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In The Western United States



          California having first led the nation, and the world, in biological control projects with imported natural enemies, also early realized the importance of native species of natural enemies that were important in the natural regulation of many potential pest species. Also, because of the diverse cropping systems found in California, there have been many different kinds of natural enemy species investigated on an array of hosts in many crops and animal industry. Although classical biological control of pests of medical and veterinary importance was first attempted on a broad scale in California, the value of natural enemies already present in the environment was quickly appreciated. Other states in the western United States, because of low population density or severe climates, have proportionally devoted little attention to native natural controls. In recent years there has been some activity in Oregon and Utah, and problems with insecticide resistance are causing researchers in Arizona to begin to focus attention on naturally occurring controls. Some of the more extensive work on natural biological control in the western United States may be found in the references.


    [Please refer also to Selected Reviews  &  Detailed Research ]

REFERENCES:  [Additional references may be found at  MELVYL Library  & <pooled.htm>]

Aldrich, J. M. 1912. Note on Theronia fulvescens. J. Econ. Ent. 5: 87-8.

Allen, W. W. 1958. The biology of Apanteles medicaginis Muesebeck. Hilgardia 27: 515-41.

Allen, W. W. & R. F. Smith. 1958. Some factors influencing the efficiency of Apanteles medicaginis Muesebeck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a parasite of alfalfa caterpillar, Colias philodice eurytheme Boisduval. Hilgardia 28: 1-42.

Anderson, J. R., J. O. Washburn & D. E. Egerter. 1986a. Life cycle of the pathogen Lambornella clarki and its impact on Aedes sierrensis. Univ. of Calif. Mosq. Control Res., Ann. Rept. 1986. p. 10-21.

Anderson, J. R., J. O. Washburn & M. E. Gross. 1986b. Mass production, storage and field release of Lambornella clarki, a pathogen of Aedes sierrensis. Univ. of Calif. Mosq. Control Res., Ann. Rept. 1986. p. 12-22.

Axelrod, D. I. 1958. Evolution of Madro Tertiary Geoflora. Bat. Rev. 24: 433-509.

Ayre, G. L. & D. E. Hitchon. 1968. The predation of tent caterpillars, Malacosoma americana (Lep.: Lasiocampidae) by ants. Canad. Ent. 100: 823-26.

Balch, R. E. 1960. The approach to biological control in forest entomology. Canad. Ent. 92: 297-310.

Bartlett, B. & J. C. Ortega. 1952. Relation between natural enemies and DDT-induced increases in frosted scales and other pests of walnuts. J. Econ. Ent. 45: 783-84.

Barr, W. F. 1953. Orthezia annae Cockerell found in Idaho. Pan. Pac. Ent. 29: 210.

Bellows, T. S., Jr. & T. W. Fisher, (eds) 1999. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  1046 p.

Bentley, J. R. 1967. Conversion of chaparral areas to grassland: Techniques used in California. U. S. Dept. Agr. Handbk. No. 328. 35 p.

Berryman, A. A. 1966. Studies on the behavior and development of Enoclerus lecontei (Wolcott), a predator of

the western pine beetle. Canad. Ent. 98: 519-26.

Berryman, A. A. 1967. Preservation and augmentation of insect predators of the western pine beetle. J. Forestry (1967): 260-62.

Berryman, A. A. 1968. Development of sampling techniques and life tables for the fir engraver Scolytus ventralis. Canad. Ent. 100: 1138-47.

Berryman, A. A., I. S. Otvos, D. L. Dahlsten & R. W. Stark. 1970. Interactions and effects of the insectan parasites and predator and avian predator complex. In: R. W. Stark & D. L. Dahlsten (eds.), Studies on the Population Dynamics of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicornis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Univ. Calif., Div. Agr. Sci.

Braun, A. F. 1963. The genus Bucculatrix in American north of Mexico (Microlepidoptera). Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc. 18: 207 p.

Bushing, R. W. 1965. A synoptic list of the parasites of Scolytidae in North America north of Mexico. Canad. Ent. 97: 449-92.

Butler, G. D., Jr. 1966. Insect predators of bollworm eggs. Prog. Agr. Arizona 18: 26-7.

Calvert, D. J. 1970. Host specificity of Monoctonus paulensis a parasite of certain dactynotine aphids. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Calif., Berkeley.

Campbell, R. 1926. The pea aphid in California. J. Agr. Res. 32: 816-81.

Campbell, R. & W. M. Davidson. 1924. Notes on aphidophagous Syrphidae of southern California. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci. 23: 3-9.

Clancy, D. W. 1946. Natural enemies of some Arizona cotton insects. J. Econ. Ent. 39: 326-28.

Clark, E. C. 1955. Observations on the ecology of a polyhedrosis of the Great Basin tent caterpillar, Malacosoma fragilis. Ecology 36: 373-76.

Clark, E. C. 1958. Ecology of the polyhedrosis of tent caterpillars. Ecology 39: 132-39.

Clausen, C. P. 1961. Biological control of the western grape leaf skeletonizer (Harrisina brillans B. and McD.) in California. Hilgardia 31: 613-38.

Dahlsten, D. L. 1967. Preliminary life tables for pine sawflies in the Neodiprion fulviceps complex (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae). Ecology 48: 275-389.

Dahlsten, D. L. 1970. Parasites, Predators and associated organisms reared from western pine beetle infested bark samples. In: R. W. Stark & D. L. Dahlsten (eds.), Studies on the Population Dynamics of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicornis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Univ. Calif., Div. Agr. Sci.

Dahlsten, D. L. & R. W. Bushing. 1970. Insect parasites of the western pine beetle. In: R. W. Stark & D. L. Dahlsten (eds.), Studies on the Population Dynamics of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicornis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Univ. Calif., Div. Agr. Sci.

Dahlsten, D. L. & G. M. Thomas. 1969. A nucleopolyhedrosis virus in populations of the douglas-fir tussock moth (Hemerocampa pseudotsugata), in California. J. Invert. Path. 13: 264-71.

Dahlsten, D. L., R. Garcia, J. E. Prine & R. Hunt. 1969. Insect problems in forest recreation areas. Calif. Agr. 23(7): 4-6.

Dahlsten, D. L., E. A. Cameron & W. A. Copper. 1970. Distribution and parasitization of cocoons of the douglas-fir tussock moth, Hemerocampa pseudotsugata (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae), in an isolated infestation. Canad. Ent. 102: 175-81.

DeBach, P. 1946. An insecticidal check method for measuring the efficacy of entomophagous insects. J. Econ. Ent. 39: 695-97.

DeBach, P. (ed.). 1964. Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Reinhold Publ. Co., New York. 844 p.

DeBach, P. & B. Bartlett. 1951. Effects of insecticides on biological control of insect pests of citrus. J. Econ. Ent. 44: 372-83.

DeBach, P., C. A. Fleschner & E. J. Dietrick. 1949. Population studies of the long tailed mealy bug and its natural enemies on citrus trees in southern California. J. Econ. Ent. 42: 777-82.

DeLeon, D. 1935a. A study of Medetera aldrichii Wh. (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), a predator of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus monticolae Hopk., Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Entomologica Amer. 15: 59-91.

DeLeon, D. 1935b. The biology of Coeloides dendroctoni Cushman (Hymenoptera- Braconidae) an important parasite of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus monticolae Hopk.). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 28: 411-24.

DeMars, C. J., A. A. Berryman, D. L. Dahlsten, I. S. Otvos & R. W. Stark. 1970a. Spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of the western pine beetle, its predators and parasites, and woodpecker activity in infested areas. In: R. W. Stark & D. L. Dahlsten (eds.), Studies on the Population Dynamics of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicornis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Univ. Calif., Div. Agr. Sci.

DeMars, C. J., D. L. Dahlsten & R. W. Stark. 1970b. Survivorship curves for eight generations of the western pine beetle in California, 1962-1965, and a preliminary life table. In: R. W. Stark & D. L. Dahlsten (eds.), Studies on the Population Dynamics of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicornis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Univ. Calif., Div. Agr. Sci.

Dickson, R. C. & E. F. Laird, Jr. 1955. The spotted alfalfa aphid (yellow clover aphid) on alfalfa. Hilgardia 24: 93-118.

Doutt, R. L. 1948. Effect of codling moth sprays on natural control of the Baker mealybug. J. Econ. Ent. 41: 116-17.

Doutt, R. L. 1961. The dimensions of endemism. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 54: 46-53.

Doutt, R. L. 1965. New tactics promise grape leafhopper control. Wines and Vines 46: 28-9.

Doutt, R. L. & K. S. Hagen. 1950. Biological control measures applied against Pseudococcus maritimus on pears. J. Econ. Ent. 43: 94-6.

Doutt, R. L. & J. Nakata. 1965. Overwintering refuge of Anagrus epos (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). J. Econ. Ent. 58: 586.

Doutt, R. L., J. Nakata & F. E. Skinner. 1966. Dispersal of grape leafhopper parasites from a blackberry refuge. Calif. Agr. 20(10): 14-15.

Evenden, J. C. 1926. The pine butterfly, Neophasia menapia Felder. J. Agr. Res. 33: 339-44.

Fillmore, O. O. 1965. The parasitoids of Aroga websteri Clarke (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in southern Idaho. M.S. Thesis, Univ. Idaho, Moscow.

Flaherty, D. L. & C. B. Huffaker. 1970. Biological control of Pacific mites and Willamette mites in San Joaquin Valley vineyards. 1. Role of Metaseiulus occidentalis. Hilgardia.

Flaherty, D. L., C. D. Lynn. F. L. Jensen & D. A. Luvisi. 1969. Ecology and integrated control of spider mites in San Joaquin vineyards. Calif. Agr. 23(4): 11.

Fleschner, C. A. 1958. Field approach to population studies of tetranychid mites on citrus and avocado in California. Proc. 10th Intern. Cong. Ent. Montreal (1956) 2: 669-74.

Fleschner, C. A. 5959. Biological control of insect pests. Science 129: 537-44.

Fleschner, C. A., J. C. Hall & D. W. Ricker. 1955. Natural balance of mite pests in an avocado grove. Calif. Avocado Soc. Yrbk. 39: 155-62.

Gonzalez, D., R. van den Bosch, E. M. Orpahnides, L. H. Dawson & C. White. 1967. Population assessment of cotton bollworm in relation to pest control practices. Calif. Agr. 21(5): 12-14.

Goodarzy, K. & D. W. Davis. 1958. Natural enemies of the spotted alfalfa aphid in Utah. J. Econ. Ent. 51: 612-16.

Greathead, D. J. 1963. A review of insect enemies of Acridoidea. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 114: 451-517.

Hagen, K. S. 1962. Biology and ecology of predaceous Coccinellidae. Ann. Rev. Ent. 7: 289-326.

Hagen, K. S. & E. I. Schlinger. 1960. Imported Indian parasite of pea aphid established in California. Calif. Agr. 14(9): 5-6.

Hagen, K. S. & R. R. Sluss. 1966. Quantity of aphids required for reproduction by Hippodamia spp. in the laboratory, p. 47-59. In: I. Hodek (ed.), Ecology of Aphidophagous Insects. W. Junk, The Hague. 227 (360?)p.

Hagen, K. S. & R. L. Tassan. 1970. The influence of food Wheast and related Saccharomyces fragilis yeast products on the fecundity of Chrysopa carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Canad. Ent. 102: 806-11.

Hagen, K. S. & R. van den Bosch. 1968. Impact of pathogens, parasites and predators on aphids. Ann. Rev. Ent. 13: 325-84.

Hagen, K. S., E. F. Sawall, Jr. & R. L. Tassan. 1970. The use of food sprays to increase effectiveness of entomophagous insects. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. Habitat Managem. 2: Tallahassee, Florida.

Haldane, J. B. S. 1953. Animal populations and their regulation. New Biology 15: 9-24.

Haldane, J. B. S. 1956. The relation between density regulation and natural selection. Proc. Roy. Soc. London (B) 145: 306-08.

Halfhill, J. E. & P. E. Featherston. 1967. Propagation of braconid parasites of the pea aphid. J. Econ. Ent. 60: 1756.

Harper, R. W. 1952. Grasshoppers of economic importance in California. Calif. Dept. Agr. Bull. 41: 153-75.

Harville, J. P. 1955. Ecology and population dynamics of the California oak moth, Phryganidia californica Packard (Lep.: Dioptidae). Micro-entomology 20: 83-166.

Hewitt, G. B. & W. F. Barr. 1967. The banded-wing grasshoppers of Idaho (Orthoptera: Oedipodinae). Univ. Idaho Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. 72. 64 p.

Hopping, G. R. 1947. Notes on the seasonal development of Medetera aldrichii Wheeler (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) as a predator of the Douglas-fir bark beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins. Canad. Ent. 79: 150-53.

Huffaker, C. B. & C. E. Kennett. 1953. Developments toward biological control of cyclamen mite on strawberries. J. Econ. Ent. 44: 519-22.

Huffaker, C. B. & C. E. Kennett. 1956. Experimental studies on predation: Predation and cyclamen-mite populations on strawberries in California. Hilgardia 26: 191-22.

Huffaker, C. B. & C. H. Spitzer, Jr. 1951. Data on the natural control of cyclamen mite on strawberries. J. Econ. Ent. 44: 519-22.

Keen, F. P. 1952. Insect enemies of western forests. U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 273. 280 p.

Kline, L. N. & J. A. Rudinsky. 1964. Predators and parasites of the Douglas-fir beetle: Description and identification of the immature stages. Oregon St. Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 79. 51 p.

Laing, J. E. 1969a. Life history and life table of Metaseiulus occidentalis. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 62: 978-82.

Laing, J. E. 1969b. Life history and life table of Tetranychus urticae Koch. Acarologia 11: 32-42.

Laing, J. E. & C. B. Huffaker. 1969. Comparative studies of predation by Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Metaseiulus occidentalis (Nesbitt) on populations of Tetranychus urticae Koch. Res. Pop. Ecol. 11: 105-26.

Langston, R. L. 1957. A synopsis of hymenopterous parasites of Malacosoma in California. Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent. 14: 1-50.

La Rivers, I. 1945. The wasp Chlorion laeviventris as a natural control of the Mormon cricket. Amer. Midland Nat. 33: 743-63.

La Rivers, I. 1948. A synopsis of Nevada Orthoptera. Amer. Midland Nat. 39: 652-720.

1966  Legner, E. F.  1966.  Parasites of the house fly and other filth-breeding Diptera in southern California.  J. Econ. Entomol. 59(4):  999-1001.


1971  Legner, E. F.  1971.  Some effects of the ambient arthropod complex on the density and potential parasitization of muscoid Diptera in poultry wastes.  J. Econ. Entomol. 64(1):  111-115.


1964   Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1964.  Natural exposure of Hippelates eye gnats to field parasitization and the discovery of one pupal and two larval parasites.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 57(6):  767-769.


1965  Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1965.  Ooencyrtus submetallicus Howard in an extraordinary host-relationship with Hippelates pusio Loew. Canad. Entomol. 97(5):  556-557.


1989  Legner, E. F. & E. J. Dietrick.  1989.  Coexistence of predatory Muscina stabulans and Ophyra aenescens [Dipt.: Muscidae] with dipterous prey in poultry manure.  Entomophaga 34(4):  453-461.


1987  Legner, E. F. & R. D. Goeden.  1987.  Larval parasitism of Rhagoletis completa (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Juglans microcarpa (Juglandaceae) in western Texas and southeastern New Mexico.  Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 89(4):  739-743.       


1970  Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1970.  Worldwide survey and comparison of adult predator and scavenger insect populations associated  with domestic animal manure where livestock is artificially congregated.  Hilgardia 40(9):  225-266.


1971  Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1971.  Distribution and relative abundance of dipterous pupae and their parasitoids in accumulations of  domestic animal manure in the southwestern United States.  Hilgardia 40(14):  505-535.


1967  Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay & E. B. White.  1967.  Activity of parasites from Diptera:  Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Fannia  canicularis and F. femoralis, at sites in the Western Hemisphere.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 60(2):  462-468.


1973  Legner, E. F., W. R. Bowen, W. D. McKeen, W. F. Rooney & R. F. Hobza.  1973.  Inverse relationships between mass of breeding habitat and synanthropic fly emergence and the measurement of population densities with sticky tapes in California inland valleys.  Environ.  Entomol. 2(2):  199-205.


1975  Legner, E. F., G. S. Olton, R. E. Eastwood & E. J. Dietrick.  1975.  Seasonal density, distribution and interactions of predatory and  scavenger arthropods in accumulating poultry wastes in coastal and interior southern California.  Entomophaga 20(3):  269-283.


Lingren, P. D. & R. L. Ridgway. 1967. Toxicity of five insecticides to several insect predators. J. Econ. Ent. 60: 1639-41.

Lingren, P. D., R. L. Ridgway, C. B. Cowan, Jr., J. W. Davis & W. C. Watkins. 1968. Biological control of bollworm and tobacco budworm by arthropod predators affected by insecticides. J. Econ. Ent. 61: 1521-25.

Love, M. 1970. The rangelands of the western U. S. Sci. Amer. 222: 88-96.

Luck, R. F. & D. L. Dahlsten. 1967. Douglas-fir tussock moth (Hemerocampa pseudotsugata) egg mass distribution on white fir in northeastern California. Canad. Ent. 99: 1193-1203.

Madsen, H. F., P. H. Westigard & R. L. Sisson. 1963. Observations on the natural control of the pear psylla, Psylla pyricola Forster, in California. Canad. Ent. 95: 837-44.

Madsen, H. F. & T. T. Y. Wong. 1964. Effects of predators on control of pear psylla. Calif. Agr. 18(2): 2-3.

Mandeville, J. D. 1988. Host preference, fecundity, and longevity of Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan and Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) influenced by Musca domestica L. and Fannia canicularis (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), with notes on parasitism by Spalangia spp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in the field. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of California, Riverside.

Mandeville, J. D. & B. A. Mullens. 1990a. Host preference and learning in Muscidifurax zaraptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 83: 1203-09.

Mandeville, J. D. & B. A. Mullens. 1990b. Host species and size as factors in parasitism by Muscidifurax spp. and Spalangia spp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in the field. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 83: 1074-83.

Mandeville, J. D., B. A. Mullens & J. A. Meyer. 1988. Rearing and host age suitability of Fannia canicularis (L.) for parasitization by Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan & Legner. Canad. Ent. 120: 153-59.

Mandeville, J. D., B. A. Mullens & D. S. Yu. 1990. Impact of selected pesticides on field population dynamics of parasitic Hymenoptera (Pteromalidae) in caged-layer poultry manure in southern California, USA. Med. Vet. Ent. 4: 261-68.

Margalef, R. 1968. Perspectives in Ecological Theory. Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 111 p.

McAlpine, J. F. & J. E. H. Martin. 1969. Canadian amber-- a paleontological treasurechest. Canad. Ent. 101: 819-38.

McKenzie, H. L. 1967. Mealybugs of California. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles. 525 p.

McMullen, R. D. 1967a. A field study of diapause in Coccinella novemnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Canad. Ent. 99: 42-9.

McMullen, R. D. 1967b. The effects of photoperiod, temperature and food supply on rate of development and diapause in Coccinella novemnotata. Canad. Ent. 99: 578-86.

McMullen, R. D. & C. Jong. 1967a. The influence of three insecticides on predation of the pear psylla, Psylla pyricola. Canad. Ent. 99: 1292-97.

McMullen, R. D. & C. Jong. 1967b. New records and discussion of predators of the pear psylla, Psylla pyricola Forster, in British Columbia. J. Ent. Soc. Brit. Colum. 64: 35-40.

McMurtry, J. A. & G. T. Scriven. 1968. Studies on predator-prey interactions between Amblyseius hibisci and Oligonychus punicae: Effects of host-plant conditioning and limited quantities of an alternate food. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 61: 393-97.

Mullens, B. A., J. A. Meyer & J. D. Mandeville. 1986. Seasonal and diel activity of filth fly parasites (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in caged-layer poultry manure in southern California. Environ. Ent. 15: 56-60.

Mullens, B. A. 1990. Entomophthora muscae (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) as a pathogen of filth flies, p. 231-45. In: D. A. Rutz & R. S. Patterson (eds.), Biocontrol of Arthropods Affecting Livestock and Poultry. Westview Press, San Francisco.

Mullens, B. A., J. L. Rodriguez & J. A. Meyer. 1987a. An epizootiological study of Entomophthora muscae in muscoid fly populations on southern California poultry facilities, with emphasis on Musca domestica. Hilgardia 55(3): 41 p.

Mullens, B. A., J. A. Meyer & T. L. Cyr. 1987b. Infectivity of insect parasitic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, Heterorhbditidae) for larvae of some manure-breeding flies. Environ. Ent. 16: 769-73.

Mullens, B. A., J. A. Meyer & R. Georgis. 1987c. Field tests of insect parasitic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) against larvae of manure-breeding flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on caged layer poultry facilities. J. Econ. Ent. 80: 438-42.

McMurtry, J. A. & H. G. Johnson. 1966. An ecological study of the spider mite, Oligonychus punicae (Hirst) and its natural enemies. Hilgardia 37: 363-402.

McMurtry, J. A., H. G. Johnson & G. T. Scriven. 1969. Experiments to determine effects of mass releases of Stethorus picipes on the level of infestation of the avocado brown mite. J. Econ. Ent. 26: 1216-21.

Michelbacher, A. E. 1954. Natural control of insect pests. J. Econ. Ent. 47: 192-94.

Michelbacher, A. E. & S. Hitchcock. 1956. Calico scale on walnuts. Calif. Agr. 10(9): 6.

Michelbacher, A. E. & R. F. Smith. 1943. Some natural factors limiting the abundance of the alfalfa butterfly. Hilgardia 15: 369-97.

Michelbacher, A. E., C. Swanson & W. W. Middlekauff. 1946. Increase in the population of Lecanium pruinosum on English walnuts following applications of DDT sprays. J. Econ. Ent. 39: 812-13.

Middlekauff, W. W. 1958. Biology and ecology of several species of California rangeland grasshopper. Pan Pac. Ent. 34: 1-11.

Middlekauff, W. W. 1959. Some biological observations on Sarcophaga faleiformis, a parasite of grasshoppers. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 52: 724-28.

Miller, J. M. & F. P. Keen. 1960. Biology and control of the western pine beetle. U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 800. 381 p.

Nickel, J., L., J. T. Shimizu & T. T. Y. Wong. 1965. Studies on natural control of pear psylla in California. J. Econ. Ent. 58: 970-76.

Nicholson, A. J. 1954. Compensatory reactions on populations to stresses, and their evolutionary significance. Austr. J. Zool. 2: 1-8.

Nielson, M. W. & W. E. Currie. 1960. Biology of the convergent lady beetle when fed a spotted alfalfa aphid diet. J. Econ. Ent. 58: 257-59.

Opler, P. A. 1970. Biology, ecology and host specificity of leaf eating microlepidoptera associated with Quercus agrifolia. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Calif., Berkeley.

Parker, J. R. & C. Wakeland. 1957. Grasshopper egg pods destroyed by larvae of bee flies, blister beetles and ground beetles. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 1165. 29 p.

Patterson, J. E. 1921. Life history of Recurvaria milleri, the needle miner, in the Yosemite National Park, California. J. Agr. Res. 21: 127-42.

Patterson, J. E. 1929. The pandora moth, a periodic pest of western pine forests. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 137. 20 p.

Person, H. L. 1940. The clerid Thanasimus lecontei (Wolc.) as a factor in the control of the western pine beetle. J. Forestry 38: 390-96.

Pickford, R. & R. W. Reigert. 1964. The fungous disease caused by Entomophthora grylli Fres., and its effects on grasshopper populations in Saskatchewan in 1963. Canad. Ent. 96: 1158-66.

Pickett, A. D. 1959. Utilization of native parasites and predators. J. Econ. Ent. 52: 1103-05.

Reid, R. W. 1963. Biology of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus monticolae Hopkins, in the East Kooteney Region of British Columbia. III. Interaction between the beetle and its host, with emphasis on brood mortality and survival. Canad. Ent. 95: 225-38.

Rejesus, R. S. & R. T. Reynolds. 1970. Impact of the pink bollworm control program upon the cotton leaf perforator-predator-parasite complex in the Imperial Valley, California. (J. ?).

Reynolds, H. T. & V. M. Stern. 1967. Annual report for the National Cotton Council of America. (unpubl.).

Ridgway, R. L. 1969. Control of the bollworm and tobacco budworm through conservation and augmentation of predaceous insects. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. by Habitat Managem. No. 1, Tallahassee, Florida (1969): 127-44.

Ridgway, R. L. & S. L. Jones. 1968. Field-cage releases of Chrysopa carnea for suppression of populations of the bollworm and tobacco budworm on cotton. J. Econ. Ent. 61: 892-98.

Ridgway, R. L. & S. L. Jones. 1969. Inundative releases of Chrysopa carnea for control of Heliothis. J. Econ. Ent. 62: 177-80.

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