hall, R. C.  1958.  Environmental factors associated with outbreaks by the western pine beetle and the California five-spined engraver beetle in California.  Proc. X Intern. Congr. Ent., Montreal (1956) 4:  341-47.

 

Hammond, W. N. O., P. Neuenschwander & H. R. Herren.  1987.  Impact of the exotic parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi on cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) populations.  Insect Sci. Appl. 8:  887-91.

 

Harcourt, D. G., J. C. Guppy & M. R. Binns.  1984.  Analysis of numerical change in subeconomic populations of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), in eastern Ontario.  Environ. Ent. 13:  1627-33.

 

Harris, P.  1974.  The impact of the cinnabar moth on ragwort in eastern and western Canada and its implication for biological control strategy.  Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. Trinidad, Misc. Publ. 8:  119-23.

 

Harris, V. E. & J. W. Todd.  1982.  Longevity and reproduction of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula, as affected by parasitization by Trichopoda pennipes.  Entomol. Exp. Appl. 31:  409-12.

 

Hassell, M. P.  1966.  Evaluation of parasite and predator responses.  J. Anim. Ecol. 35:  65-75.

 

Hassell, M. P.  1968.  The behavioural response of a tachinid fly (Cyzenis albicans (Fall.)) to its host, the winter moth (Operophtera brumata (L.)).  J. Anim. Ecol. 37:  627-39.

 

Hassell, M. P.  1969a.  A study of the mortality factors operating upon Cyzenis albicans (Fall.) a tachinid parasite of the winter moth (Operophtera brumata (L.)).  J. Anim. Ecol. 38:  329-39.

 

Hassell, M. P.  1969b.  A population model for the interaction between Cyzenis albicans (Fall.) (Tachinidae) and Operophtera brumata (L.) (Geometridae) at Wytham, Berkshire.  J. Anim. Ecol. 38:  567-76.

 

Hassell, M. P.  1970.  Mutual interference between searching insect parasites.  J. Anim. Ecol. 39:  473-86.

 

Hassell, M. P.  1980.  Foraging strategies, population models and biological control:  a case study.  J. Anim. Ecol. 49:  603-28.

 

Hassell, M. P.  1984.  Parasitism in patchy environments:  inverse density dependence can be stabilizing.  IMA J. Math. Appl. Med. Biol. 1:  123-33.

 

Hassell, M. P.  1985a.  Patterns of parasitism by insect parasitoids in patchy environments.  Ecol. Ent. 7:  365-77.

 

Hassell, M. P.  1985b.  Insect natural enemies as regulating factors.  J. Anim. Ecol. 54:  323-34.

 

Hassell, M. P.  1987.  Detecting regulation in patchily distributed animal populations.  J. Anim. Ecol. 56:  705-13.

 

Hassell, M. P. & H. N. Comins.  1978.  Sigmoid functional response and population stability.  Theor. Popul. Biol. 14:  62-67.

 

Hassell, M. P. & C. B. Huffaker.  1969.  The appraisal of delayed and direct density-dependence.  Canad. Ent. 101:  353-61.

 

Hassell, M. P. & G. C. Varley.  1969.  New inductive population model and its bearing on biological control.  Nature 223:  1133-37.

 

Hassell, M. P. & R. M. May.  1973.  Stability in insect host-parasite models.  J. Anim. Ecol. 42:  693-726.

 

Hassell, M. P. & R. M. May.  1974.  Aggregation of predators and insect parasites and its affects on stability.  J. Anim. Ecol. 43:  567-94.

 

Hassell, M. P., J. H. Lawton & J. R. beddington.  1977.  Sigmoid functional responses by invertebrate predators and parasitoids.  J. Anim. Ecol. 46:  249-62.

 

Hassell, M. P., C. M. Lessells & G. C. McGavin.  1985.  Inverse density dependent parasitism in a patchy environment:  a laboratory system.  Ecol. Ent. 10:  393-402.

 

Hassell, M. P., T. R. E. Southwood & P. M. Reader.  1987.  The dynamics of the viburnim whitefly (Aleurotrachelus jelinekii):  A case study of population regulation.  J. Anim. Ecol. 56:  283-300.

 

Heads, P. A. & J. H. Lawton.  1983.  Studies on the natural enemy complex of the holly leaf-miner:  the effects of scale on the detection of aggregative responses and the implication for biological control.  Oikos 40:  267-76.

 

Hill, M. G.  1988.  Analysis of the biological control of Mythimna separate (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by Apanteles ruficrus (Braconidae: Hymenoptera) in New Zealand.  J. Appl. Ecol. 25:  197-208.

 

Holling, C. S.  1959.  Components of predation as revealed by a study of small mammal predation of the European pine sawfly.  Canad. Ent. 91:  239-320.

 

Holling, C. S.  1966a.  The strategy of building models of complex ecological systems.  Chap. 8.  In:  K. E. F. Watt (ed.), Systems Analysis in Ecology.  Academic Press, New York.  276 p.

 

Holling, C. S.  1966b.  The functional response of invertebrate predators to prey density.  Mem. Ent. Soc. Canad. 48:  1-86.

 

Huffaker, C. B.  1953.  Quantitative studies on the biological control of St. John's wort (Klamath weed) in California.  Proc. 7th Pac. Sci. Congr. 4:  303-13.

 

Huffaker, C. B. & C. E. Kennett.  1966.  Studies of two parasites of olive scale, Parlatoria oleae (Colvee).  IV.  Biological control of Parlatoria oleae (Colvee) through the compensatory action of two introduced parasites.  Hilgardia 37:  283-35.

 

Hughes, R. D.  1962.  A method for estimating the effects of mortality on aphid populations.  J. Anim. Ecol. 31:  389-96.

 

Hughes, R. D.  1963.  Population dynamics of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.).  J. Anim. Ecol. 32:  393-424.

 

Hutchison, W. D. & D. B. Hogg.  1984.  Demographic statistics for the pea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Wisconsin and a comparison with other populations.  Environ. Ent. 13:  1173-81.

 

Hutchison, W. D. & D. B. Hogg.  1985.  Time-specific life tables for the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), on alfalfa.  Res. Popul. Ecol. 27:  231-53.

 

Jervis, M. A. & N. A. C. Kidd.  1986.  Host-feeding in hymenopteran parasitoids.  Biol. Rev. 61:  395-434.

 

Jones, R. E.  1987.  Ants, parasitoids and the cabbage butterfly Pieris rapae.  J. Anim. Ecol. 56:  739-749.

 

Julien, M. H. & A. S. Bourne.  1988.  Effects of leaf-feeding by larvae of the moth Samea multiplicalis Guen. (Lep., Pyralidae) on the floating weed Salvinia molesta.  J. Appl. Ent. 106:  518-26.

 

Langley, P. G.  1959.  Aerial photography as an aid in insect control in western pine and mixed conifer forests.  J. For. 57:  169-72.

 

1977  Legner, E. F.  1977.  Temperature, humidity and depth of habitat influencing host destruction and fecundity of muscoid fly parasites. 

           Entomophaga 22(2):  199-206.

 

1979  Legner, E. F.  1979.  The relationship between host destruction and parasite reproductive potential in Muscidifurax raptor, M. zaraptor,

           and Spalangia endius [Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae].  Entomophaga 24(2):  145-152.

 

1970  Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1970.  Dynamics of Hippelates eye gnat breeding in the Southwest.  Calif. Agric. 24(5):  1, 4-6.

 

1987  Legner, E. F. & R. D. Goeden.  1987.  Larval parasitism of Rhagoletis completa (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Juglans microcarpa

           (Juglandaceae) in western Texas and southeastern New Mexico.  Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 89(4):  739-743.

 

1992  Legner, E. F. & G. Gordh.  1992.  Lower navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) population densities following establishment of

           Goniozus legneri (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in California.  J. Econ. Ent. 85(6):  2153-60.

 

1973   Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1973.  Influence of Tilapia mossambica (Peters), T. zillii (Gervais) (Cichlidae) and Mollienesia latipinna

           LeSueur (Poeciliidae) on pond populations of Culex mosquitoes and chironomid midges.  J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 33(3):  354-364.

 

1981  Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1981.  Pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), suppression with

           Gossyplure, a pyrethroid, and parasite releases.  Canad. Entomol. 113:  355-357.

 

1983  Legner, E. F. & F. W. Pelsue, Jr.  1983.  Contemporary appraisal of the population dynamics of introduced cichlid fish in south

            California.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 51:  38-39.

 

1983   Legner, E. F. & A. Silveira-Guido.  1983.  Establishment of Goniozus emigratus and Goniozus legneri [Hym: Bethylidae] on navel

           orangeworm, Amyelois transitella [Lep: Phycitidae] in California and biological control potential.  Entomophaga 28(2):  97-106.

 

1983  Legner, E. F. & R. W. Warkentin.  1983.  Questions concerning the dynamics of Onthophagus gazella (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) with

           symbovine flies in the lower Colorado Desert of California.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 51:  99-101.

 

1975  Legner, E. F., R. A. Medved & G. C. McFarland.  1975.  Population density of chironomid midge larvae in relation to position

           downstream in paved channels.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 43:  107-109.

 

1980  Legner, E. F., D. J. Greathead & I. Moore.  1980.  Population density fluctuations of predatory and scavenger arthropods in

           accumulating bovine excrement of three age classes in equatorial East Africa. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 5:  23-44.

 

Liu, Shu-sheng & R. D. Hughes.  1984.  Effects of host age at parasitization by Aphidius sonchi on the development, survival and reproduction of the sowthistle aphid, Hyperomyzus lactucae.  Ent. Expt. Appl. 36:  239-46.

 

Loan, C. C. & F. G. Holdaway.  1961.  Microctonus aethiops (Nees) and Perilitis rutilus (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), European parasites of Sitona weevils (Coleop.: Curculionidae).  Entomophaga 19:  7-12.

 

Loan, C. C. & D. C. Lloyd.  1974.  Description and field biology of Microtonus hyperodae Loan, n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Euphorinae), a parasite of Hyperodes bonariensis in South America (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Entomophaga 19:  71-12.

 

Lopez, E. R. & R. G. Van Driesche.  1989.  Direct measurement of host and parasitoid recruitment for assessment of total losses due to parasitism in a continuously breeding species, the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).  Bull. Ent. Res. 79:  47-59.

 

Luck, R. F., M. Shepard & P. E. Kenmore.  1988.  Experimental methods for evaluating arthropod natural enemies.  Ann. Rev. Ent. 33:  367-91.

 

Margalef, R.  1968.  Perspectives in Ecological Theory.  Univ. Chicago Press.  111 p.

 

May, R. M.  1978.  Host-parasitoid systems in patchy environments:  a phenomenological model.  J. Anim. Ecol. 47:  833-44.

 

McDonald, L. B., J. Manly, S. Lockwood & J. Logan.  1989.  Estimation and analysis of insect populations.  Springer-Verlag, New York.  492 p.

 

McEvoy, P. B., C. S. Cox, R. R. James & N. T. Rudd.  1990a.  Ecological mechanisms underlying successful biological weed control:  field experiments with ragwort Senecio jacobaea.  Proc. 7th Intl. Symp. Biol. Contr. Weeds, 6-11 Mar 1988, Rome, Italy.  1st Sper. Patol. Veg. (MPAS-P), 1988.

 

McEvoy, P. B., J. van Sickle, C. S. Cox & N. T. Rudd.  1990b.  Ecological mechanisms underlying successful biological control of ragwort:  analysis of biotic interactions in the field using life table response experiments.  Ecology (In press).

 

McQuire, M. R. & J. E. Henry.  1989.  Production and partial characterization of monoclonal antibodies for detection of entomopoxvirus from Melanoplus sanguinipes.  Ent. Exp. Appl. 51:  21-28.

 

Miller, C. A.  1954.  A technique for assessing spruce budworm larval mortality caused by parasites.  Canad. J. Zool. 33:  5-17.

 

Miller, J. M. & F. P. Keen.  1960.  Biology and control of the western pine beetle.  U. S. Dept. Agr. For. Serv. Misc. Publ. 800.  381 p.

 

Moore, J.  1983.  Responses of an avian predator and its isopod prey to an acanthocephalan parasite.  Ecology 64:  1000-15.

 

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