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NATURAL ENEMIES IN INTEGRATED CONTROL

(Contacts)

 

 

          Integrated control is a broad concept that often does not include attention to natural enemies. Thus, when natural enemies have become a primary consideration in integrated control practice it is noteworthy of emphasis. It might be said that most biological control invariably involves considerations of genetics, climate, ecology and cultural or chemical practices; therefore it is difficult to define this category exactly. With this in mind, the references include those cases when special attention was paid to natural enemies. Special emphasis is on the earlier publications.  However, effective deployment of essential techniques invariably involves the presence of authorities in the process [Please refer also to bc-26.htm].

 

[Please refer also to Selected Reviews  &  Detailed Research ]

 

REFERENCES:         [Additional references may be found at  MELVYL Library ]

Anonymous. 1974a. Lutte Integree en Vergers, p. 3-7. 5th Symposium. OILB/SROP, Bozen-Bolzano IX. 369 p.

Anonymous. 1974b. Integrated Control in Glasshouses. OILB-SROP/WPRS Bull. 73 p.

Adkisson, P. L. 1973. The principles, strategies and tactics of pest control in cotton, p. 274-83. In: P. W. Geier, L. R. Clark, D. J.

Anderson & H. A. Nix (eds.), Insects: Studies in Population Management. Ecol. Soc. Australia (Mem. 1), Canberra.

Arthur, A. P. 1962. Influence of host tree on abundance of Itoplectis conquisitor (Say) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) a polyphagous parasite of the European pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) (Lepidoptera, Olethreutidae). Canad. Ent. 94: 337-47.

Asquith, D. & P. Colburn. 1971. Integrated pest management in Pennsylvania apple orchards. Bull. Ent. Soc. Amer. 17: 89-91.

Bartlett, B. R. & J. C. Ortega. 1962. Relation between natural enemies and DDT-induced increases in frosted scale and other pests of walnut. J. Econ. Ent. 45: 783-85.

Bellows, T. S., Jr. & T. W. Fisher, (eds) 1999. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  1046 p.

Benassy, C, G. Mathys, G. Neuffer, H. Milaire, H. Bianchi & E. Guignard. 1968. L'utilisation pratique de Prospaltella perniciosi Tow. parasite du pou de San Jose Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comst. Entomophaga Mem. Hors. Ser. 4. 28 p.

Bottrell, D. G. 1973. Development of principles for managing insect populations in the cotton ecosystem: Texas Proc. Beltwide Cotton Conf. Phoenix, Jan, 1973.

Boza Barducci, T. 1969. Ecological consequences of pesticides used for the control of cotton insects in Cañete Valley, Peru, p. 423-38. In: M. T. Farvar & J. P. Milton (eds.), The Careless Technology, Ecology and International Development. The Natural History Press, Garden City, New York.

Bravenboer, L. (ed.). Integrated control in glasshouses. Bull. West. Palearctic Reg. Sect. Int. Organ. Biol. Contr. 1973-1974. 73 p.

Burnett, T. 1949. The effect of temperature on an insect host-parasite population. Ecology 30: 113-34.

Burnett, T. 1967. Aspects of the interaction between a chalcid parasite and its aleyrodid host. Canad. J. Zool. 45: 539-78.

Byerly, T. C. 1973. Towards abundance and good environments. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 217: 238-43.

Callan, E. M. 1969. Ecology and insect colonization for biological control. Proc. Ecol. Soc. Aust. 4: 17-31.

Cate, J. R., D. G. Bottrell & G. L. Teetes. 1973a. Management of the greenbug on grain sorghum. I. Testing foliar treatments of insecticides against greenbugs and corn leaf aphids. J. Econ. Ent. 66: 945-51.

Cate, J. R., D. G. Bottrell & G. L. Teetes. 1973b. Management of the greenbug on grain sorghum. II. Testing seed and soil treatments for greenbug and corn leaf aphid control. J. Econ. Ent. 66: 952-59.

Cate, J. R., D. G. Bottrell & G. L. Teetes. 1976. Management of the greenbug on grain sorghum. III. Integration of insecticides and biological control. Entomophaga (1976).

Chabora, P. C. 1970. Studies of parasite-host interaction. II. Reproductive and developmental response of the parasite Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to strains of the house fly host Musca domestica. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 63: 1632-36.

Chiri, A. A. & E. F. Legner. 1982. Host-searching kairomones alter behavior of Chelonus sp. nr. curvimaculatus, a hymenopterous parasite of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders). Environ. Ent. 11: 452-55.

Chiri, A. A. & E. F. Legner. 1983. Field applications of host-searching kairomones to enhance parasitization of the pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). J. Econ. Ent. 76: 254-255.

Chiri, A. A. & E. F. Legner. 1986. Response of three Chelonus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) species to kairomones in scales of six Lepidoptera. Canad. Ent. 118: 329-33.

Clancy, D. W. 1946. The insect parasites of the

Chrysopidae (Neuroptera). Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent. 7: 403-96.

Clausen, C. P. 1956. Biological control of insect pests in the continental United States. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 1139. 151 p.

Clausen, C. P. 1958. Biological control of insect pests. Ann. Rev. Ent. 33: 291-10.

Cloud, P. (ed.). 1969. Resources and Man. Freeman, San Francisco. 259 p.

Corbet, P. S. 1970. Pest management: objectives and prospects on a global scale, p. 191-204. In: R. L. Rabb & F. E. Guthrie (eds.), Concepts of Pest Management. North Carolina St. Univ., Raleigh.

Corbet, P. S. 1973a. Application, feasibility and prospects of integrated control, p. 185-95. In: P. W. Geier, L. R. Clark, D. J. Anderson & H. A. Nix (eds.), Insects: Studies in Population Management. Ecol. Soc. Australia (Mem. 1), Canberra.

Corbet, P. S. 1973b. Habitat manipulation in the control of insect pests in Canada. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. Habitat Managem. 5: 147-71.

Dale, M. B. 1970. Systems analysis and ecology. Ecology 51: 2-16.

DeBach, P. 1965. Some biological and ecological phenomena associated with colonizing entomophagous insects, p. 287-306. In: H. G. Baker & G. L. Stebbins (eds.), The Genetics of Colonizing Species. Academic Press, New York.

DeBach, P. 1966. The competitive displacement and coexistence principles. Ann. Rev. Ent. 11: 183-212.

DeBach, P. 1969. Biological control of diaspine scale insects on citrus in California. Proc. 1st Intern. Citrus Symp., Riverside, Calif. 2: 801-15.

DeBach, P. 1971. The use of imported natural enemies in insect pest management ecology. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. Habitat Managem. 3: 211-33.

DeBach, P. & J. Landi. 1961. The introduced purple scale parasite Aphytis lepidosaphes Compere, and a method of integrating chemical with biological control. Hilgardia 31: 459-97.

DeBach, P., T. W. Fisher & J. Landi. 1955. Some effects of meteorological factors on all stages of Aphytis lingnanensis, a parasite of the California red scale. Ecology 36: 743-53.

Dietrick, E J. & R. van den Bosch. 1953. Further notes on Hypera brunneipennis and its parasite Bathyplectes curculionis. J. Econ. Ent. 46: 1114.

Doutt, R. L. 1954. An evaluation of some natural enemies of the olive scale. J. Econ. Ent. 47: 39-43.

Doutt, R. L. 1964a. The historical development of biological control. In: DeBach, P. (ed.), Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Reinhold, New York. 844 p.

Doutt, R. L. 1964b. Biological characteristics of entomophagous adults. In: DeBach, P. (ed.), Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Reinhold, New York. 844 p.

Doutt, R. L. & R. F. Smith. 1971. The pesticide syndrome-- diagnosis and suggested prophylaxis. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological Control. Plenum Press, New York.

Ehler, L. E., K. G. Eveleens & R. van den Bosch. 1973. An evaluation of some natural enemies of cabbage looper on cotton in California. Environ. Ent. 2: 1009-15.

Ellis, H. E., M. C. Ganyard, Jr., H. M. Singletary & R. L. Robertson. 1972. North Carolina pest management. Second Annual Rept. (1972). Agr. Ext. Serv., North Carolina St. Univ., Raleigh. 67 p.

Eveleens, K. G., R. van den Bosch & L. E. Ehler. 1973. Secondary outbreak induction of beet armyworm by experimental insecticide applications in cotton in California. Environ. Ent. 2: 497-503.

FAO. 1968. Rep. 1st Session FAO Panel Experts Integrated Pest Control. FAO, United Nations, Rome. 19 p.

FAO. 1971. Integrated Pest Control. FAO, United Nations, Rome. 27 p.

Falcon, L. A. & R. F. Smith. 1973. Guidelines for integrated control of cotton insect pests. FAO Publ. AGPP MISC 8. 92 p.

Flaherty, D. L. 1969. Ecosystem trophic complexity and densities of the Willamette mite, Eotetranychus willamettei (Acarina, Tetranychidae). Ecology 50: 911-16.

Flanders, S. E. 1942. Abortive development in parasitic Hymenoptera induced by the food-plant of the insect host. J. Econ. Ent. 35: 834-35.

Flanders, S. E. 1951. The role of the ant in the biological control of homopterous insects. Canad. Ent. 83: 93-8.

Flanders, S. E. 1958. The role of the ant in the biological control of scale insects in California. Proc. 10th Int. Congr. Ent. 4: 579-84.

Flanders, S. E. 1966. The circumstances of species displacement among parasitic Hymenoptera. Canad. Ent. 98: 1009-24.

Geier, P. W. 1970. Temporary suppression, population management, or eradication: how and when to choose, p. 170-89. In: R. L. Rabb & F. E. Guthrie (eds.), Concepts of Pest Management. North Carolina St. Univ., Raleigh.

Gonzalez, R. H. 1973. Integrated control strategies on deciduous fruit trees. FAO Plant Prot. Bull. 21: 56-64.

Gösswald, K. 1951. Die rote Waldameise im dienste der Waldhygiene. Metta Kinau Verlag, Wolfu, Täuber, Lüneberg. 160 p.

Hagen, K. S., E. F. Sawall, Jr. & R. L. Tassan. 1970. The use of food sprays to increase effectiveness of entomophagous insects. Proc. Tall Timber Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. Habitat Managem. 2: 59-82.

Handler, P. 1970. Biology and the Future of Man. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford. 471 p.

Harpaz, I. & D. Rosen. 1971. Development of integrated control programs for crop pests in Israel. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological Control. Plenum Press, New York.

Hauser, W. J., E. F. Legner, R. A. Medved & S. Platt. 1976. Tilapia--a management tool for biological control of aquatic weeds and insects. Bull. Amer. Fisheries Soc. 1: 15-16.

Hauser, W. J., E. F. Legner & F. E. Robinson. 1977. Biological control of aquatic weeds by fish in irrigation channels. Proc. Water Management for Irrigation and Drainage. ASC/Reno, Nevada, Jul. 20-22: pp 139-45.

Hokyo, N. & K. Kiritani. 1966. Oviposition behavior of two egg parasites, Asolcus mitsukurii Ashm. and Telenomus nakagawai Watanabe (Hymenoptera, Proctotrupoidea, Scelionidae). Entomophaga 11: 191-201.

Hoyt, S. C. & L. E. Caltagirone. 1971. The developing programs of integrated control of pests of apples in Washington and peaches in California, p. 395-421. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological Control. Plenum Press, New York.

Huffaker, C. B. 1970. Summary of a pest management conference-- a critique, p. 227-42. In: R. L. Rabb & F. E. Guthrie (eds.), Concepts of Pest Management. North Carolina St. Univ., Raleigh.

Huffaker, C. B. (ed.). 1971. Biological Control. Plenum Press, New York. 511 p.

Huffaker, C. B. 1972. Ecological management of pest systems, p. 313-42. In: J. A. Behnke (ed.), Challenging Biological Problems, Directions Towards Their Solution. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.

Huffaker, C. B. & C. E. Kennett. 1956. Experimental studies on predation: predation and cyclamen-mite populations on strawberries in California. Hilgardia 26: 191-22.

Huffaker, C. B. & C. E. Kennett. 1966. Studies of two parasites of olive scale Parlatoria oleae (Colvée) 4. Biological control of Parlatoria oleae (Colvée) through compensatory action of two introduced parasites. Hilgardia 37: 283-335.

Hussey, N. W. & L. Bravenboer. 1971. Control of pests in glasshouse culture by the introduction of natural enemies, p. 195-216. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological Control. Plenum Press, New York.

Iperti, G. & D. van Waerebeke. 1968. Description, biologie et importance d'une nouvelle espece d'Allantonematidae (Nématoda), parasite des Coccinelles aphidiphages: Parasitylenchus coccinellinae, n. sp. Entomophaga 13: 107-19.

Iperti, G., Y. Laudeho, J. Brun & E. Choppin de Janvry. 1970. The natural enemies of Parlatoria blanchardi Targ. in the palm groves of the Adrar region of Mauritania. III. Introduction, acclimatization and effectiveness of a new predacious coccinellid, Chilocorus bipustulatus L., variety iranensis (var. nov.). Ann. Zool. Ecol. Anim. 2: 617-38.

Kelleher, J. S. 1969. Introduction practices-- past and present. Bull. Ent. Soc. Amer. 15: 235-36.

Kennedy, J. S. 1968. The motivation of integrated control. J. Appl. Ecol. 4: 492-99.

Krebs, C. J. 1972. Ecology. Harper & Row, New York. 694 p.

Lawson, F. R., R. L. Rabb, F. E. Guthrie & T. G. Bowery. 1961. Studies on an integrated control system for horn worms on tobacco. J. Econ. Ent. 54: 93-7.

Lebedev, G. I. 1970. Colloquium franco-sovietique sur l'utilisation des entomophages, Antibe, 13-18 Mai 1968. Ann. Zool. Ecol. Anim. Hors. Ser. 17-23.

Legner, E. F. 1983. Requirements for appraisal of the role of parasitic insects in the natural control of synanthropic Diptera. Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 51: 97-98.

Legner, E. F. 1983. Imported cichlid behaviour in California. Proc. Intern. Symp. on Tilapia in aquaculture, Nazareth, Israel, 8-13 May, 1983. Tel Aviv Univ. Publ. 59-63.

Legner, E. F. 1986. The requirement for reassessment of interactions among dung beetles, symbovine flies and natural enemies. Entomol. Soc. Amer. Misc. Publ. 61: 120-131.

Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay. 1970. Dynamics of Hippelates eye gnat breeding in the Southwest. Calif. Agric. 24(5): 1, 4-6.

Legner, E. F. & W. R. Bowen. 1973. Influence of available poultry manure breeding habitat on emergence density of synanthropic flies (Diptera). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 66: 533-538.

Legner, E. F. & E. J. Dietrick. 1974. Effectiveness of supervised control practices in lowering population densities of synanthropic flies on poultry ranches. Entomophaga 19: 467-478.

Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved. 1979. Influence of parasitic Hymenoptera on the regulation of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, on cotton in the lower Colorado Desert. Environ. Entomol. 8: 922-930.

Legner, E. F. & C. A. Murray. 1981. Feeding rates and growth of the fish Tilapia zillii [Cichlidae] on Hydrilla verticillata, Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum var. exalbescens and interactions in irrigation canals in southeastern California. J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 41: 241-250.

Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman. 1963. Natural biotic control factors of the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana on apple in Wisconsin. J. Econ. Entomol. 56; 730-732.

Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman. 1964. Spiders on apple in Wisconsin and their abundance in a natural and two artificial environments. Canad. Entomol. 96: 1202-1207.

Legner, E. F., G. S. Olton & F. M. Eskafi. 1966. Influence of physical factors on the developmental stages of Hippelates collusor in relation to the activities of its natural parasites. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 59: 851-861.

Legner, E. F., L. Moore & R. A. Medved. 1971. Observations on predation of Hippelates collusor and distribution in southern California of associated fauna. J. Econ. Entomol. 64: 461-468.

Legner, E. F., B. B. Sugerman, H.-S. Yu and H. Lum. 1974. Biological and integrated control of the bush fly, Musca sorbens Wiedemann and other filth breeding Diptera in Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 1: 1-14.

Leigh, T. F., D. W. Grimes, H. Yamada, J. R. Stockton & D. Bassett. 1969. Arthropod abundance in cotton in relation to some cultural management variables. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. Habitat Managem. 1: 71-83.

Leius, K. 1960. Attractiveness of different foods and flower to the adults of some hymenopterous parasites. Canad. Ent. 92: 369-76.

Leius, K. 1967. Influence of wild flowers on parasitism of tent caterpillars and codling moth. Canad. Ent. 99: 444-46.

Le Roux, E. J., R. O. Paradis & F. Shreve. 1963. Major mortality factors in the population dynamics of the eye-spotted bud moth, the pistol case-bearer, the fruit-tree leafroller, and the European corn borer. Mem. Ent. Soc. Canad. 32: 67-82.

Lincoln, C. 1969. The effect of agricultural practices on insect habitats in a typical delta community. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. Habitat Managem. 1: 13-18.

Lingren, P. D. 1969. Approaches to the management of Heliothis spp. in cotton with Trichogramma spp. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. Habitat Managem. 1: 207-17.

Long, R. F., A. Corbett, C. Lamb, C. Reberg-Horton, J. Chandler & M. Stimmann. 1998. Beneficial insects move from flowering plants to nearby crops. Calif. Agric. 52(5): 23-26.

MacPhee, A. W. & C. R. MacLellan. 1971a. Case of naturally-occurring biological control in Canada, p. 312-28. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological Control. Plenum Press, New York.

MacPhee, A. W. & C. R. MacLellan. 1971b. Ecology of apple orchard fauna and of integrated pest control in Nova Scotia. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. Habitat Managem. 3: 197-208.

Maksimovic, M., P. Bjegovic & L. J. Vasiljevic. 1970. Maintaining the density of the gypsy moth enemies as a method of biological control. Zastita Bilja 21: 3-15.

McClanahan, R. J. 1971. Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), greenhouse whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. Tech. Commun. 4: 57-9.

McClanahan, R. J. 1972. Integrated control of the greenhouse whitefly. Canad. Dep. Agr. Ottawa Publ. 1469: 1-7.

McClelland, G. A. H. 1972. Control of Stegomyia: achievements and prospects. Unpub. Contrib. to Symp., 14th Int. Cong. Ent., Canberra.

McLeod, J. H. 1938. Control of the greenhouse whitefly in Canada by the parasite Encarsia formosa Gahan. Sci. Agr. 18: 529-35.

McLeod, J. H. 1962. Biological control of pests of crops, fruit trees, ornamentals and weeds in Canada up to 1959. Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. Tech. Commun. 2: 1-33.

McMurtry, J. A., C. B. Huffaker & M. van de Vrie. 1970. Ecology of tetranychid mites and their natural enemies: a review. I. Tetranychid enemies: their biological characters and the impact of spray practices. Hilgardia 40: 331-90.

Messenger, P. S. 1970. Bioclimatic inputs to biological control and pest management programs, p. 84-102. In: R. L. Rabb & F. E. Guthrie (eds.), Concepts of Pest Management. North Carolina St. Univ., Raleigh.

Messenger, P. S. 1971. Climatic limitations to biological control. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. Habitat Managem. 3: 97-114.

Messenger, P. S. & R. van den Bosch. 1971. The adaptability of introduced biological control agents. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological Control. Plenum Press, New York.

Messenger, P. S., E. Biliotti & R. van den Bosch. 1976b. The importance of natural enemies in integrated control, p. 543-63. In: C. B. Huffaker & P. S. Messenger (eds.), Theory and Practice of Biological Control. Academic Press, Inc., New York, San Francisco & London. 788 p.

Michelbacher, A. E. 1943. The present status of the alfalfa weevil in California. Univ. Calif. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 677. 24 p.

Michelbacher, A. E. 1962. Influence of natural factors on insect and spider mite populations. Proc. 11th Intern. Congr. Ent., Vienna (1960) 2: 694.

Michelbacher, A. E. & S. Hitchcock. 1958. Induced increase of soft scales on walnut. J. Econ. Ent. 51: 427-31.

Muldrew, J. A. 1953. The natural immunity of the larch sawfly (Pristiphora erichsonii Hartig) to the introduced parasite Mesoleius tenthredinis (Morley) in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Canad. J. Zool. 31: 312-32.

Odum, H. T. 1971. Environment, Power and Society. Wiley, New York. 331 p.

Olkowsky, W., D. Pinnock, W. Toney, G. Mosher, W. Neasbitt, R. van den Bosch & H. Olkowsky. 1974. A model integrated control program for street trees. Calif. Agr. 28(1): 3-4.

Paetzold, D. & G. Vater. 1967. Populationsdynamische Untersuchungen an den Parasiten und Hyperparasiten von Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Homoptera, Aphididae). Acta Ent. Bohemoslov. 64: 83-90.

Parker, F. D., F. R. Lawson & R. E. Pennell. 1971. Suppression of Pieris rapae using a new control system: mass release of both the pest and its parasites. J. Econ. Ent. 64: 721-35.

Pate, T. L. & C. W. Neeb. 1972. Unpub. rept. to Dept. Ent., Texas A. & M. Univ. College Station, Texas.

Pate, T. L., J. J. Hefner & C. W. Neeb. 1972. A management program to reduce cost of cotton insect control in the Pecos area. Texas Agr. Exp. Sta. Misc. Publ. 1023.

Pickett, A. D. 1960. The ecological effects of chemical control practices on arthropod populations in apple orchards in Nova Scotia, p. 19-24. In: D. J. Kuenen (ed.), The Ecological Effects of Biological and Chemical Control of Undesirable Plants and Animals. 8th Tech. Meeting, Intern. Union Conserv. Nat. Resources, Warsaw, 15-24 July 1960. E. J. Brill, Leiden.

Pickett, A. D., N. A. Patterson, H. T. Stultz & F. T. Lord. 1946. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia. I. An appraisal of the problem and a method of approach. Sci. Agr. 26: 590-600.

Pimentel, D. 1966. Complexity of ecological systems and problems in their study and management, p. 15-35. In: K. E. F. Watt (ed.), Systems Analysis in Ecology. Academic Press, New York. 276 p.

Pimentel, D., L. E. Hurt, A. C. Bellotti, M. J. Forster, I. N. Oka, O. D. Sholes & R. J. Whitman. 1973. Food production and the energy crisis. Science 182: 443-49.

Pschorn-Walcher, H. & K. D. Zinnert. 1971. Investigations on the ecology and natural control of the larch sawfly (Pristiphora erichsonii Hartig) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) in Central Europe. Part II. Natural enemies: their biology and ecology and their role as mortality factors in Pristiphora erichsonii. Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. Tech. Bull. 14: 1-50.

Puttler, B., F. D. Parker, R. E. Pennell & S. E. Thewke. 1970. Introduction of Apanteles rubecula into the United States as a parasite of the imported cabbageworm. J. Econ. Ent. 63: 304-05.

Rabb, R. L. & F. R. Lawson. 1957. Some factors influencing the predation of Polistes wasps on the tobacco hornworm. J. Econ. Ent. 50: 778-84.

Reichle, D. E. & S. I. Auerbach. 1972. Analysis of ecosystems, 260-80. In: J. A. Behnke (ed.), Challenging Biological Problems, Directions Towards Their Solution. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.

Ridgway, R. L. 1969. Control of the bollworm and tobacco budworm through conservation and augmentation of predaceous insects. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. Habitat Managem. 1: 127-44.

Rothman, H. & M. Woodhead. 1968. Publication trends in biological control. Nature (London) 220: 1053-54.

Safavi, M. 1968. Etude biologique et écologie des Hyménopteres parasites des oeufs des punaises des céréales. Entomophaga 13: 381-495.

Sailer, R. I. 1969. A taxonomist's view of environmental research and habitat manipulation. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. Habitat Managem. 1: 37-45.

Sailer, R. I. 1972. Concepts, principles and potentials of biological control with parasites and predators. Proc. North Cent. Br. Ent. Soc. Amer. 27: 35-9.

Salt, G. & R. van den Bosch. 1967. The defense reactions of three species of Hypera (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) to an ichneumon wasp. J. Invert. Path. 9: 164-77.

Schröder, D. 1969. Lypha dubia (Fall.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) as a parasite of the European pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Eucosmidae) in Europe. Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. Tech. Bull. 12: 43-60.

Sedlag, U. 1964. Zur Biologie und Bedeutung von Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) als Parasit der Kohlblattlaus (Brevicoryne brassicae) (L.). Z. Nachr. deut. Pflanz. 18: 81-6.

Simmonds, F. J. 1972. Approaches to biological control problems. Entomophaga 17: 251-64.

Smith, R. F. 1968. Recent developments in integrated control. Pestic. News Sum. A14: 201-06.

Smith, R. F. 1969. The new and the old in pest control. Proc. Accad. Naz. Lincei, Rome 366: 21-30.

Smith, R. F. & L. A. Falcon. 1973. Insect control for cotton in California. Cotton Grow. Rev. 50: 15-27.

Smith, R. F. & H. T. Reynolds. 1966. Principles, definitions and scope of integrated control. Proc. FAO Symp. Integ. Pest Contr. Rome 1: 11-17.

Smith, R. F. & H. T. Reynolds. 1972. Effects of manipulation of cotton agro-ecosystems on insect pest populations, p. 3l73-406. In: M. T. Farvar & J. P. Milton (eds.), The Careless Technology, Ecology and International Development. The Natural History Press, Garden City, New York.

Smith, R. F. & R. van den Bosch. 1967. Integrated control, p. 295-340. In: W. W. Kilgore & R. L. Doutt (eds.), Pest Control: Biological, Physical and Selected Chemical Methods. Academic Press, New York. 477 p.

Southwood, T. R. E. & M. J. Way. 1970. Ecological background to pest management, p. 6-29. In: R. L. Rabb & F. E. Guthrie (eds.), Concepts of Pest Management. North Carolina St. Univ., Raleigh.

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