FILE: <bc-43.htm>                                                                                                                                                                                        GENERAL INDEX          [Navigate to       MAIN MENU ]










---- Please CLICK on desired underlined categories [to search for Subject Matter, depress Ctrl/F ]:



Cereal Leaf Beetle, Oulema melanoplus

Dynamics in Short Term Crops

Alfalfa Weevil, Hypera postica

Natural Control in Short Term Crops

European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

Classical Biological Control in Short Term Crops

Cassava Mealybug in Africa--Phenacoccus manihoti

Southern Green Stink Bug, Nezara viridula


Melon Fly, Dacus cucurbitae

[Please refer also to Related Research ]



          Biological control is most successful when used in stable perennial agroecosystems (DeBach 1965, Huffaker & Messenger 1976, Luck 1981, Price 1981, Hokkanen 1985). Annual cropping systems are generally too unstable to sustain delicate tritrophic level interactions (Kogan et al. 1999). When the natural control of pest species has been upset by cultural operations and chemical pest control, adequate levels of biological control are difficult to restore. Yet, probably the majority of human food is produced from crops that are annual or short term, and therefore deserve maximum attention for alternatives to routine insecticide application. Many annual crop ecosystems benefit from a high level of natural control, in particular when an ecosystem has not been invaded by exotic pests that require the use of disruptive insecticides (Wilson 1985). Turnipseed & Kogan (1983) suggested that indigenous natural enemies are important in the regulation of minor phytophagous pests, but it is their impact on the major pests that usually attracts attention. However, when minor pests become important because of imbalances caused by the overuse of insecticides, disaster often follows (Reynolds et al. 1982).

Dynamics in Short Term Crops

Typically annual or short-term crops in temperate zones begin with soil preparation in late autumn and early spring, fertilization, preplant or preemergence applications of herbicides, planting, cultivation and harvest. In subtropical regions double or even multiple cropping may be possible within the yearly cycle. Rainfall distribution and temperature usually determine optimal planting dates and the length of the growing cycle. In cold high latitudes, soybeans must complete the cycle from planting to harvest in about 90 days. In the subtropics, the use of 140-day varieties is not uncommon (Hinson & Hartwig 1982). Throughout this cycle, soybean plants accrue biomass at an exponential rate and undergo profound physiological changes. The total above ground accumulation of biomass may reach 10 tons of dry matter per ha., partitioned throughout the season into vegetative and reproductive structures. As the cycle progresses, it is accompanied by a parallel increase in architectural and microclimatic complexity within the crop canopy and the underground structures that leads to the diversity and proliferation of potential feeding niches or food resources for colonizing herbivores. The availability of these resources is probably the most important single factor in setting numerical limits on species packing in a given community.

Kogan (1981) summarized the dynamics of variation of food resources in a typical annual field crop based on a soybean model. The exclusively crop-dependent components of a herbvivore's feeding niche have functional, spatial and temporal characteristics. Functional characteristics are determined by the physiology of the plant and refer to the various plant organs and tissues used differentially by various species of herbivores. Spatial characteristics depend on the stratification of the aerial and subterranean volumes of the plant and on the patterns of plants within fields. Such stratification may cause nutritional variability within and among plants (Denno & McClure 1985) or subtle but critical variability in microclimate closely related to an insect's ecological preferenda. Both functional and spatial characteristics vary in time, thus resulting in profound differences in plant resources at various phenological stages of development. The general pattern of the yearly ecological dynamics of a short term crop is an initial more or less long phase of gradual geometric increase in niche complexity and resource diversity open to herbivore occupancy, followed by a sudden drop in diversity and complexity as plants senesce and the crop reaches harvest maturity. This generalized pattern of crop dynamics presents a scenario of changing opportunities to potential herbivore colonizers and their complement of natural enemies. The instability of tritrophic interactions under these conditions is one of the major obstacles to classical biological control in short term crops.

Colonization of Short term Crops by Herbivores & Natural Enemies.--Colonization occurs both by herbivores and their natural enemies. The sources of colonizing species are varied and according to the crop may include the agroecosystem encompassing the crop (either a monoculture or a multiple crop system) and the relative geographic location of interacting agroecosystems. The first source of colonizers are well-adapted, host-specific, native species that overwinter in or near the crop field. Corn rootworms, Diabrotica spp., overwinter as eggs and colonize corn plants when the crop is grown without rotation with nonhost crops (Krysan et al. 1987). In temperate zones the harsh winters usually have a modulating effect on the survival of overwintering native species and thus affect the size of colonizing populations. In the midwestern United States, the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata Forster, and the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, overwinter as adults in woodlots surrounding grain legume crop fields. The success of colonization usually depends on the synchronization of the emergence of the overwintered populations with the establishment of a host crop in fields adjacent to hibernacula. When spring planting is delayed because of insufficient or excess precipitation, the beetles may lack food or oviposition sites, and colonization may fail. These species usually remain on the crop, however, increasing gradually in succeeding generations if environmental conditions are favorable.

A second source of colonizers is polyphagous species, the populations of which increase on wild plants or on temporarily more attractive crops. These species migrate into a succession of crops as plants reach a preferred stage of growth or as the crops on which they had resided become unsuitable. The corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie) develops on corn early in the season in North Carolina and produces two generations. When second generation adults emerge, the corn is no longer suitable and the moths disperse to such other crops as cotton, peanuts, and tomatoes and late planted soybeans at bloom. Waves of ovipositing moths often massive and generate damaging larval populations (Stinner et al. 1977, Kennedy & Margolies 1985). Also in this category are multivoltine species that arrive in small numbers onto a crop at various times during the season and may or may not become established. If they do their short life cycle and high reproductive rate result in the build up of populations that may prove damaging (e.g., aphids, whiteflies, leafhoppers and spider mites).

A third group of colonizers are migrant species that overwinter and reproduce early in the season in regions of subtropical climates. Successive generations expand their geographic range from the overwintering areas, generally following jet stream paths and the availability of suitable hosts (Sparks 1979, Rabb & Kennedy 1979).

An island biogeographical or dynamic equilibrium theory has been proposed as a model for the colonization of annual crops by arthropods (Price 1976, Mayse & Price 1978, Price & Waldbauer 1982). However, it has proven of small value in explaining or predicting patterns of colonization of short-term crops and its application has been criticized on both theoretical and practical grounds (Rey & McCoy 1979, Liss et al. 1986, Simberloff 1986). Although detailed studies on the dynamics of crop colonization under diverse cropping conditions ar few, those that exist suggest that the number of colonizing species increases as the crop matures and that a lag occurs between crop colonization by herbivores and subsequent colonization by natural enemies (Price 1976, Mayse & Price 1978).

It is important in the regulation of herbivore populations for natural enemies to follow herbivore colonizers closely. The availability of prey at an early stage of plant growth may determine the abundance of predators at later stages when other prey species may be present. Anecdotal accounts by soybean researchers in the southern United States (Harper et al. 1983) suggest that the green cloverworm, Plathypena scabra (F.) an early season herbivore, is a beneficial species because it serves as prey for the predaceous hemipterans. Later in the season those predators help moderate the population growth of such serious pest species as Heliothis zea, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner), and Pseudoplusia includens Walker. The green cloverworm, however, is one of those migrant species that usually reach midwestern soybean fields at critical stages of crop development, and it therefore poses a potential threat in those areas.

Recruitment of Crop Colonizers.--The diversity of the arthropod community associated with annual crops seems to depend mainly on the extent of the area planted to that crop (Strong 1979). Plant architecture, however, influences the complexity of available feeding niches, and these ultimately determine the complexity and richness of those communities (Lawton 1978, Kogan 1981). Whether a crop is introduced or native is also important. Kogan (1981) considered three sources for species recruitment in introduced crops: (1) oligophagous species associated with native plants that have taxonomic or chemical affinity with the introduced crop, (2) polyphagous species capable of rapidly expanding their host range as new food resources become available or replace previous ones, and (3) oligophagous species that are associated with plants unrelated to the crop and that may undergo gradual host shifts. Native crops have a preponderance of host-specific, coevolved species and a full complement of effective natural enemies. The colonization of introduced hosts by native herbivores that originally fed on plant species closely related to the introduced crop has resulted in some of the most serious pest problems on record. The classic example is the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say.

Short term crops are recolonized annually by a herbivorous fauna that varies spatially and temporally with the dynamics of the crop, the characteristics of the ecosystem, and the spatial relationship of the crop ecosystem to other adjacent or distant ecosystems. A complement of natural enemies associated with those herbivores usually colonizes the crop after a lag that is determined by the foraging patterns of the natural enemies and the sources of the colonizers. The build-up of natural populations of enemies depends on the availability of suitable prey or hosts. The nature and complexity of this colonizing arthropod fauna depend on whether the crop is native to or introduced into a region. Additionally, the colonizing fauna depends on how long the crop has been under cultivation, increasing exponentially for several growing cycles until it approaches a plateau determined by the area planted to the crop and the complexity of the crop's available feeding niches (Strong 1974, Lawton 1978, Kogan 1981).  It is this rapidly changing and cyclically disturbed habitat that poses the greatest obstacles to the success of classical biological control in short term crops. Despite the inherent ecological instability of these crops, however, most herbivore populations are effectively regulated by a complement of natural enemies. This regulation is most dramatically demonstrated when natural enemies are inadvertently eliminated by broad-spectrum insecticides (Metcalf 1986).

Natural Control in Short term Crops

Short term crops in most growing regions of the world have a diverse and abundant population of natural control agents, especially if the fields have not been sterilized with broad spectrum pesticides.

Predators.--Many surveys have been conducted using as the target either the crop or particular species or guilds of species within a single crop or the various crops in a region. One of the most extensive surveys of natural enemies of any crop was conducted by Whitcomb & Bell (1964) in Arkansas cotton fields. There were 600 species of predators representing 45 families of insects, 19 families of spiders and 4 families of mites found. Other extensive surveys were done on spiders on soybean in other areas (Neal 1974, LeSar & Unzicker 1978). The number of unique species occurring at each location far exceeded the number of species occurring in common at any two locations combined or co-occurring at all locations. The spider community of cotton in Arkansas was far richer than the spider communities of soybean either in Florida or in Illinois. There were about as many species of spiders common to Arkansas cotton fields and Illinois soybean fields as there were to Arkansas cotton fields and Florida soybean fields, but there were three times more species in common in those two comparisons than there were species common to Florida and Illinois soybean fields. Although all three communities had a diverse spider population, the spider community of cotton was much more diverse.

Species composition was more influenced by geographic location than crop matrix. A similar comparison was made among surveys of carabids in Illinois and Iowa corn fields (Dritschilo & Erwin 1982), in North Carolina soybean fields (Deitz et al. 1976), and in Arkansas cotton fields (Whitcomb & Bell 1964). In contrast to the spider fauna, the carabids were much more localized. Only one species appeared in all three surveys, and only 18 species co-occurred in any two agroecosystems. Such comparisons suggest that crop communities have a rich fauna of predators and that many species are probably well adapted to local conditions. Although the effectiveness of this predaceous fauna has not been evaluated in detail, resurgences of pests are often attributed to the disruption of such natural control agents by broad spectrum pesticides (Shepard et al. 1977, Huffaker & Messenger 1976).

Parasitoids.--Assessments of naturally occurring parasitoids are usually based on surveys of individual host species or guilds of hosts. Extensive surveys have been conducted on the parasitoids of some of the major pests of short term crops (e.g., Heliothis zea, H. virescens, Nezara viridula). Heliothis zea and H. virescens have been recorded in the United States from 235 plant species in 36 families and are, therefore, highly polyphagous. A literature survey of the parasitoids of these two species produced 60 species of Hymenoptera in six families (Braconidae, Chalcididae, Eulophidae, Ichneumonidae, Scelionidae and Trichogrammatidae) and 62 species of Diptera in four families (Muscidae, Phoridae, Sarcophagidae and Tachinidae). The efficacy of natural control agents in cotton in North America was assessed by Goodenough et al. (1986).

A partial host record of N. viridula showed that it is also a highly polyphagous species, being recorded from 44 common cultivated and wild hosts in 18 different plant families (Todd & Herzog 1980). Jones (1988) surveyed the world literature for records of N. viridula parasitoids and found 57 species in two Diptera and in five Hymenoptera families.

Species guilds, rather than single species, are often the object of detailed studies. Comprehensive studies of parasitoids of lepidopterous caterpillars in soybean in the United States were reviewed by Pitre (1983). Ten primary parasitoids and 10 hyperparasitoids were recorded on cereal aphids in Europe (Vorley 1986). In most cases extensive surveys of common herbivorous insects of short term crops reveal the presence of a rich associated fauna of natural enemies. However, many of those herbivores remain serious pests. Obviously qualitative surveys reveal very little about the effectiveness of natural enemies in population regulation. The enrichment of the complement of natural enemies of short term crops through augmentive releases or through classical biological control offer means to counteract this situation.

Entomopathogens.--Entomopathogens are probably the most effective natural control agents in explosive pest populations in short term crops. A good example of the efficacy of a fungal pathogen in regulating lepidopterous caterpillar populations is the fungus Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson. This fungus is primarily a pathogen of many species of lepidopterous larvae (Ignoffo 1981). Natural epizootics frequently cause crashes of susceptible host populations. Under favorable environmental conditions this fungus may be the single most important mortality factor regulating populations of the velvetbean caterpillar, A. gemmatalis, in soybean fields in Brazil (Moscardi et al. 1984) and populations of the green cloverworm, P. scabra, in soybean in the midwestern United States (Pedigo et al. 1982). The success of the soybean IPM program in Brazil was due, to a great extent, to the correct assessment of natural epizootics of N. rileyi (Kogan et al. 1977, Kogan & Turnipseed 1987). However, epizootics are often not predictable and are occasionally too late in the growing season to prevent economic damage to the crop (Kish & Allen 1978, Ignoffo et al. 1975, 1981, Fuxa 1984). Despite these adverse characteristics of some epizootics, their dramatic natural has caused substantial research to be directed toward using N. rileyi as a biological control agent.

Heliothis zea and H. virescens on cotton in the United States are infected by many naturally occurring pathogens (Yearian et al 1986). The most common are: Nomurea rileyi and Entomophthora spp. fungi, Nosema heliothidis and Varimorpha necatrix, microsporidia, and the nuclear polyidrosis viruses of H. zea and Autographa california (Speyer). Although natural epizootics do occur, they are often inadequate to maintain Heliothis spp. populations below the economic injury level. Therefore, much effort has been directed to developing manipulative methods to enhance entomopathogen efficacy.

Classical Biological Control in Short term Crops

There are a few spectacular successes, which on examination again show that the success of a biological control program cannot be predicted on the basis of assumptions or preconceptions related to the ecological instability of the crop (Hokkanen 1985).

Southern Green Stink Bug--Nezara viridula (L.).--Southeast Asia is considered the center of origin of this species (Yukawa & Kiritani 1965). The pest is presently found throughout the tropics and subtropics of all continents. However, Hokkanen (1986) suggested that N. viridula is of Ethiopian origin, based on records of polymorphism as well as the number of host specific parasitoids in that region. Because it is an immigrant pest of many important crops, many attempts to establish parasitoids into newly invaded areas have been made. Programs in Hawaii and Australia have been very successful (Caltagirone 1981), and importation and release of natural enemies are currently being expanded in Africa, South America, New Zealand, Taiwan and the United States (Jones 1988). The success in Australia gives the greatest insight into the conditions for successful biological control of this insect.

Nezara viridula was first recorded in Australia in 1913 and has since been the subject of several successful biological control projects, mainly involving colonization of the egg parasitoid Trissolcus basalis imported from Egypt and Pakistan. The early history of control by importation of natural enemies was recorded by Clausen (1978), Caltagirone (1981) and Wilson (1960). Kogan et al. (1999) updated this history and assessed factors that may have led to the successful control of the pest in Australia.

The pest spread to the Ord Valley in northwestern Australia in 1974, over a decade after the last introduction of parasitoids from Pakistan to other parts of Australia. Within two years it had become a severe pest due to its polyphagous habit that enables it do damage many vegetable and field crops. Damage was so severe in sorghum that fields had to be abandoned. The parasitoid, T basalis was reared in an insectary and ca. 44,100 were released in fields in the Ord Valley. The host population began to decline due to parasitism a few months later and good control was obtained (Strickland 1981). Subsequent observations indicated that the parasitoids were usually present regardless of the level of abundance of the host population. Conditions that helped to maintain populations of stinkbugs at low levels and prevented their upsurge following their decline were explained by (1) the prevailing cropping system in the Ord Valley involved diverse plant species that were infested by the stink bug at different population levels. The parasitoids, therefore, were able to move from centers of high host population to centers of low host populations, thereby maintaining an overall low equilibrium position throughout the entire spectrum of crops; and (2) in addition to N. viridula, T. basalis attacked several other locally occurring pentatomids and thus had a continuous supply of hosts (Strickland 1981).

The success of T. basalis as the parasitoid of very mobile and polyphagous pest is attributable to a combination of the characteristics of its own host range and the characteristics of the feeding range of its host species. That combination guaranteed an environment that continually provided fresh adult parasitoids capable of keeping the pest a low population levels. As N. viridula is a major pest of many short term crops in most parts of the world, efforts to control it by means of natural enemies continue. According to Jones (1988), African and Asian egg parasitoids in the genera Trissolcus, Telenomus, and Gryon and six New World tachinid adult parasitoids deserve consideration in biological control. The tachinids are Trichopoda pennipes (F.), T. pilipes (F.), T. giacomellii (Blanchard), T. gustavoi (Mallea), Eutrichopodopis nitens Blanchard, and Ectophasiopis arcuata (Bigot).

Melon Fly Dacus cucurbitae Coquillet.--Native to the Indo-Malayan region, the melon fly was first recorded in Hawaii in 1897. Prior to its invasion, cucurbit crops were widely grown for local consumption and some were exported to California. Following the introduction of the fly, growing cantaloupes became impractical and the production of other melons, cucumbers and tomatoes was seriously curtailed (Nishida & Bess 1950). Biological control of the melon fly was undertaken by introducing Biosteres fletcheri (Silv.) from India. The parasitoids were mass reared in Hawaii, and field releases made in 1916 and 1917 resulted in their establishment. Two additional species Biosteres longicaudatus watersi Full. from India and B. angeleti Full. from Borneo, were introduced during 1950 and 1951, respectively (Clausen 1978). The 1916 and 1917 releases resulted in a 50% reduction of the melon fly populations, and although the flies were still a pest, melons were again a profitable crop in Hawaii (Fullaway 1920). Later the melon fly again became a severe pest requiring multiple applications of insecticides and generating additional control related research (Nishida & Bess 1950). Studies showed that the change in parasitoid efficiency was probably associated with changes in land use and agricultural practices (Newell et al. 1952, Nishida 1955).

Because melons and other perishable crops are available in the field for only a short period, these plants form an unstable resource to which the biology and life cycle of D. cucurbitae are well adapted. Consequently, parasitoids of the fly must be able to follow the short-lived and localized fly populations throughout their range if efficient control is to be achieved. In Hawaii, control had been possible because the presence of Momordica balsamina, the fruits of which constituted a stable wild host for D. cucurbitae and its parasitoids. Changes in agricultural practices and increased land use, however, reduced the areas where M. balsamina grew abundantly, thereby reducing the reservoirs of the natural enemies and making it more difficult for the natural enemies to reach the cultivated fields. The main fly population now had its origin in culti9vated fruits where parasitization was much lower than in the fruits of M. balsamina: 1% for tomatoes, 0-16.5% for melons, and 0.2-6.5% for cucumbers vs. 20-37.8% for M. balsamina (Nishida 1955). Thus, a change in the diversity of the habitat proved detrimental to this biological control project.

Cereal Leaf Beetle--Oulema melanoplus (L.).--A native pest of cereals in Europe, cereal leaf beetle was first recorded from Berien County, Michigan in 1962. According to Haynes & Gage (1981), damaging populations in the area were probably present since the 1940's. Expansion of the area infested by the cereal leaf beetle occurred rapidly and the current range extends through much of the Midwestern states to the East Coast. Strict interstage quarantines and treatment of potentially infested bales of hay and grain were enforced. Eradication efforts continued for about seven years, but were finally abandoned when the spread of the beetle obviously could not be halted. Probably widespread public opposition to the spray program influenced this decision.

The cereal leaf beetle has one generation per year and overwinters as unmated adults (Castro et al. 1965). With the spread of the beetle out of control, research was initiated in several areas, including sterile male techniques, behavioral control by means of attractants and biological control by means of imported natural enemies. Clausen (1978) summarized the biological control program. Initiated in 1963, the search for natural enemies concentrated in France, Italy and Germany. From 1964 to 1967 five parasitoids were imported and four to become established were Tetrastichus julis (Walk.), Diaparis carinifer (Thomsen), Lemophagus curtus Tow. and Anaphes flavipes (Foerster) (Haynes & Gage 1981).

Mass releases of A. flavipes were conducted in the absence of more efficient natural enemies. Releases were made in Indiana in 1966 and the parasitoid was recovered at most sites later in the same season. As the beetle was not easily reared in the laboratory, cultures of the parasitoid were maintained on beetles collected in the field. These beetles were also used in the screening of wheat, oats, and barley lines and varieties for resistance against the beetle. A parasitoid nursery was established in Niles, Michigan for the redistribution of parasitoids reared on field-infested populations.

Populations were observed to decline since 1971, with causes for the decline being attributed to a combination of such factors as weather-related mortality, mortality due to introduced parasitoids, genetic changes in beetle populations and changes in overwintering habitat (Haynes & Gage 1981). Although sporadic outbreaks may require treatment, populations of the beetle seem to have generally abated. This history suggests that immigrant pests, after an initial period of explosive expansion, may follow a pattern of adaptation within the agroecosystem that results in an equilibrium state not as detrimental to the crop.

Alfalfa Weevil--Hypera postica (Gyllenhal).--First found in the United States near Salt Lake City, Utah in 1904, Hypera postica is believed to have invaded from Europe (Titus 1907, 1910). The weevil was confined to 12 western states until 1952 when it was detected in Maryland (Bissell 1952). From Maryland it spread rapidly and is now found throughout North America.

There is one generation per year and winter is spent as aestivating adults and as eggs. Eggs hatch in spring about the time that alfalfa begins to grow. In the Midwest, larval feeding continues through May when pupation occurs. After emergence adults leave the field for available cover where they undergo summer aestivation. In autumn adults return to the field and begin laying eggs (Manglitz & App 1957).

Parasitoids were first introduced from Europe into the United States in 1911, and by 1919 they were well established in many areas of the western United States (Chamberlin 1924). Bathyplectes curculionis (Thomson) is the most widely distributed and most successful introduced parasitoid in the Midwestern U. S. During the 1960's and 1970's, both B. curculionis and B. anurus (Thomson) were released in Illinois by USDA personnel and are now found in most midwestern populations of the weevil (Dysart & Day 1976).

A fungal disease of alfalfa weevil larvae was found in Ontario, Canada in 1973 (Harcourt et al,. 1974), and was similar to that reported active on cloverleaf weevil, Hypera punctata (Arthur) by Arthur (1886). The fungus is believed to be Erynia phytonomi (Thomson) and actually differs from that attacking cloverleaf weevil. It was found to spread rapidly out of Ontario to other portions of North America (Muka 1976, Puttler et al. 1978, Barney et al 1980, Los & Allen 1983, Nordin et al. 1983). It is now considered to be the major naturally occurring biological control agent of the alfalfa weevil throughout most of its range (Carruthers & Soper 1987). A similar fungus causes comparable mortality in Hypera variabilis in Israel (Ben Ze'ev & Kenneth 1982).

Erynia phytonomi overwinters in the soil as thick-walled resting spores that germinate in springtime to produce germ conidia, which infect weevil larvae. Conidia produced by infected larvae are responsible for the horizontal transmission of the disease (Ben Ze'ev & Kenneth 1982). Younger larvae tend to produce conidia and older larvae resting spores (Watson et al. 1980). Brown & Nordin (1982) developed a detailed model of this disease and estimated that the first incidence occurs in Kentucky after an accumulation of 220 to 290 degree days. Then the alfalfa weevil population has to reach a threshold density in order to allow for sufficient horizontal transmission for an epizootic. Brown & Nordin (1982) estimated this threshold to be 1.7 weevil larvae per stem. Mortality rates caused by the fungus are often quite high (30-70%) at the time of peak larval occurrence and often 100% later in the season (Morris 1985). It is restricted in effectiveness as a biological control agent because it often appears late relative to currently recommended harvest dates (Armbrust et al. 1985). Brown & Nordin (1982) proposed using computer-directed harvest dates that are earlier than normally recommended. The microenvironment in windrows promotes an earlier than normal epizootic and reduces the need for insecticides.

The appearance of the fungus as a major mortality factor after the two above mentioned parasitoids were established poses the question of how these all will now coexist, especially as they attack the larval stage. About five days elapse from infection to death in diseased larvae and parasitized larvae die within 10 days. Such time periods suggest that an alfalfa weevil larva infected and parasitized simultaneously would probably die from the fungus before the parasitoid completed its development. Field studies indicate that the disease has a negative impact on the two parasitoids (Los & Allen 1983, Loan 1981, Morris 1985).

European Corn Borer--Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner).--This insect is believed to have been accidentally introduced in shipments of broom corn from Europe in the area of Boston, Massachusetts in 1917 (Caffrey & Worthley 1927). Its range presently includes most of the major corn producing regions of the United States. Between 1920-1930 24 species of parasitoids were imported into the United States from Europe and the Orient, and by 1962 six of these were established. Two of the introduced parasitoids, the tachinid Lydella thompsoni (Herting) and the ichneumonid Eriborus terebrons (Gravenhorst), usually parasitizes up to 50 percent of the borers in the Midwest during 1958-1963. However, in the 1960's parasitism by the tachinid decreased rapidly and few, if any , can now be found in the United States (Hill et al. 1978, Burbutis et al. 1981).

Explanations to explain the decline of the tachinid center around competition from the microsporidian Nosema pyrausta. Presently the only parasitoid commonly found in the Midwest is the braconid Macrocentrus grandii (Goidanich), which is infected by N. pyrausta and high levels of mortality result (Andreadis 1980, 1982; Siegel et al. 1986). In Illinois in 1982 and 1983, M. grandii parasitized an average of 19.5% of first generation corn borer larvae, but only an average of 5% of second generation larvae . This is believed due to the fact that first generation borer populations usually have a lower prevalence of Nosema than second generation populations, and thus the parasitoid may avoid the disease by parasitizing primarily first generation larvae.

Paillot (1927) first described N. pyrausta from European corn borers collected in France, and the pathogen was first found by Steinhaus (1951) in the United States in larval European corn borers from the Midwest. It now infects corn borers throughout most of their range, and a high prevalence (up to 100%) have been reported from many states (Van Denburg & Burbutis 1962, Hill & Gary 1979, Andreadis 1984, Siegel et al. 1987). This microsporidian infects most body tissues, and infectious spores are passed in the feces of infected larvae. Horizontal transmission occurs when healthy larvae ingest sufficient numbers of spores, usually in larval tunnels contaminated by frass from infected larvae. Although some disease-induced mortality occurs when larvae are infected by oral ingestion of spores, the most dramatic mortality occurs when transmission is transovarial (Windels et al. 1976). Such larvae experience 30-80 percent higher mortality than healthy larvae (Kramer 1959, Windels et al. 1976, Siegel et al. 1987). Crashes usually occur after several years of rising corn borer populations and when the prevalence of Nosema nears 100 percent. Because horizontal transmission of infection in corn borer populations depends on the probability of healthy larvae inhabiting a corn stalk with infected larvae, the initial infection level of transovarially (vertical infection) infected larvae and the larval population density are two of the most important variables affecting infection levels in corn borer populations (Maddox 1987).

Although in many areas of the United States N. pyrausta is the most important biological mortality factor in corn borer populations, it has little promise as a microbial insecticide because it is already widely distributed. During some years the fungus Beauveria bassiana causes considerable larval mortality in central Iowa and west central Illinois by Marcos Kogan and associates.

Cassava Mealybug in Africa--Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero.--A major food source for over 300 million people in tropical regions of the world, cassava is an important root crop (Bellotti & Schoonhoven 1985). Most production (80%) is concentrated in Brazil, Indonesia, Nigeria, Zaire, India and Thailand. This plant is native to tropical South America, and was introduced to the Congo basin in Africa in the early 16th Century (Cock 1985). Although a perennial shrub reproducing vegetatively, cassava roots may be harvested 7 to 18 months after planting. Roots are harvested by pulling the stems and uprooting the whole plant.

Mealybugs of the genus Phenacoccus have been recorded in association with cassava in South America and Africa. Penaacoccus gossypii Towns. & Cock, P. grenadensis Green & Laing, and P. madeirensis Green are polyphagous, but P manihoti Matile-Ferrero appears specific to cassava and the only species capable of producing severe distortion of leaves. Another South American species was separated from P. manihoti and described as P. Herreni Cox & Williams (Cox & Williams 1981). Mealybug damage seems to be a recent phenomenon, but one that is increasing in areas where it had not previously been found (Bellotti et al. 1985). This new pest status results from an imbalance between the mealybug, the local cassava land race and the existing natural enemies. The situation was particularly acute in Africa. Phenacoccus manihoti was first discovered in Zaire in 1973 and spread into almost all other cassava growing areas of the continent. The estimated losses caused by this species and another explosive pest, cassava green spider mites, Mononychellus spp., were estimated at $2.0 billion per year, and the pests affected an area about 5.5 million ha. (Neuschwander et al. 1984).

Control of the mealybug with natural enemies was attempted following its recognition as an immigrant species (Cox & Williams 1981). Surveys for native natural enemies associated with P. manihoti in Gabon revealed that various guilds have incorporated the immigrant in their host or prey range, but none were greatly efficient (Boussienguet 1986). The list included two primary parasitoids, four hyperparasitoids, nine predators and eight parasitoids of the predatory species (Neuenschwander et al. 1987). Extensive explorations for natural enemies were conducted in South America. Between 1977 and 1981 the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control in collaboration with the International Institute For Tropical Agriculture surveyed the tropical areas of central and northern South America and found that the parasitoids Aenasius vexans Kerrich, Apoanagyrus diversicornis (Howard), and Anagyrus spp. seemed to be specific to the cassava mealybug (Cox & Williams 1981). In 1980 a species of Diomus (Coccinellidae) was imported and released in experimental fields (IITA 1981, 1985), and one year later the encyrtid Epidinocarsis lopezi (DeSantis), collected in Paraguay by M. Yaseen, was imported to Nigeria and released at two sites. The parasitoids were established and recovered from parasitized mealybugs. (Lema & Herren 1985).

The spread of E. lopezi was spectacular; by December of 1985 it had become established over 650,.000 km2 in 13 African countries (Neuenschwander et al. 1987). Exclusion experiments and continuous monitoring demonstrated the efficiency of the parasitoid in regulating P. manihoti populations in Africa. IITA (1985) reported that a significant reduction in population levels of the cassava mealybug had been observed in all regions colonized by E. lopezi. In those areas, the mealybug was recorded at populations of 10-20 per terminal cassava shoot. Prior to the establishment of the parasitoid peak populations in excess of 1,500 per shoot were common (IITA 1985). The successful importation and establishment of E. lopezi gave further impetus to the biological control program at IITA, and additional species of parasitoids and predators are being released experimentally with various degrees of success (IITA 1987b).

Detailed biological studies have been conducted on the coccinellid Hyperaspis raynevali Mulsant (Kiyindou & Fabres 1987), and the entomophthoraceous fungus Neozygites fumosa (Speare) Remaudiere & Keller (Le Ru 1986). This successful biological control program of cassava mealybug in Africa is probably one of the best demonstrations of the potential of this tactic for IPM in short term crops. However, other tactics are being used against this and other cassava pests, including breeding of plant resistance, cultural control and the selective use of pesticides (Cock & Reyes 1985).

Other Systems (e.g., cotton).--Please consult the case history series (CH-..) and the references for details on pink and spotted bollworms in cotton.  [ Please refer also to Related Research ]


REFERENCES:         [Additional references may be found at  MELVYL Library ]

Anonymous. 1960. Cotton growing countries of the world, the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic. Liverpool Raw Cotton Annual. p. 71-167.

Anonymous. 1981. Half monthly report No. 704, for the 2nd half of July 1981. Cotton Bureau, Aleppo Min. Agr. Agrar. Ref. S.A.R. 12 p.

Abdel, K. 1971. Studies on different predators of certain economic pests. M.S. Thesis, Plant Protection Dept. of Agric., Assiut University, Egypt.

Abdel-Fattah, M. I., M. M. Hosny & G. El-Saadany. 1980. The spacing and density of cotton plants as factors affecting populations of the bollworms, Earias insulana Boisd. and Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.). Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt 60: 85-94.

Abdel-Kawi, F. 1971. Studies on different predators of certain economic pests. M.S. Thesis, Plant Prot. Dept., Fac. Agric., Assiut Univ., Egypt.

Abdel-Rahim, W. A., S. M. I. Metwally & F. El-Dakrousy. 1980. Effect of certain physical and chemical characteristics of cotton varieties on susceptibility to infestation by pink and spiny bollworm. Plant Prot. Dept., Tanta Univ., Kaft-el-Sheikh, Egypt. p. 727-31. (RAE, A: 69: 5118).

Abou-Zeid, N. A., M. S. I. El-Dakroury, A. H. El-Heneidy & M. S. T. Abbas 1978. Biology of Microplitis rufiventris Kok. parasitising Heliothis armigera Hb. in Egypt (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Agric. Res. Rev 1978: 31-36.

Abul-Nasr, S., E. D. Ammar & A. I. Merdan. 1978/1979. The control of the cotton bollworms, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) and Earias insulana (Boisd.). Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt, Econ. Ser. 11: 35-9.

Abul-Nasr, S., E. D. Ammar & S. M. Farrag. 1979. Rates of infestation by Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders and Earias insulana Boisd. on flowering sites of the cotton plant (Lep.). Deutsche Entomologische Z. 26: 165-72.

Adkisson, P. L. & J. C. Gaines. 1960. Pink bollworm control as related to the total cotton insect control program of Central Texas. Texas. Agric. Expt. Sta. MP. 444.

Adkisson, P. L., L. H. Wilkes & S. P. Johnson. 1958. Chemical, cultural and mechanical control of the pink bollworm. Texas Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 920.

Adkisson, P. L. 1971. Objective uses of insecticides in cotton, p. 43-51. In: J. E. Swift (ed.), Agricultural Chemicals-- Harmony or Discord for Food, People & Environment. Univ. Calif., Div. Agr. Sci.

Afify, A. M. & A. I. Merdan. 1969. On tracing the response of some Egyptian cotton worms in different larval ages to Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. Z. angew. Ent. 63: 263-7.

Agarwal, R. A. & K. N. Katiyar. 1979. An estimate of losses of seed kapas and seed due to bollworms on cotton in India. Indian J. Ent. 41: 143-8.

Ahmad, T. & G. Ullah. 1939. Ecological studies on the spotted bollworms of cotton and their parasites. I. The preimaginal development and viability of Earias fabia and Microbracon lefroyi under different conditions of temperature and humidity. Indian J. Ent. 1: 17-47.

Alam, M. M., F. D. Bennett & K. P. Carl. 1971. Biological control of Diatraea saccharalis (F.) in Barbados by Apanteles flavipes Cam. and Lixophaga diatrae T. T. Entomophaga 16: 151-58.

Al-Azawi, A. F. 1964. Studies on the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. on the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd. and other lepidopterous insects. Entomophaga 9: 137-45.

Aldrich, S. R., W. D. Scott & E. R. Leng. 1975. Modern Corn Production, 2nd Ed. A. & L. Publ., Champaign, Illinois. 378 p.

Allah Noor. 1984. Integration of biological and chemical control methods in management of cotton bollworms in India. Pap. Nat. Seminar on Integr. Pest Management, Nagpur, 5-7 Jan. 1984.

Alfiere, A. 1929. The introduction of a parasite (Microbracon kirkpatricki (Wilk.)) of the pink bollworm into Egypt. Soc. Roy. Ent. d'Egypte Bull. (1928): 52-6.

Altieri, M. A. 1981. Weeds may augment biological control insects. Calif. Agric. 35: 22-24.

Amaya, A. M. 1982. Investigación, utilización y resultados obtenidos en diferentes cultivos con el uso de Trichogramma en Colombia Sud America, p. 201-07. In: Les Trichogrammes, Ier Symp. Intern. Colloques d l'INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique), Paris. 307 p.

Andreadis, T. G. 1980. Nosema pyrausta infection in Macrocentrus grandii, a braconid parasite of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. J. Invertebr. Path. 35: 229-33.

Andreadis, T. G. 1982. Impact of Nosema pyrausta on field populations of Macrocentrus grandii, an introduced parasite of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. J. Invertebr. Path. 39: 298-302.

Andreadis, T. G. 1984. Epizootiology of Nosema pyrausta in field populations of the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Environ. Ent. 13: 882-87.

Angalet, G. W., L. W. Coles & J. A. Stewart. 1968. Two potential parasites of the Mexican bean beetle from India. Environ. Ent. 10: 782-86.

Ambrust, E. J., J. V. Maddox & M. R. McGuire. 1985. Controlling alfalfa pests with biological agents, p. 424-43. In: R. E. Frisbie & P. L. Adkisson (eds.), Integrated Pest Management on Major Agricultural Systems. Texas Agric. Expt. Sta. MP-1616. 743 p.

Arthur, J. C. 1886. A new larval Entomophthora. Bot. Gaz. 11: 14.

Awate, B. G. & L. M. Naik. 1981 Efficacy of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against bollworms (Earias spp and Pectinophora gossypiella S.) on cotton in Maharashtra State. Cotton Development 11: 65-6.

Awate, B. G., L. M. Naik & G. Y. Parlekar. 1977. Possibility of introducing exotic parasite Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead in the integrated control of cotton bollworms. Cotton Development 7: 21-2.

Baird, A. B. 1956. Biological control of insect and plant pests in Canada. Proc. 10th Int. Congr. Ent. 4: 483-85.

Balachowski, A. S. 1951. La Lutte Contre les Insectes. Payot, Paris. 380 p.

Balasubramanian, G., M. Biasubramanian & R. Kulandeivelu. 1981. Prediction of bollworms' damage in cotton in relation to weather factors. Madras Agr. J. 68: 657-9.

Ballou, H. A. 1918. The pink bollworm (Gelechia gossypiella) in Egypt. J. Econ. Ent. 11: 236-45.

Bar, D., D. Gerling & Y. Rössler. 1979. Bionomics of the principal natural enemies attacking Heliothis armigera in cotton fields in Israel. Environ. Ent. 8: 468-75.

Barbandy, A. R. 1973. Cotton insects in the Deir-ez-Zor province. Min. Agr. Agrar. REf. S.A.R., Rept. 40. 32 p. [in Arabic].

Barney, R. J., P. L. Watson, K. Black, J. V. Maddox & E. J. Armbrust. 1980. Illinois distribution of the fungus Entomophthora phytonomi (Zygomycetes: Entomophthoraceae) in larvae of the alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Great Lakes Entomol. 13: 149-50.

Bartlett, K. A. 1937a. Introduction and colonization in Puerto Rico of pink bollworm parasites. Puerto Rico Agric. Expt. Sta., Agric. Notes 77. 5 p.

Beeden, P. 1974. Bollworm oviposition on cotton in Malawi. Cotton Grow. Rev. 51: 52-61.

Beglyarov, G. A. & A. I. Smetnik. 1977. Seasonal colonization of entomophages in the USSR, p. 283-328. In: R. L. Ridgway & S. B. Vinson (eds.), Biological Control by Augmentation of Natural Enemies. Plenum Press, New York. 480 p.

Beingolea, O. G. 1980. Cotton protection through integrated pest control. Sonsultancy Rept., TCP/SYR/001, FAO, Rome. 30 p.

Bellotti, A. C. & A. van Schoonhoven. 1985. Cassava pests and their control, p. 343-92. In: J. H. Cock & J. A. Reyes (eds.), Cassava: Research, Production and Utilization. CIAT, Cali, Colombia. 745 p.

Bellotti, A. & A. van Schoonhoven. 1978. Mite and insect pests of cassava. Ann. Rev. Ent. 23: 39-67.

Bellotti, A., J. A. Reyes & J. M. Guerrero. 1982. Acaros presentes en el cultivo de la yuca y su control. Guía de Estudio. Ser 04SC-02-04. CIAT, Cali, Colombia. 34 p.

Bellotti, A. C., J. A. Reyes, J. M. Guerrero & A. M. Varela. 1985. The mealybug and cassava green spider mite complex in the Americas: Problems of and potential for biological control, p. 393-439. In: J. H. Cock & J. A. Reyes (eds.), Cassava: Research, Production and Utilization. CIAT, Cali, Colombia. 745 p.

Bellows, T. S., Jr. & T. W. Fisher, (eds) 1999. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  1046 p.

Ben-Ze'ev, I, & R. G. Kenneth. 1982. Zoophthora phytonomi and Conidiobolus osmodes (Zygomycetes: Entomophthoraceae), two pathogens of Hypera species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) coincidental in time and place. Entomophaga 25: 171-86.

Bigler, F. 1986. Mass production of Trichogramma maidis and its field application against Ostrinia nubilalis in Switzerland. J. Appl. Ent. 101: 23-29.

Bigler, F., J. Baldinger & L. Luisoni. 1982. L'impact de la methode d'elevage et de l'hote sur la qualite intrinseque de Trichogramma evanescens Westw., pp. 167-180. In: Les Trichogrammes, ier Symp. Intern. Colloques d l'INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique), Paris. 307 p.

Bishara, I. 1936. Some pink bollworm studies in Egypt. Min. Agric. Egypt Tech. Bull. 163.

Bishara, I. 1954a. Some pink bollworm studies in Egypt. Part II. The cotton sticks problem. Min. Agric. Egypt Tech. Bull. 268.

Bishara, I. 1954b. Some pink bollworm studies in Egypt. Part III. Fighting the early pink bollworm moths. Min. Agric. Egypt. Tech. Bull. 269.

Bissell, T. L. 1952. U. S. Bur. Entomol. Plant Quarantine Coop. Econ. Insect Rept. 2: 4.

Boethel, D. J. & R. D. Eikenbary. 1986. Interactions of Plant Resistance and Parasitoids and Predators of Insects. Ellis 1Horwood, Ltd., Chichester, England. 224 p.

Boreham, F. L. & C. E. Ohiagu. 1978. The use of serology in evaluating invertegrate prey-predator relationships: a review. Bull. Ent. Res. 68: 171-94.

Bottrell, D. G. & P. L. Adkisson. 1977. Cotton insect pest management. Annu. Rev. Ent. 22: 451-81.

Boussienguet, J. 1986. The entomophagous insects of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera Coccoidea Pseudococcidae) in Gabon: I. Faunistic review and trophic relationships. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 22: 35-44.

Brazzel, J. R. & D. F. Martin. 1957. Oviposition sites of the pink bollworm on the cotton plant. J. Econ. Ent. 50: 122-4.

Broodryk, S. W. 1971. Some ecological observations on Earias spp. [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae]. Rhod. J. AGr. Res. 9: 41-3.

Brown, G. C. & G. L. Nordin. 1982. An epizootic model of an insect-fungal pathogen system. Bull. Math. Biol. 44: 731-40.

Broza, M., G. D. Butler, A. Venetzian & A. Shavit. 1990. Bacillus thuringiensis on cotton seed oil as control agents in an integrated pest management program for cotton in Israel. Isr. J. Ent. 23: 149-56.

Bryan, D. E., R. E. Fye, C. G. Jackson & R. Patana. 1973. Releases of Bracon kirkpatricki (Wilkinson) and Chelonus blackburni Cameron for pink bollworm control in Arizona. USDA ARS Prod. Res. Rept. 150: 22 p.

Bryan, D. E., C. G. Jackson, R. Patana & E. G. Neemann. 1971. Field cage and laboratory studies with Bracon kirkpatricki, a parasite of the pink bollworm. J. Econ. Ent. 64: 1236-41.

Burbutis, P. P., N. Erwin & L. R. Ertle. 1981. Reintroduction and establishment of Lydella thompsoni and notes on other parasites of the European corn borer in Delaware. Environ. Ent. 10: 779-81.

Burges, H. D. & R. A. Daoust. 1986. Current status of the use of bacteria as biocontrol agents, p. 514-17. In: R. A. Samson, M. M. Vlak & D. Peters (eds.), Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Invertebrate Pathology. Found of the Fourth Intern. Colloq. Invertebr. Pathol., Wageningen, The Netherlands. 711 p.

Burleigh, J. G. 1975. Comparison of Heliothis spp. larval parasitism and Spicaria infection in closed and open canopy cotton varieties. Environ. Ent. 4: 574-76.

Busck, A. 1917. The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella. J. Agr. Res. 9: 343-70.

Butani, D. K. 1974. Insect pests of cotton XVII-- Effects of cotton varieties, cultural practices and fertilizers on infestation by pink bollworms. Cotton et Fibres Tropicales 29: 237-40.

Caffrey, D. J. & L. H. Worthley. 1927. A progress report on the investigations of the European corn borer. USDA Bull. No. 1476.

Caltagirone, L. E. 1981. Landmark examples in classical biological control. Ann. Rev. Ent. 26: 213-32.

Campion, D. G. & M. M. Hosny. 1987a. Biological, cultural and selective methods for control of cotton pests in Egypt. Ins. Sci. & Applic. 8: 803-5.

Carl, K. P. 1979. The importance of cultural measures for the biological control of the cereal leaf beetle Oulema melanopus (Co. Chrysomelidae). Mitt. Schweiz. Ent. Ges. 52: 443.

Carner, G. R. & S. G. Turnipseed. 1977. Potential of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus for control of the velvetbean caterpillar in soybean. J. Econ. Ent. 70: 608-10.

Carruthers, R. I. & R. S. Soper. 1987. Fungal diseases, p. 357-416. In: J. R. Fuxa & Y. Tanada (eds.), Epizootiology of Insect Diseases. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Castro, T. R., R. F. Ruppel & M. S. Gomulinski. 1965. Natural history of the cereal leaf beetle in Michigan. Michigan State Univ. Agr. Expt. Sta. Quart. Bull. 47: 623-53.

Chakravarthy, A. K. 1982. Bollworms infestation in relation to the phenology of Arboreum cotton. Ph.D. Thesis, Punjab Agr. Univ., Ludhiana. 165 p.

Chakravarthy, A. K., A. S. Sidhu Joginder-Singh & J. Singh. 1985. Effect of plant phenology and related factors on insect pest infestations in arboreum and hirsutum cotton varieties. Ins. Sci. & Appl 6: 521-32.

Chamberlein, T. R. 1924. Introduction of parasites of the alfalfa weevil into the United States. USDA Dept. Circ. 301. 9 p.

Chatterjee, P. N. 1941. Note on some parasites of Shisham defoliators at Allahabad and Dehradun, India. Indian J. Ent. 3: 157-70.

Cherian, M. C. & H. S. Kylasam. 1941. Preliminary notes on the parasites of the spotted and pink bollworms of cotton in Coimbatore. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci B-14: 517-28.

Cherian, M. C. & V. Margabnadu. 1943. Preliminary trials with Trichogramma parasites for the control of cotton boll worms. Madras Agr. J. 31: 107-11.

Chiang, H. C. 1978. Pest management in corn. Ann. Rev. Ent. 23: 101-23.

1982   Chiri, A. A. & E. F. Legner.  1982.  Host-searching kairomones alter behavior of Chelonus sp. nr. curvimaculatus, a hymenopterous  parasite of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders).  Environ. Entomol. 11(2):  452-455.


1983  Chiri, A. A. & E. F. Legner.  1983.  Field applications of host-searching kairomones to enhance parasitization of the pink bollworm  (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).  J. Econ. Entomol. 76(2):  254-255.


1986  Chiri, A. A. & E. F. Legner.  1986.  Response of three Chelonus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) species to kairomones in scales of six  Lepidoptera.  Canad. Entomol. 118(4):  329-333.

Clausen, C. P. 1956. Biological control of insect pests in the continental United States. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 1139. 151 p.

Clausen, C. P. 1958. Biological control of insects. Ann. Rev. Ent. 3: 291-310.

Clausen, C. P. 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: A World Review. U. S. Dept. Agric., Agric. Handbk. 480. 545 p.

Cock, J. H. 1985. Cassava: A basic energy source in the tropics, p. 1-29. In: J. H. Cock & J. A. Reyes (eds.), Cassava: Research, Production and Utilization. CIAT, Cali, Colombia. 745 p. 745 p.

Cock, J. H. & J. A. Reyes (eds.) 1985. Cassava: Research, Production and Utilization. Preliminary Ed. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia. 745 p.

Common, I. F. B. 1958. A revision of the pink bollworms of cotton [Pectinophora Busck (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)] and related genera in Australia. Aust. J. Zool. 6: 268-306.

Coulson, J. R., W. Klassen, R. J. Cook, E. G. King, H. C. Chiang, K. S. Hagen & W. G. Yendol. 1982. Notes on Biological Control of Pests in China, 1979. USDA Off of Intern. Coop. & Development, China Prog., Wash., D. C. 267 p.

Cox, D. R. & D. U. Hinkley. 1974. Theoretical Statistics. Chapman & Hall.

Cox, J. M. & D. J. Williams. 1981. An account of cassava mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) with description of a new species. Bull. Ent. Res. 71: 247-58.

Critchley, B. R., D. G. Campion, L. J. McVeigh, P. Hunter-Jones, D. R. Hall, A. Cork, B. F. Nesbitt, G. J. Marrs, A. R. Jutsum, M. M. Hosny & A. Nasr, El-Sayed. 1983. Control of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Egypt by mating disruption using an aerially applied microencapsulated pheromone formulation. Bull. Ent. Res. 73: 289-99.

Critchley, B. R., D. G. Campion, L. J. McVeigh, E. M. McVeigh, G. G. Cavanaugh, M. M. Hosny, A. Nasr, El-Sayed, A. A. Khidr & M. Naguib. 1985. Control of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Egypt by mating disruption using hollow-fibre, Laminate-flake and microencapsulated formulations of synthetic pheromone. Bull. Ent. Res. 75: 329-45.

Curl, L. F. & R. W. White. 1952. The pink bollworm. Insects, The Year Book of Agriculture. U. S. Dept. Agric, Washington, D.C.

Curry, J. P. & D. Pimentel. 1971b. Life cycle of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and population trends of the whitefly and its parasite, Encarsia formosa, on two tomato varieties. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 64: 1188-90.

Davis, C. J. 1967. Progress in the biological control of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula variety smaragdula (Fabricius) in Hawaii (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Mushi 39: 9-16.

DeBach, P. (ed.). 1964/1965. Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Reinhold, New York. 844 p.

Deitz, L. L., J. W. Van Duyn, J. R. Bradley, Jr., R. L. Rabb, W. M. Brooks & R. E. Stinner. 1976. A Guide to the Identification and Biology of Soybean Arthropods in North Carolina. N. C. Agric. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. 238: 264 p.

Delattre, R. 1947. Insectes du cotonnier nouveaux au peu connus en Côte d'Ivoire (II). Coton Fibr. Trop. 2: 97-100 (Rev. Allpl Ent. A-38: 461.).

Denno, R. F. & M. F. McClure. 1985. Variable Plants and Herbivores in Natural and Managed Systems. Academic Press, New York. 717 p.

Deshpande, B. P. & N. T. Nadkarny. 1936. The spotted bollworm of cotton, Earias fabia Stoll and Earias insulana Boisd., in south Gujarat, Bombay Presidency. Indian Coun. Agr. Res. Sci. Monogr. 10: 1-208.

Dhawan, A. K., A. S. Sidhu & G. S. Simwat. 1988. Assessment of avoidable loss in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and G. arboreum) due to sucking pests and bollworms. Ind. J. Agr. Sci. 58: 290-2.

Div. Agr. Sci., Univ. Calif. 1969, Pest and disease control for cotton. 19 p.

Dritschilo, W. & T. L. Erwin. 1982. Responses in abundance and diversity of cornfield carabid communities to difference in farm practices. Ecology 63: 900-904.

Duffey, S. S. & K. A. Bloem. 1986. Plant defense-parasite-herbivore interactions and biological control, p. 135-83. In: M. Kogan (ed.), Ecological Theory and Integrated Pest Management Practice. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 362 p.

Duffey, S. S., K. A. Bloem & B. C. Campbell. 1986. Consequences of sequestration of plant natural products in plant-insect-parasitoid interactions, p. 31-60. In: D. J. Boethel & R. D. Eikenbary (eds.), Interactions of Plant Resistance and Parasitoids and Predators of Insects. Ellis Horwood, Ltd., Chichester, England. 224 p.

Duffey, S. S. & M. B. Isman. 1981. Inhibition of insect larval growth by phenolics in glandular trichomes of tomato leaves. Experientia 37: 574-76.

Dutt, G. R. & M. S. Patel. 1943. The cotton bollworms (Earias fabia Stoll, Platyedra gossypiella Saund. and Heliothis obsoleta Fabr.) in the central provinces and Berar. Indian J. Agr. Sci. 13: 1-17.

Dysart, J. R. & W. H. Day. 1976. Release and recovery of introduced parasites of the alfalfa weevil in eastern North America. Agric. Res. Ser., USDA Prod. Res. Rep. 167: 61 p.

Ehler, L. E. & R. van den Bosch. 1974. An analysis of the natural biological control of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptear: Noctuidae) on cotton in California. Canad. Ent. 106: 1067-73.

Ehler, L. E., K. G. Eveleens & R. van den Bosch. 1973. An evaluation of some natural enemies of cabbage looper in cotton in California. Environ. Ent. 2: 1009-15.

El-Heneidy, A. H. 1976. Studies on the insect fauna of Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) fields. M.S. Thesis, Dept. Econ. Ent. & Pesticides, Fac. of Agric., Cairo University, Egypt.

El-Heneidy, A. H. & M. S. T. Abbas. 1984. Population dynamics of certain insect predators associated with aphids in maize fields in the Giza region. Beitrage Landwirtsch. 22: 407-13.

El-Heneidy, A. H., M. S. T. Abbas & M. S. El-Dakroury. 1978. Seasonal abundance of certain predators in untreated Egyptian clover and cotton fields in Fayoum governorate, Egypt. Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 62: 89-95.

Ellington, J. J. & M. Southward. 1989. Design-based sampling techniques for estimating arthropod populations in cotton over large land masses. In: L. McDonald et al. (eds.), Lecture Notes in Statistics, Vol. 55. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Ellington, J. J. et al. 1984a. The Insectavac: a high-clearance, high-volume arthropod vacuuming platform for agricultural ecosystems. Environ. Ent. 13: 259-65.

Ellington, J., K. Kiser, M. Cardenas, J. Duttle & Y. Lopez. 1984a. The Insectavac: a high-clearance, high-volume arthropod vacuuming platform for agricultural ecosystems. Environ. Ent. 13: 259-65.

Ellington, J., K. Kiser, G. Ferguson & M. Cardenas. 1984b. A comparison of sweep-net, absolute and Insectavac sampling methods in cotton ecosystems. J. Econ. Ent. 77: 599-605.

Ellington, J., K. Kiser, B. Lewis & G. Ferguson-Faubion. 1988a. Cotton insect research in New Mexico. Internatl. Cotton Pest Work Committee, Pto. Vallarta, Mexico.

Ellington, J., K. Kiser, M. Soutward & G. Ferguson-Faubion. 1988b. An evaluation of sampling strategies with a high-vacuum insect sampling machine in complex cotton ecosystems. J. Econ. Ent.

Ellington, J. J. et al. 1990a. Improved Insectavac sampler. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 74.

Ellington, J. J. et al. 1990b. Quadrant size and number and their effect on sample precision and cost with a high-vacuum insect sampling machine in complex cotton ecosystems. J. Econ. Ent. 83.

Elliott, J. M. 1977. Some methods for the statistical analysis of samples of benthic invertebrates. Freshwater Biological Assoc., Scientific Publ. No. 25.

El-Nawawy, A. S., O. Lamie, E. A. Kadous, A. A. Ayasha, S. El-Deeb, A. Salama, M. Abbessy & A. Hossny. 1978. Control of spiny and pink bollworms in A. R. Egypt. Rept. Fac. Agr., Tant Univ., Egypt. p. 667-76. (RAE,A 68: 222).

El-Saadany, G., M. P. El-Shaarawy & S. A. El-Rafaee. 1976. Determination of the loss in cotton yield as being affected by the pink bollworm P. gossypiella (Saund.) and the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana (Boisd.). Z. angew. Ent. 79: 276-81.

Evans, R. B. 1978. Cotton in Syria. Foreign Agricultural Service, U. S. Dept. Agr. 27 p.

Eveleens, K. G., R. van den Bosch & L. E. Ehler. 1973. Secondary outbreak induction of beet armyworm by experimental insecticide applications in cotton in California. Environ. Ent. 2: 497-503.

Faissayre, M. 1977. Contribution to knowledge of the entomolophagous complex on cotton crops in south-western Madagascar. Cotton et Fibres Tropicales 32: 35-8.

Falcon, L. A. 1973. Biological factors that affect the success of microbial insecticides: Development of integrated control. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 217: 173-86.

Falcon, L. A., R. van den Bosch, C. A. Ferris, L. K. Stromberg, L. Etzel, R. E. Stinner & T. F. Leigh. 1968. A comparison of season-long cotton pest control programs in California during 1966. J. Econ. Ent. 61: 892-98; (633-42.?).

Falcon, L. A., R. van den Bosch, J. Gallager & A. Davidson. 1971. Investigation of the pest status of Lygus hesperus in cotton in central California. J. Econ. Ent. 64: 56-61.

Ferrière, C. 1929. On three new chalcid parasites of Platyedra. Bull. Ent. Res. 20: 255-59.

Fichter, B. L. & W. P. Stephen. 1979. Selection and use of host-specific antigens. Misc. Publ. Ent. Soc. Amer. 11: 25-33.

Fichter, B. L. & W. P. Stephen. 1981. Time related decay in prey antigens ingested by the predator Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) as detected by ELISA. Oecologia 51: 494-07.

Fletcher, T. B. & C. S. Misra. 1920. Cotton bollworms in India. Rep. Proc. 3rd Ent. Mett. Pusa. p. 433-72.

Fullaway, D. T. 1909. Insects of cotton in Hawaii. Hawaii Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 18. 27 p.

Fullaway, D. T. 1920. The melon fly: its control in Hawaii by a parasite introduced from India. Hawaii For. Agric. 17: 101-105.

Fullaway, D. T. 1940. An account of the reduction of the immigrant taro leafhopper (Megamelus prosperina) population to insignificant numbers by the introduction and establishment of the egg-sucking bug Cyrtorhinus fulvus. Proc. 6th Pac. Sci. Songr. 4: 345-46.

Fuxa, J. R. 1984. Dispersion and spread of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) in a soybean field. Environ. Ent. 13: 252-58.

Fye, R. E. 1979. Cotton insect populations. USDA Tech Bull. 1592.

Gerling, D. 1971. Occurrence, abundance and efficiency of some local parasitoids attacking Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in selected cotton fields in Palestine (Israel). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 64: 492-99.

Getzen, L. W. 1961. Spicaria rileyi (Farlow) Charles, an entomogenous fungus of Trichoplusia ni (Hübner). J. Insect Path. 3: 2-10.

Ghobrial, A. & V. Dittrich. 1980. Early and late pest complexes on cotton, their control by aerial and ground application of insecticides and side effects on the predator fauna. Z. angew. Ent. 90: 306-13.

Gonzalez, D., D. A. Ramsay, T. F. Leigh, B. S. Ekhom & R. van den Bosch. 1977. A comparison of vacuum and whole-plant methods for sampling predaceous arthropods on cotton. J. Econ. Ent. 66: 750-60.

Gonzalez, D., G. Gordh, S. N. Thompson & J. Adler. 1979. Biotype discrimination and its importance to biological control. In: M. A. Hoy & J. J. McKelvey, Jr. (eds.), Genetics in Relation to Insect Management.

Gonzalez, D., W. White, J. Hall & R. C. Dickson. 1978. Geographical distribution of Aphidiidae (Hym.) imported to California for biological control of Acyrthosiphon kondoi and Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hom.: Aphididae). Entomophaga 23: 239-48.

Goodenough, L., et al. 1986. Efficacy of entomophagous arthropods, p. 75-91. In: S. J. Johnson, E. G. King & J. R. Bradley, Jr. (eds.), Theory and Tactics of Heliothis Population Management: 1-Cultural and Biological Control. Southern Coop. Ser. Bull. 316: 161 p.

Gordh, G. 1989. Biological control and economics of pink bollworm: a review of parasitic Hymenoptera (in preparation).

Gordon, R. , J. Ellington, G. Ferguson & H. Graham. 1986. Parasites reared from alfalfa and associated weed hosts in the Mesilla Valley, New Mexico. Southwest. Ent. 12: 335-50.

Gough, L. H. 1916. The life history of Gelechia gossypiella from the time of the cotton harvest to the time of cotton sowing. Minist. Agr. Egypt, TEch. Si. Serv. Bull. 4 (Ent. Sect.). 16 p.

Gough, L. H. 1917. The rate of increase of the pink bollworm in green bolls in the period July to November 1916. Tech. Bull. Min. AGric. Egypt 13. 26 p.

Gough, L. H. 1920. The pink bollworm in Egypt. Report on the Proceedings 3rd Ent. Meetings, Pusa 2: 472-532.

Gough, L. H. 1922. On the dispersion of the pink bollworm in Egypt. Tech. Bull. Min. Agric. Egypt 24. 20 p.

Greathead, D. J. 1971. A review of biological control in the Ethiopian region. Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. Tech. Commun. No. 5.

Gutierrez, A. P., G. D. Butler, Y. Want & D. Westphal. 1977. The interaction of pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), cotton and weather: a detailed model. Canad. Ent. 109: 1457-68.

Hafez, M. 1968. Effect of controlling the pink bollworm by spraying belts of cotton on the abundance of predators in cotton fields in U.A.R. 13th Int. Cong. Ent. 9: 97.

Hafez, M. 1972. Statement of Arab Republic of Egypt. Methods of integrated insect control in cotton. 31st Plen. Meet. Int. Cotton Adv. Comm., Managua, Nicaragua. p. 30-58.

Hagen, K. S., E. F. Sawall, Jr. & R. L. Tassan. 1970. The use of food sprays to increase effectiveness of entomophagous insects. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. by Habitat Managem. No. 2: Tallahassee, Fla.

Harcourt, D. G., J. C. Guppy, D. M. MacLeod & D. Tyrrell. 1974. The fungus Entomophthora phytonomi pathogenic to the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica. Canad. Ent. 106: 1295-1300.

Harper, J. D., R. M. McPherson & M. Shepard. 1983. Geographical and seasonal occurrence of parasites, predators and entomopathogens, p. 7-19. In: H. N. Pitre (ed.), Natural Enemies of Arthropod Pests in Soybean. Southern Coop. Ser. Bull. 285: 90 p.

Hartstack, A. W. & W. L. Sterling. 1988. TEXCIM23: The Texas cotton--insect model. Texas Agr. Expt. Stn. Misc. Publ. MP 1646. 38 p.

Hartstack, A. W. & W. L. Sterling. 1989. TEXCIM30: The Texas cotton insect model. Texas Agr. Expt. Stn. Misc. Publ. MP-1646 (revised). 105 p.

Hartstack, A. W., W. L. Sterling & D. A. Dean. 1990. TEXCIM40: The Texas cotton insect model. Texas Agr. Expt. Stn. Misc. Publ. MP-1646 (revised). (in press).

Hamed, A. R. 1984. History of biological control of cotton pests and recent activities in Egypt. Report of the 2nd African Inter-Country IPC Steering Committee session, Cairo, Egypt, May 26-29.

Hamed, A. R., F. A. Hassanein & M. S. T. Abbas. 1983. On the abundance of certain predators in cotton fields in Egypt. Proc. 5th Arab Pesticide Conf. Tanta Univ, Sept. 1983 vol 2: 324-28.

Hargreaves, H. 1948. List of recorded cotton insects of the world. Commonw. Inst. Ent., London. Rept. p. 1-50

Hassan, S. A. 1982. Mass-production and utilization of Trichogramma: 3. Results of some research projects related to the practical use in the Federal Republic of Germany, p. 214-18. In: Les Trichogrammes, ier Symp. Intern. Colloques d l'INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique), Paris. 307 p.

Hassan, S. A., E. Stein, K. Danneman & W. Reichel. 1986. Mass-production and utilization of Trichogramma: 8. Optimizing the use to control the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. J. Appl. Ent. 101: 508-15.

Hassanein, M. H., H. Hafez & G. A. M. Rizk. 1970. The susceptibility of certain cotton varieties to bollworm infestation. Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 53: 261-9.

Hawlitzky, N. 1986. Etude de la biologie de la pyrale du mais, Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn. (Lep. Pyralidae) en region parisienne durant quatre annees et recherche d'elements previsionnels du debut de ponte. Acta Oecol. Oecol. Appl. 7: 47-68.

Hawlitzky, N., M. Stengel, J. Voegele, B. Crouzet & B. Raynaud. 1987. Strategy used in France on the biological control of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hon. (Lep.: Pyralidae) by oophagous insects, Trichogramma maidis Voeg. et Pint. (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae). In: Conf. Internationale sur les Ravageurs en Agriculture, Paris.

Haynes, D. L. & S. H. Gage. 1981. The cereal leaf beetle in North America. Ann. Rev. Ent. 26: 259-87.

Herzog, D. C. & J. E. Funderburk. 1985. Plant resistance and cultural practice interactions with biological control, p. 67-88. In: M. A. Hoy & D. C. Herzog (eds.), Biological Control in Agricultural IPM Systems. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida. 589 p.

Herzog, D. C. & J. E. Funderburk. 1986. Ecological bases for habitat management and pest cultural control, p. 217-50. In: M. Kogan (ed.), "Ecological Theory and Integrated Pest Management Practice. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 362 p.

Hill, R. E. & W. J. Gary. 1979. Effects of the microsporidium Nosema pyrausta on field populations of European corn borers in Nebraska. Environ. Ent. 8: 92-95.

Hill, R. E., D. P. Carpino & Z. B. Mayo. 1978. Insect parasites of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis in Nebraska from 1958-1976. Environ. Ent. 7: 249-53.

Hinson, K. & E. E. Hartwig. 1982. Soybean Production in the Tropics. Revised by H. C. Minor. FAO Plant Prod. Prot. Pap. 4(Rev.). 222 p.

Hokkanen, H. 1985. Success in classical biological control. CRC Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 3: 35-72.

Hokkanen, H. 1986. Polymorphism, parasites and the native area of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae). Ann. Ent. Fennici 52: 28-31.

Holdaway, F. G. 1926. The pink bollworm of Queensland. Bull. Ent. REs. 17: 67-83.

Holmes, N. D. 1982. Population dynamics of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus (Hymenoptera: Cephidae). Canad. Ent. 114: 775-88.

Hosny, M. M. & A. G. Metwally. 1967. New approaches to the ecology and control of three major cotton pest in U.A.R.-- A new approach to the problem of pink bollworm control in U.A.R. U.A.R. Min. Agr. Tech. Bull. 1: 37-54.

Hosny, M. M., G. Saadany, R. Iss-Hak, E. A. Nasr, G. Moawad, M. Naguib, A. A. Khidr, S. H. Elnagar, D. G. Campion, B. R. Critchley, K. Jones, D. J. McKinley, L. J. McVeigh, C. P. Topper & R. Iss-Hak. 1983. Techniques for the control of cotton pests in Egypt to reduce the reliance on chemical pesticides. Proc. 10th Intrnatl Cong. Plant Protect., Brighton Eng., 20-25 Nov. 1983. 1: 270.

Hoy, M. & D. C. Herzog (eds.). 1985. Biological Control in Agricultural IPM Systems. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida. 589 p.

Huffaker, C. B. 1977. Augmentation of natural enemies in the People's Republic of China, p. 329-39. In: R. L. Ridgway & S. B. Vinson (eds.), Biological Control by Augmentation of Natural Enemies. Plenum Press, New York. 480 p.

Huffaker, C. B. & C. E. Kennett. 1956. Experimental studies on predation: (I). Predation and cyclamen mite populations on strawberries in California. Hilgardia 26: 191-22.

Huffaker, C. B. & P. S. Messenger (eds.). 1976. Theory and Practice of Biological Control. Academic Press, New York. 788 p.

Hunter, W. D. 1918. The pink bollworm with special reference to the steps taken by the Department of Agriculture to prevent its establishment in the United States. USDA Bull. 723. 30 p.

Hussain, M. A. 1925. Annual report of the entomologist. Rep. Dep. Agr. Punjab 1923-24. 1: 55-90.

Hussain, M., A. Askari & G. Asadi. 1976. A study of Bracon lefroyi [Hymenoptera: Braconidae] from Iran. Ent. News 87: 299-302.

Hussey, N. W. & L. Bravenboer. 1971. Control of pests in glasshouse culture by the introduction of natural enemies, p. 195-216. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological Control. Plenum Press, New York.

Hutchison, W. D. & H. N. Pitre. 1983. Predation of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs by Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) adults in cotton. Environ. Ent. 12: 1652-56.

Ibrahim, A. A. 1974. Studies on biological control of Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. in A.R.E. Ph. D. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt. 282 p.

Ibrahim, A. M. 1963. An indication of the effect of widespread use of pesticides on the population of some predators in cotton fields. Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypt 46.

Ignoffo, C. M. 1981. The fungus Nomuraea rileyi as a microbial insecticide, p. 513-38. In: H. D. Burges (ed.), Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases 1970-1980. Academic Press, London. 949 p.

Ignoffo, C. M., J. R. Bradley, Jr., F. R. Gilliland, Jr., F. A. Harris, L. A. Falcon, L. V. Larson, A. L. McGarr, P. P. Sikirowski, T. F. Watson & W. C. Yearian. 1972. Field studies of the Heliothis nucleopolyhedrosis virus at various sites throughout the Cotton Belt. Environ. Ent. 1: 388-89.

Ignoffo, C. M., B. Puttler, N. L. Marston, D. L. Hostetter & D. A. Dickerson. 1975. Seasonal incidence of the entomopathogenic fungus Spicaria rileyi associated with noctuid pests of soybeans. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 25: 135-37.

Ignoffo, C. M., N. L. Marston, D. L. Hostetter, B. Puttler, & J. V. Bell. 1976. Natural and induced epizootics of Nomuraea rileyi in soybean caterpillars. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 27: 191-98.

IITA. 1981. Cassava mealybug - Biological control, p. 40-43. In: Research Highlights For 1980. Intern. Inst. Trop Agric., Ibadan, Nigeria. 64 p.

IITA. 1985. Dissemination, dispersal, and impact of E. lopezi - A natural enemy of the cassava mealybug, p. 35-39. In: Research Highlights For 1984. Intern. Inst. Trop. Agric., Ibadan, Nigeria. 114 p.

IITA. 1987a. Strategies for classical biological control of cassava green mites, p. 112-14. In: Annual Report and Research Highlights 1986. Intern. Inst. Trop. Agric., Ibadan, Nigeria. 154 p.

IITA. 1987b. Update on release, establishment, and impact of Epidinocarsis lopezi and other natural enemies of the cassava mealybug, p. 115-18. In: Annual Report and Research Highlights 1986. Intern. Inst. Trop. Agric., Ibadan, Nigeria. 154 p.

Irwin, M. E., R. W. Gill & D. Gonzalez. 1974. Field-cage studies of native egg predators of the pink bollworm in southern California. J. Econ. Ent. 67: 193-96.

Jackson, C. G. 1980. Entomophagous insects in the United States. In: H. M. Ceraham (ed.), Pink bollworm in the Western United States.

Jackson, C. G. 1986. Effects of cold storage of adult Anaphes ovijentatis on survival, longevity and oviposition. SW. Ent. 11: 149-53.

Jeppson, L. R., H. H. Keifer & E. W. Baker. 1975. Mites Injurious to Economic Plants. Univ of California Press, Berkeley. 614 p.

Jimenez, E. 1980. Review of some interesting developments. Plant Protection, Mexico. I. O. B. C. Newsletter 15: 5.

Johnson, M. W., N. C. Toscano, H. T. Reynolds, E. S. Sylvester, K. Kido & E. T. Natwick. 1982. Whiteflies cause problems for southern California growers. Calif. Agr. 36.

Jones, W. A. 1988. World review of the parasitoids of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 81: 262-73.

Jones, W. A., S. Y. Young, M. Shepard & W. H. Whitcomb. 1983. Use of imported natural enemies against insect pests of soybean, p 63-77. In: H. N. Pitre (ed.), Natural Enemies of Arthropod Pests in Soybean. Southern Coop. Ser. Bull. 285: 90 p.

Kalshoven, L. G. E. 1981. Pests of crops in Indonesia. P. T. Ichtiar Baru - Van Hoeve, Jarkarta. 701 pp. (in Dutch).

Kamal, M. 1935. Recent advances in the control of the pink boll-worm (Platyedra gossypiella) by natural enemies. 6th Internatl. Cong. Ent. Proc. 2: 567-81. & Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 20: 259-93 (Rev. Appl. Ent. A-25: 331).

Kamal, M. 1936. Recent advances in the control of pink bollworm (Platyedra gossypiella Saunders) by natural enemies. Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 20: 259-93.

Kamal, M. 1951a. Biological control projects in Egypt, with a list of introduced parasites and predators. Bull.Soc. Fouad Ler. d'Entomol. 35(44): 205-20.

Kamal, M. 1951b. The biological control of the cotton leafworm (Prodenia litura F.) in Egypt. Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 35: 221-70.

Kennedy, G. G. & D. C. Margolies. 1985. Mobile arthropod pests: Movement in diversified agroecosystems. Bull. Ent. Soc. Amer. 31: 21-27.

Katiyar, K. N. 1977. Impact of flowering sequence on the incidence of bollworms in some varieties of cotton. Indian J. Ent. 39: 324-32.

Katiyar, K. N. 1977. Impact of flowering sequence on the incidence of bollworms in different varieties of cotton. Entomologists Newsl. 7: 31.

Katiyar, K. N. 1982. Relationship between time of flowering and bollworm infestation in cotton. Indian J. Ent. 44: 373-92.

Katiyar, K. N. & D. K. Butani. 1978. Incidence of bollworms vis-a-vis development of cotton bolls. Indian J. Ent. 40: 245-53.

Kaushik, U. K., V. S. Rathore & N. K. Nood. 1969. Incidence of bollworms and losses caused to cotton in Madhya Pradesh. Indian J. Ent. 31: 175-7.

Khalifa, A. 1979. Breeding for bollworm resistance in cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. Cotton et Fibres Tropicales 34: 309-14.

Khalil, F. M., A. A. Naher, F. Abdul-Kawi & H. Mostafa. 1976. Effect of pesticides on population densities of predators of cotton pests. Agr. Res. Rev. 54: 63-70.

Khan, Q. & V. P. Rao. 1968. Insects and mites pests, p. 217-301. In: Cotton In India, a Monograph 2. Ind. Cent. Cot. Comm., Bombay.

Khan, M. H. & P. M. Verma. 1945. Studies on Earias species (the spotted bollworms of cotton) in the Punjab. Part III. The biology of the common parasites of E. fabia Stoll, E. insulana Boisd. and E. cupreoviridis Walker. Indian J. Ent. 7: 41-63.

Khandage, V. S., K. M. Pokharkar & L. M. Naik. 1980. Studies on the efficacy of Trichogramma brasiliensis A., egg parasite and Apanteles angaleti M. larval parasite in controlling cotton bollworms. Andhra Agr. J. 27: 41-2.

King, E. C., D. L. Bull, L. F. Bouse & J. R. Phillips (eds.). 1985a. Biological control of bollworm and tobacco budworm in cotton by augmentative releases of Trichogramma. Southwest. Ent. (Suppl.) 8: 1-198.

King, E. C., D. L. Bull, L. F. Bouse & J. R. Phillips. 1985b. Introduction: Biological control of Heliothis spp. in cotton by augmentative releases of Trichogramma. Southwest. Ent. (Suppl.) 8: 1-10.

King, E. C., R. J. Coleman, J. R. Phillips & W. A. Dickerson. 1985c. Heliothis spp. and selected natural enemy populations in cotton: A comparison of three insect control programs in Arkansas (1981-82) and North Carolina (1983). Southwest. Ent. (Suppl.) 8: 71-98.

Kish, L. P. & G. E. Allen. 1978. The biology and ecology of Nomuraea rileyi and a program for predicting its incidence on Anticarsia gemmatalis in soybean. Florida Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 795. 48 p.

Kiyindou, A. & G. Fabres. 1987. Etude de la capacite d'accroissement chez Hyperaspis raynevali (Col.: Coccinellidae) predateur introduit au Congo pour la regulation des populations de Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom.: Pseudococcidae). Entomophaga 32: 181-89.

Kogan, M. 1981. Dynamics of insect adaptations to soybean: Impact of integrated pest management. Environ. Ent. 10: 363-71.

Kogan, M. 1982. Plant resistance in pest management, p. 93-134. In: R. L. Metcalf & W. H. Luckmann (eds.), Introduction to Insect Pest Management. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 577 p.

Kogan, M. & S. G. Turnipseed. 1987. Ecology and management of soybean arthropods. Ann. Rev. Ent. 32: 507-38.

Kogan, M., C. G. Helm, J. Kogan & E. Brewer. 1988. Distribution and economic importance of Heliothis virescens and Heliothis zea in North, Central and South America including a listing and assessment of the importance of their natural enemies and host plants. Proc. 1988 Workshop Biological Control of Heliothis: Increasing the Effectiveness of Natural Enemies. New Delhi, India.

Kogan, M., D. Gerling & J. V. Maddox. 1999. Enhancement of Biological Control in Transient Agricultural Environments. In: Bellows, T. S., Jr. & T. W. Fisher, (eds) 1999. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Kogan, M., S. G. Turnipseed, M. Shepard, E. B. Oliveira & A. Borgo. 1977. Pilot insect pest management program for soybean in southern Brazil. J. Econ. Ent. 70: 659-63.

Kokujev, N. 1914. Hymenoptera parasitica nova fauna turanica a. V. I. Platnkov cellecta. Revue Russe d'Entomologie, St. Petersburg 13: 513-14.

Kramer, J. P. 1959. Some relationships between Perezia pyraustae Paillot (Sporozoa: Nosematidae) and Pyrausta nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Insect Pathol. 1: 25-33.

Krysan, J. L., D. E. Foster, T. F. Brason, K. R. Ostlie & W. S. Cranshaw. 1986. Two years before the hatch: rootworm adapt in crop rotation. Bull. Ent. Soc. Amer. 32: 250-53.

Lacewell, R. D. & S. M. Masad. 1989. Economic analysis of cotton IPM programs. In: R. Frisbie, K. M. El-Zink & T. Welson (eds.), Integrated Pest Management Systems and Cotton Production. John Wiley & Sons, NY.

Lal, M. M. 1913. Preliminary report on cotton bollworms in the Punjab. Rep. Dept. Agr. Punjab. 6 p. (Rev. Appl. Ent. a-6: 334).

Landis, B. J. & N. F. Howard. 1940. Paradexodes epilachnae, a tachinid parasite of the Mexican bean beetle. USDA Tech. Bull. 721. 32 pp.

Laurence, R. K. & T. F. Wilson. 1979. Predator-prey relationship of Geocoris punctipes and Heliothis virescens. Environ. Ent. 8: 245-48.

Lawton, J. H. 1978. Host-plant influences on insect diversity: the effects of space and time, p. 105-25. In: L. A. Mound & N. Waloff (eds.), Diversity of Insect Faunas. Symp. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 5. Blackwell, Oxford.

Lefroy, H. M. 1906. An outbreak of cotton pests in the Punjab. Bull. Agr. Res. Inst. Pusa No. 2: 1-18.

Legaspi, B. A. C., Jr., W. L. Sterling, A. W. Hartstack & D. A. Dean. 1989. Testing the interactions of pest-predator-plant components of the TEXCIM model. Environ. Ent. 18: 157-63.


1979  Legner, E. F.  1979.  Emergence patterns and dispersal in Chelonus spp. near curvimaculatus and Pristomerus hawaiiensis, parasitic on  Pectinophora gossypiella.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 72(5):  681-686.


1979  Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1979.  Influence of parasitic Hymenoptera on the regulation of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, on cotton in the lower Colorado Desert.  Environ. Entomol. 8(5):  922-930.


1977  Legner, E. F. & S. N. Thompson.  1977.  Effects of the parental host on host selection, reproductive potential, survival and fecundity of the egg-larval parasitoid Chelonus sp. near curvimaculatus, reared on Pectinophora gossypiella and Phthorimaea operculella.  Entomophaga 22(1):  75-84.

Lema, K. M. & H. R. Herren. 1985. Release and establishment in Nigeria of Epidinocarsis lopezi, a parasitoid of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti. Ent. Exp. Appl. 38: 171-76.

Le Ru, B. 1986. Epizootiology of the entomophthoraceous fungus Neozygites fumosa in a population of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Entomophaga 31: 79-90.

LeSar, C. D. & J. D. Unzicker. 1978. Soybean spiders: Species composition, population densities, and vertical distribution. Ill. Nat. Hist. Survey Biol. Notes 107. 14 p.

Li, F. 1936. Pink bollworm problem. Ent. Phytopath. 4(16-17): 322-34.

Li, T. S., C. Z. Li & J. G. Wei. 1984. Biology of Polistes antennalis Perez and its use in the control of lepidopterous insects in cotton fields. Nat. Enem. Ins. Kunchong-Tiandi 6(2): 101-3, 70. [in Chinese].

Lingren, P. D., R. L. Ridgway & S. L. Jones. 1968. Consumption by several common arthropod predators of eggs and larvae of two Heliothis species that attack cotton. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 61: 613-18.

Liss, W. J., L. J. Gut, P. H. Westigard & C. E. Warren. 1986. Perspectives on arthropod community structure, organization, and development in agricultural crops. Ann. Rev. Ent. 31: 455-78.

Loan, C. 1981. Suppression of the fungi Zoophthora spp. by captafol: a technique to study interaction between disease and parasitism in the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Ont. 112: 81-82.

Loftin, U. C., K. B. McKinney & W. K. Hanson. 1921. Report on investigations of the pink bollworm of cotton in Mexico. U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 918: 64 p.

Los, L. M. & W. A. allen. 1983. Incidence of Zoophthora phytonomi (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) in Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae in Virginia. Environ. Ent. 12: 1318-21.

Luck, R. F. 1981. Parasitic insects introduced as biological control agents for arthropod pests, p. 125-84. In: D. Pimentel (ed.), Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 501 p.

Maddox, J. V. 1987. Protozoan Diseases, p. 417-52. In: J. R. Fuxa & Y. Tanada (eds.), Epizootiology of Insect Diseases. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. 555 p.

Mahalle, V. P., R. D. Ghodka & J. S. Saxena. 1976. Economic injury level of cotton bollworms. Indian J. Ent. 38: 27-32.

Manglitz, G. R. & B. A. App. 1957. Biology and seasonal development of the alfalfa weevil in Maryland. J. Econ. Ent. 50: 810-13.

Mani, M., R. Nagarajan, N. S. Dognathan & V. D. Gurusway-Raja. 1976. Varietal susceptibility to cotton mite and bollworms. Cotton Development 6: 16.

Manoharan, V. & M. Balasubramanian. 1982. Relative toxicity of some insecticides to adults of Chelonus blackburni Gam. Entomol. 7: 227-28.

Matsumoto, B. M. & T. Nishida. 1966. Predator-prey investigations on the taro leafhopper and its egg predator. Hawaii. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 64. 32 p.

Mayse, M. A. & P. W. Price. 1978. Seasonal development of soybean arthropod communities in east central Illinois. Agroecosystems 4: 387-405.

McGugan, B. M. & H. C. Coppel. 1962. Biological control of forest insects-- 1910-1958. Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. Tech. Commun. 2: 35-216.

McClanahan, R. J. 1971a. Tetranychus urticae (Koch), two-spotted spider mite (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. Tech. Commun. 4: 49-50.

McClanahan, R. J. 1971b. Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), greenhouse whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. Tech. Commun. 4: 57-9.

McDaniel, S. G. & W. L. Sterling. 1979. Predator determination and efficiency of Heliothis virescens eggs in cotton using 32P2. Environ. Ent. 8: 1083-87.

McGough, M. & L. W. Noble. 1955. Colonization of imported pink bollworm parasites. J. Econ. Ent. 48: 626-27.

McGough, M. & L. W. Noble. 1957. Summary of work at Brownsville, Texas, with imported pink bollworm parasites and an aphid predator. J. Econ. Ent. 50: 514.

McLeod, J. H. 1961. Biological control of pests of crops, fruit trees, ornamentals and weeds in Canada up to 1959. Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. Tech. Commun. 2: 1-33.

Mesa, N. C. & A. Bellotti. 1987. Biologically controlling destructive cassava mites with Phytoseidae mites. Cassava Newsletter (CIAT, Colombia) 11(1): 4-7.

Metcalf, R. L. 1986. The ecology of pesticides and the chemical control of insects, p. 251-97. In: M. Kogan (ed.), Ecological Theory and Integrated Pest Management Practice. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 362 p.

Metcalf, C. L., W. P. Flint & R. L. Metcalf. 1962. Destructive and Useful Insects. Ed. 4. McGraw-Hill, New York. 1087 p.

Metwally, A. G. 1961. Studies on the pink bollworm. M.S. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

Miller, D., A. F. Clark & L. J. Dumbleton. 1936. Biological control of noxious insects and weeds in New Zealand. N. Z. J. Sci. Tech. 18: 579-93.

Mohamed, A. K. L., J. V. Bell & P. P. Sikorowski. 1978. Field cage tests with Nomurea rileyi against corn earworm larvae on sweet corn. J. Econ. Ent. 71: 102-110.

Mohammad, A. & Y. Mohammad. 1972. Parasites of pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella Saund. and spotted bollworm, Earias spp. of cotton at Lyallpur. Pakist. J. Agr. Sci. 9: 70-5.

Monim, A. & S. Talhouk. 1969. Insects and mites injurious to crops in Middle Eastern countries. Paul Parey, Hamburg & Berlin.

Morris, M. J. 1985. Influence of the fungal pathogen, Erynia sp. (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales), on larval populations of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Illinois. M. S. Thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana. 47 p.

Moscardi, F. 1977. Control of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner on soybean with a baculovirus and selected insecticides and their effect on natural epizootics of the entomogenous fungus Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson. M. S. Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville. 68 p.

Moscardi, F. 1983. Utilizacao de Baculovirus anticarsia para o controle da lagarta da soja, Anticarsia gemmatalis. EMBRAPA/CNP Soya Commun. Tec. 23. 21 p.

Moscardi, F. & B. S. Correa Ferreira. 1985. Biological control of soybean caterpillars, p. 703-11. In: R. Shibles (ed.), "World Soybean Research Conference III, Proceedings. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. 1262 p.

Moscardi, F., B. S. Correa Ferreira, C. B. Hoffman Campo, E. B. Oliveira & D. G. Boucias. 1984. Ocorrencia de entomopatogenos em lepidopteros que atacam a cultura da soja no Parana, p. 217-19. In: Resultatod de Pesquisa de Soja 1983/84. EMBRAPA/CNP Soja, Londrina, Brasil. 357 p.

Muesebeck, C. F. W. 1956. Some braconid parasites of the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders). Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agr. Portici 33: 57-68.

Muka, A. A. 1976. A disease of the alfalfa weevil in New York. proc. Forage Insect Res. Conf. 18: 28-29.

Murdock, W. W. 1969. Switching in general predators experiments on predator specificity and stability of prey populations. Ecol. Monogr. 39: 334-35.

Murugesan, S. & S. Parameswaran. 1978. Comparative efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis and certain insecticides on cotton bollworms infestation. Cotton Development 8: 27-9.

Nagaraja, H. & S. Nagarkatti. 1970. Three new species of Trichogramma [Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae] from India. Entomophaga 14: 393-400.

Narayanan, E. S., B. R. Subha Rao & G. A. Gangrade. 1956. The biology and rate of reproduction and the morphology of the immature stages of apanteles Muesebeck [Hymenoptera: Braconidae]. Beitr. Ent. 6: 296-320.

Narayanan, E. S. 1962. Bionomics, biology and method of control of some important insect pests of cotton in India. Rept. Indian Cent. Cotton Comm., Bombay. 44 p.

Narayanan, E. S., B. R. Subha Rao & G. A. Gangrade. 1956. The biology and rate of reproduction and morphology of the immature stages of Apanteles angaleti Muesebeck. [Hymenoptera: Braconidae]. Beitr. Ent. 6: 296-320.

Narayanan, E. S., B. R. Subha Rao & T. S. Thontadarya. 1962. Effect of temperature and humidity on the rate of development of the immature stages of Apanteles angaleti Muesebeck [Braconidae: Hymenoptera]. Proc. Nantn. Inst. Sci. India B-28: 150-63.

Nasr, E. A. & A. K. Azab. 1970. Susceptibility of different cotton varieties to bollworms infestations. Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 53: 459-74.

Naumann, I. D. & D. P. A. Sands. 1984. Two Australian Elasmus spp. (Hymenoptera: Elasmidae), parasitoids of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): Their taxonomy and biology. J. Austral. Ent. Soc. 23: 25-32.

Neal, T. M. 1974. Predaceous arthropods in the Florida soybean agroecosystem. M. S. Thesis, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville. 196 p.

Neuenschwander, P., T. Haug, H. R. Herren & E. Madoneju. 1984. Root and tuber improvement program. Biological control, p. 114-18. In: Ann. Rept. For 1983, Intern. Inst. Trop Agric., Ibadan, Nigeria. 218 p.

Neuenschwander, P., R. D. Hennessey & H. R. Herren. 1987. Food web of insects associated with cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and its introduced parasitoids, Epidinocarsis lopezi (DeSantis) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Africa. Bull. Ent. Res. 77: 177-90.

Newell, I. M., W. C. Mitchell & F. L. Rathburn. 1952. Infestation norms for Dacus cucurbitae in Momordica balsamina, and seasonal differences in activity of the parasite Opius fletcheri. Proc. Hawaii Ent. Soc. 14: 497-508.

Niles, G. A. 1980. Breeding cotton for resistance to insect pests, p. 337-70. In: F. G. Maxwell & P. R. Jennings (eds.), Breeding Plants Resistant to Insects. John Wiley, New York.

Nishida, T. 1955. Natural enemies of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coq. in Hawaii. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 48: 171-78.

Nishida, T. & H. A. Bess. 1950. Applied ecology in melon fly control. J. Econ. Ent. 43: 877-83.

Noble, L. W. 1969. Fifty years of research on the pink bollworm in the United States. USDA Agric. Handbk. 357. 62 p.

Noble, L. W. & W. T. Hunt. 1937a. Method of rearing Microbracon kirkpatricki Wilk. and Microbracon mellitor Say. U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. ET-99. 2 p.

Noble, L. W. & W. T. Hunt. 1937b. Imported parasites of pink bollworm at Presidio, Texas, 1932-1936. J. Econ. Ent. 30: 842-44.

Noble, L. W. & W. T. Hunt. 1942. Method of rearing the pink bollworm parasites Chelonus and Microbracon. J. Econ. Ent. 35: 597.

Noble, L. W. & O. T. Robertson. 1964. Methods for determining pink bollworm populations in blooms. J. Econ. Ent. 57: 501-03.

Nordin, G. L., G. C. Brown & J. A. Millstein. 1983. Epizootic phenology of Erynia disease of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Central Kentucky. Environ. Ent. 12: 1350-55.

Nyiira, Z. M. 1970. A note on the natural enemies of lepidopterous larvae in cotton-d bolls in Uganda. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 63: 1461-2.

Oatman, E. R., F. E. Gilstrap & V. Voth. 1976. Effect of different release rates of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acarina: Phytoseidae) on the twospotted spider mite on strawberry in Southern California. Entomophaga 21: 269-74.

Oatman, E. R., J. A. McMurtry, F. E. Gilstrap & V. Voth. 1977a. Effect of releases of Amblyseius californicus, Phytoseiulus persimilis, and Typhlodromus occidentalis on the twospotted spider mite on strawberry in Southern California. J. Econ. Ent. 70: 45-7.

Oatman, E. R., J. A. McMurtry, F. E. Gilstrap & V. Voth. 1977b. Effect of releases of Amblyseius californicus on the twospotted spider mite on strawberry in Southern California. J. Econ. Ent. 70: 638-40.

Oatman, E. R., J. A. Wyman, H. W. Browning & V. Voth. 1981. Effects of releases and varying infestation levels of the twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) on strawberry yield in Southern California. J. Econ. Ent. 74: 112-15.

Obrycki, J. J. 1986. The influence of foliar pubescence on entomophagous species, p. 61-83. In: D. J. Boethel & R. D. Eikenbary (eds.), Interactions of Plant Resistance and Parasitoids and Predators of Insects. Ellis Horwood, Ltd., Chichester, England. 224 p.

Ohlendorf, W. 1926. Studies of the pink bollworm in Mexico. U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 1374. 64 p.

Orphanides, G. M., D. Gonzalez & B. R. Bartlett. 1971. Identification and evaluation of pink bollworm predators in southern California. J. Econ. Ent. 64: 421-4.

Ouye, M. T. 1962. Effects of antimicrobial agents on micro-organisms and pink bollworm development. J. Econ. Ent. 55: 854-57.

Owen, W. L. & S. L. Calhoun. 1932. Biology of the pink bollworm at Presidio, Texas. J. Econ. Ent. 25: 741-51.

Paillot, A. 1927. Sur deux protozaires nouveaux parasites des chenilles de Pyrausta nubilalis Hb. C. R. Acad. Sci. 185: 673-75.

Parker, F. D. 1971. Management of pest populations by manipulating densities of both hosts and parasites through periodic releases, p. 365-76. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological Control. Plenum Press, New York.

Parker, F. D., F. R. Lawson & R. E. Pennell. 1971. Suppression of Pieris rapae: Mass releases of both the pest and its parasite. J. Econ. Ent. 64: 721-35.

Patel, R. C. 1980. Role and feasibility of natural enemies in integrated pest management of cotton. Andhra Agr. J. 27: 35-40.

Patel, R. C. & D. N. Yadav. 1980. Biological control of cotton pests. Proc. 3rd All India Coord. Res. Proj. on Biol. Contr. of Crop Pests and Weeds. PAU, Ludhiana, India. 6 p.

Pawar, A. D. & J. Prasad. 1985. Evaluation of some exotic parasites in biocontrol of cotton bollworms in Haryana. Ind. J. Plant Prot. 13: 21-4.

Pearson, E. O. 1958. The insect pests of cotton in tropical Africa. Empire Cotton Growing Corp. and Commonwealth Inst. of Ent. London. 355 p.

Pedigo, L, P., E. J. Bechinski & R. A. Higgins. 1982. Partial life tables of the green cloverworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in soybean and a hypothesis of population dynamics in Iowa. Environ. Ent. 12: 186-95.

Pemberton, C. E. 1948. History of entomology department experiment station, H.S.P.A., 1904-1945. Hawaii. Plant. Rec. 52: 53-90.

Pemberton, C. 1953. Biological control of insects in Hawaii. Proc 7th Pac. Sci. Congr. 4: 220-23.

Pemberton, C. 1954. Invertebrate Consultants Commission for the Pacific Report for 1949-54. Pac. Sci. Bd., Nat. Acad. Sci. Nat. Res. Coun.

Pitre, H. (ed.). 1983. Natural Enemies of Arthropod Pests in Soybean. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 285. 90 p.

Prasad, J., A. D. Pawar & P. Singh. 1986. Role of exotic and indigenous parasites Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead, Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, Trichogramma acheae Nagaraja & Nagarakati, Chelonus blackburni Cameron and Bracon kirkpatricki (Willinson), for the control of cotton bollworms in Hissar (Haryana) India, p. 190-94. In: S. C. Goel (ed.), Pest. Res. & Environ. Poll., Muzaffarnagar, India: Sanatan Dharm College.

Price, P. W. 1976. Colonization of crops by arthropods: Non-equilibrium communities in soybean fields. Environ. Ent. 5: 505-611.

Price, P. W. 1981. Relevance of ecological principles to practical biological control, pp. 3-19. In: G. C. Papavizas (ed.), Biological Control in Crop Production. Beltsville Symposia in Agric. Res., 5. Allanheld, Osmun Publ, Granada. 461 p.

Price, P. W. & G. P. Waldbauer. 1982. Ecological aspects of pest management, p. 33-68. In: R. L. Metcalf & W. H. Luckmann (eds.), Introduction to Insect Pest Management. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 577 p.

Puttler, B., F. D. Parker, R. E. Pennell & S. E. Thewke. 1970. Introduction of Apanteles rubecula into the United States as a parasite of imported cabbageworm. J. Econ. Ent. 63: 304-05.

Puttler, B., D. L. Hostetter, S. H. Long & R. E. Pinnell. 1978. Entomophthora phytonomi, a fungal pathogen of the alfalfa weevil in the mid-great plains. Environ. Ent. 7: 670-71.

Qadri, A. H. 1933. Rhogas aligharensi sp. n. (a pink bollworm parasite). Curr. Sci. 2: 209.

Rabb, R. L. 1971. Naturally occurring biological control in the eastern United States with particular reference to tobacco, p. 294-311. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological Control. Plenum Press, New York.

Rabb, R. L., & G. G. Kennedy (eds.). 1979. Movement of Highly Mobile Insects: Concepts and methodology in research. Dept. Ent., North Carolina St. Univ., Raleigh, N. C. 456 p.

Rao, K. J., T. S. Thontadarya & K. Rangadhamaiah. 1979. A note on the survival and parasitism of the egg-larval parasite, Chelonus blackburni Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on some lepidopterous hosts. Curr. Res. 8: 48-50.

Rao, V. P., M. A. Ghani, T. Sankaran & K. C. Mathur. 1971. A review of the biological control of insects and other pests in south east Asia and the Pacific region. Tech. Bull. Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. 6. 149 p.

Raodeo, A. K., M. B. Sarkate, A. D. Deshpande, U. T. Thombre, N. R. Seera, D. S. Tayade & B. B. Gaikwad. 1978. Studies on the mass multiplication field release and recovery of Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashm. an egg parasite of cotton bollworms at Parbhani. J. Res. Maharashtra Agr. Univ. 3: 103-8.

Raodeo, A. K., P. P. Kausale & M. B. Sarkate. 1980. Possibilities of biological control of cotton bollworms. Proc. 3rd All India Coord. Res. Proj. on Biol. Contr. of Crop Pests & Weeds. PAU, Ludhiana, India. p. 69-74.

Raodeo, A. K., M. B. Sarkate, D. S. Tayade & G. G. Bilapate. 1983. Population dynamics of cotton bollworms in Marathawada. Cotton Development 13: 10-23.

Raodeo, A. K., M. B. Sarkate, P. K. Kaunsale, G. G. Bilapate & K. S. Shinde. 1983. Possibilities of biological control of cotton bollworms [Earias vittella, Earias insulana, Pectinophora gossypiella, Heliothis armigera, Chelonus blackburni, w/ Bracon kirkpatricki]. Cotton-Dev. Bombay: Dir. Cot. Dev., July 1983, Vol. 13: 31-4.

Reichelderfer, K. & F. Bender. 1979. Application of a simulative approach to evaluating alternative methods for the control of agricultural pests. Amer. J. Agr. Econ. 61: 258-67.

Rey, J. R. & E. D. McCoy. 1979. Application of island biogeography theory to pests of cultivated crops. Environ. Ent. 8: 577-82.

Reynolds, H. T., P. L. Adkisson, R. F. Smith & R. E. Frisbie. 1982. Cotton insect pest management, p. 375-441. In: R. L. Metcalf & W. H. Luckmann (eds.), Introduction to Insect Pest Management. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 577 p.

Ridgway, R. L. & R. K Morrison. 1985. Worldwide perspective on practical utilization of Trichogramma with special reference to control of Heliothis on cotton. Southwest. Ent. (Suppl.) 8: 190-98.

Room, P. M. 1979. A prototype on-line system for management of cotton pests in the Namoi Valley, New South Wales, Australia. Prot. Ecol. 1: 245-64.

Room, P. M. & K. G. Wardhaugh. 1977. Temporal distribution of insects other than Heliothis spp. feeding on cotton in the Namoi Valley of New South Wales, Australia. J. Aust. Ent. Soc. 16: 165-74.

Rude, C. S. 1937. Parasites of the pink bollworm in northern Mexico. J. Econ. Ent. 30: 838-42.

Russo, G. 1940. Contributo alla conoscenza degli insetti dannosi al cotone nell'Africa orientale Italiana. I. Lepidotteri. Boll. Lab. Ent. Agr., Portici 3: 105-220.

Salama, H. S. & M. S. Foda. 1984. Studies on the susceptibility of some cotton pests to various strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. Z. angew. Pflanzenk. Pflanzens. 91: 65-70.

Salama, H. S., M. S. Foda & A. M. El-Sharaby. 1981. Potency of spore-endotoxin complexes of Bacillus thuringiensis against some cotton pests. Z. angew. Ent. 91: 388-98.

Sands, D. P. A. & A. R. Hill. 1982. Surveys for parasitoids of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Australia. CSIRO Aust. Div. Ent. Rept. 29. 18 p.

Sangwan, H. S., S. N. Verma, A. K. Sharma & R. P. Singh. 1972. Establishment of Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead at the seed research station, Karnal (Haryana). Entomologist's Newsletter 2: 69-70.

Sangwan, H. S., S. N. Varma & V. K. Sharma. 1972. Possibility of integration of exotic parasites Trichogramma brasiliensis (Ashmead) for the control of cotton bollworms. Indian J. Ent. 34: 360-1.

Sarkate, M. B., A. K. Raodeo, N. R. Seeras & M. D. Jawale. 1978a. Field release and recovery of Chelonus blackburni Cameron an exotic egg larval parasite of cotton bollworms. Res. Bull. Marathwada Agric. Univ. 2: 15-16.

Sarkate, M. B., A. K. Raodeo, N. R. Seeras & M. D. Jawale 1978b. Note on the recovery of Chelonus blackburni Cameron (Braconidae; Hymenoptera), an exotic egg-larval parasite of cotton bollworms. Curr. Sci. 47: 473.

Satpathy, J. M. & N. S. Rao. 1972. Biology and bionomics of Brachymeria nephantidis Gahan [Hymenoptera: Chalcididae], a pupal parasite of coconut caterpillar (Nephantis serinopa (Meyrick). Indian J. Agr. Sci. 42: 524-28.

Schultz, P. B. & W. A. Allen. 1976. Field evaluation of Mexican bean beetle suppression through use of Pediobius foveolatus in Virginia. Veget. Grow. News 31: 1-3.

Sekhon, B. S. & G. C. Varma. 1983. Parasitoids of Pectinophora gossypiella [Lep.: Gelechiidae] and Earias spp. [Lep.: Noctuidae] in the Punjab. Entomophaga 28: 45-54.

Sengonca, C. 1982. The principal cotton pests and their economic thresholds in the Kilikien Plain in southern Turkey. Entomophaga 27: 51-6.

Shalaby, F. F. 1968. Morphology of immature stages and bionomics studies on Microplitis rufiventris Kokujev (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). M. S. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, Egypt.

Sharma, S. K., S. D. Mathur, R. M. Khan & B. N. Mathur. 1971. Evaluation of some modern insecticides for the control of insect pests of cotton by means of aerial spraying and their effect on parasites and predators. Z. für Pflanzenkrankheiten, Pflanzenpathologie u. Pflanzenschutz 78: 286-95.

Shen, X., K. Wang & G. Meng. 1988. The innoculative release of Trichogramma dendrolimi for controlling corn borer and rice leaf roller, p. 575-580. In: V. Voegele & J. C. van Lenteren (eds.), Trichogramma and Other Egg Parasites. 2nd Intern. Symp. Guanzhou, People's Rep. of China. Colloques de l'INRA No. 43.

Shepard, M. & J. Robinson. 1976. Suppression of Mexican bean beetle in soybean by the imported parasite, Pediobius foveolatus. Sumter Area Agric. Dev. Proj. Rep. 1976: 49-53.

Shepard, M., G. R. Carner & S. G. Turnipseed. 1977. Colonization and resurgence of insect pests of soybean in response to insecticide and field isolation. Environ. Ent. 6: 501-06.

Shorey, H. H. & R. L. Hale. 1965. Mass-rearing of the larvae of nine nocutid species on a simple artificial medium. J. Econ. Ent. 58: 522-24.

Siegel, J. P., J. V. Maddox & W. G. Ruesink. 1986. The impact of Nosema pyrausta on a braconid Macrocentrus grandii in central Illinois. J. Invertebr. Path. 47: 271-76.

Siegel, J. P., J. V. Maddox & W. G. Ruesink. 1987. Survivorship of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in central Illinois. Environ. Ent. 16: 1071-75.

Simberloff, D. 1986. Island biogeographic theory and integrated pest management, p. 19-35. In: M. Kogan (ed.), Ecological Theory and Integrated Pest Management Practice. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 362 p.

Simmonds, F. J. 1958. Recent work on biological control in the British West Indies. Proc. 10th Int. Cong. Ent. 4: 475-78.

Singh, J., T. H. Singh, H. S. Kaley & K. Singh. 1974. Influence of cotton plant morphology on bollworms incidence. Cotton Development 4: 15-19.

Singh, J., R. Arora & A. S. Sidhu. 1987/1988. First records of predators of cotton pests in the Punjab India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist Soc. 84: 456.

Sloan, W. J. S. 1946. The status of heat treatment of plant cotton seed for the control of pink bollworm, Pectinophora scutigera Hold., in Queensland. Qlds. J. Agric. Sci. 3(1): 80-5.

Smith, R. F. & H. T. Reynolds. 1966. Principles, definitions and scope of integrated pest control. Proc. FAO Symp. on Integrated Pest Control 1: 11-17.

Smith, R. F. & H. T. Reynolds. 1972. Effects of manipulation of cotton agro-ecosystems on insect pest populations, p. 373-406. In: M. J. Farvar & J. P., Milton (eds.), The Careless Technology. Nat. Hist. Press, Garden City, New York.

Smyth, E. G. 1923. A trip to Mexico for parasites of the Mexican bean beetle. Wash. Acad. Sci. J. 13: 259-60.

Sohi, G. S. 1964. Pests of cotton. Entomology in India. Ent. Soc. India, New Delhi. p. 111-14.

Sparks, A. N. 1979. An introduction to the status, current knowledge and research on movement of selected Lepidoptera in southeastern United States, p. 382-83. In: R. L. Rabb & G. G. Kennedy (eds.), Movement of Highly Mobile Insects: Concepts and Methodology in Research. Dept. Ent., North Carolina St. Univ., Raleigh, N. C. 456 p.

Sprenkel, R. K. & W. M. Brooks. 1975. Artificial dissemination and epizootic initiation of Nomuraea rileyi, an entomogenous fungus of lepidopterous pests of soybeans. J. Econ. Ent. 68: 847-51.

Sprenkel, R. K., W. M. Brooks, J. W. Van Duyn & L. L. Deitz. 1979. The effects of three cultural variables on the incidence of Nomuraea rileyi, phytophagous Lepidoptera and their predators on soybeans. Environ. Ent. 8: 334-39.

Srinivasan, P. M., M. M. Basheer, P. A. Ibrahim & A. Janagarajan. 1965. Control of bollworms in rain-fed and irrigated cotton. Madras Agr. J. 52: 487.

Stam, P. A. 1983. Cotton pest management in the Syrian Arab Republic. Tech. Rept., FAO/UNEP/0108/76/03. FAO, Rome. 135 p.

Stam, P. A. 1987. Integrated pest control on cotton in Pakistan. End of Assignment Rept., FAO/UNDP, PAK/83/003, FAO, Rome. 87 p.

Stam, P. A. & A. Tunc. 1983. Prospects of integrated pest management on cotton int he Cukarova region in Turkey. TEch. Rept., FAO/TUR/83/003, FAO, Rome. 44 p.

Steinhaus, E. A. 1951. Report on diagnoses of diseased insects, 1944-50. Hilgardia 20: 629-678.

Stengel, M. 1982. Essai de mise au point de la prevision des egats pour la lutte contre la pyrale du mais (Ostrinia nubilalis) en Alsace (Est de la France). Entomophaga 27: 105-14.

Sterling, W. L. 1975. Sequential sampling of cotton insect populations, p. 133-35. In: Proc. 1975 Beltwide Cotton Prod. Res. Conf., Nat. Cotton Counc., New Orleans, LA.

Sterling, W. L. 1976. Sequential decision plans for management of cotton arthropods in south-east Queensland. Aust. J. Ecol. 1: 265-74.

Sterling, W. 1984. Action and inaction levels in pest management. Texas Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 1480. 20 p.

Stern, V. M., R. van den Bosch & T. F. Leigh. 1964. Strip cutting alfalfa for lygus bug control. Calif. Agr. 18(4): 4-6.

Stern, V. M., A. Mueller, V. Sevacherian & M. Way. 1969. Lygus bug control in cotton through alfalfa interplanting. Calif. Agr. 23(2): 8-10.

Stevens, L. M., A. L. Steinhauer & J. R. Coulson. 1975a. Suppression of Mexican bean beetle on soybeans with annual inoculative releases of Pediobius foveolatus. Environ. Ent. 4: 947-52.

Stevens, L. M., A. L. Steinhauer & T. C. Elden. 1975b. Laboratory rearing of the Mexican bean beetle and the parasite Pediobius foveolatus, with emphasis on parasite longevity and host-parasite ratios. Environ. Ent. 4: 953-57.

Stinner, R. E., R. L. Rabb & J. R. Bradley, Jr. 1977. Natural factors operating in the population dynamics of Heliothis zea in North Carolina, p. 622-42. In: Proc. 15th Intern. Congr. Ent, Wash., D. C.

Strickland, G. R. 1981. Integrating insect control for Ord soybean production. J. Agric. West. Australia 22: 81-82.

Strong, D. R. 1974. Rapid asymptotic species accumulation in phytophagous insect communities: The pests of cacao. Science 185: 1064-66.

Strong, D. R. 1979. Biogeographical dynamics of insect-host plant communities. Ann. Rev. Ent. 24: 89-119.

Sukhoruchenko, G. I., O. D. Niyasov & A. Alekseev. 1977. The effect of modern pesticides on the beneficial and injurious insect pests of cotton. Ent. Obozr. 46: 3-4.

Sundaram, N. & K. Natarajan. 1977. Relative susceptibility of cotton varieties for jassic, thrips and bollworms. Cotton Development 7: 34-6.

Surulivelu, T. 1980. Investigations on the utility of certain exotic parasites for the pest management of cotton bollworms. Proc. 3rd All India Coord. Res. Proj. on Biol. Contr. of Crop Pests and Weeds, PAU, Ludhiana, India.

Swamiappan, M. & M. Balasubramanian. 1980. Studies on mass multiplication and potentiality of Chelonus blackburni Cam. a braconid parasite of cotton bollworms. Entomol. 5: 73-5.

Talhouk, A. S. 1969. Insects and mites injurious to crops in Middle Eastern countries. Z. angew. Ent. 21: 239 p.

Tawfik, M. F. S., S. I. El-Sherif & N. A. Bbozeid. 1976. Population fluctuations of the rove-beetle Paederus alferii Koch. (Col., Staphylinidae) in maize, cotton and clover fields in Giza. Z. angew. Ent. 80: 75-83.

Taylor, T. H. C. 1936. Report on a year's investigation of Platyedra gossypiella (Pink bollworm) in Uganda, March 1935 to April 1963. Rep. Dept. Agr. Uganda 1935-36. Part 2. p. 19-39. (Rev. Appl. Ent. A-25: 355).

Thangavelu, K. 1982. Some observations on light trap cateches of cotton bollworm moths. Cotton Development 12: 55-7.

Thimmaiah, G. 1979. Evaluation of cotton varieties for bollworms infestation. Curr. Res. of Univ. (Agric. Sci.) 8: 86-8.

Thompson, W. R. 1958. Biological control in some Commonwealth countries. Proc. 10th Int. Cong. Ent. 4: 479-82.

Thontadarya, T. S. & K. Jai Rao. 1984. Integrated management of cotton pests with parasitoids as one of the components. Pap. Nat. Seminar Integr. Pest Manage., Nagpur 5-7 Jan, 1984.

Titus, E. G. 1907. A new pest on the alfalfa. Desert Farmer 3: 7.

Titus, E. G. 1910. The alfalfa leaf weevil. Utah Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 110: 72 p.

Todd, D. H. 1959. Incidence and parasitism of insect pests of cruciferous crops in the North Island. Evaluation of data, 1955-58 seasons. New Zealand J. Agr. Res. 2: 859-69.

Tuhan, N. C., A. D. Pawar & R. S. Arora. 1987. Use of Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead against cotton bollworms in Srigangangar, Rajasthan, India. J. Adv. Zool. 8(2): 131-4.

van den Bosch, R. & K. S. Hagen. 1966. Predaceous and parasitic arthropods in California cotton fields. Calif. Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 820.

van den Bosch, R., T. F. Leigh, D. Gonzalez & R. E. Stinner. 1969. Cage studies on predators of the bollworm in cotton. J. Econ. Ent. 62: 1486-89.

van den Bosch, R., T. F. Leigh, L. A. Falcon, V. M. Stern, D. Gonzales & K. S. Hagen. 1971. The developing program of integrated control of cotton pests in California, p. 377-94. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological Control. Plenum Press, New York.

van den Bosch, R., O. Beingolea, G. Mostafa Hafez & L. A. Falcon. 1976. Biological control of insect pests of row crops, p. 443-56. In: C. B. Huffaker & P. S. Messenger (eds.), Theory and Practice of Biological Control. Academic Press, Inc., New York, San Francisco & London. 788 p.

van Lenteren, J. C. 1987. Environmental manipulation advantageous to natural enemies of pests, p. 123-63. In: V. Delucchi (ed.), IPM Quo Vadis. Parasite Symposium, Geneva.

Varma, G. C. 1979. A new record of Trichogrammatoidea sp. near guamensis Nagaraja (MS) [Trichogrammatidae: Hymenoptera] an egg parasitoid of Earias species. Cott. Dev. 8: 43.

Varma, G. C., S. Bindra & S. Singh. 1976. A preliminary study on the control of cotton bollworms with Trichogramma brasiliensis. Cotton Dev. 6: 16-18.

Varma, G. C., B. Maninder & B. S. Sekhon. 1980. Biological control of cotton bollworms in the Punjab, p. 59-66. In: Proc. 3rd Workshop of All India Coord. Res. Proj. Biol. Contr. of Crop Pests and Weeds, PAU, Ludhiana, India.

Whitcomb, W. H. & K. Bell. 1964. Predaceous insects, spiders and mites of Arkansas cotton fields. Ark. Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 690.

White, G. F. & L. W. Noble. 1936. Notes on pink bollworm septicemia. J. Econ. Ent. 29: 122-24.

Wilkinson, A. T. S. 1966. Apanteles rubecula Marsh, and other parasites of Pieris rapae in British Columbia. J. Econ. Ent. 59: 1012-18.

Wilkinson, D. S. 1931. Four new species of Ichneumonidae. Bull. Ent. Res. 22: 393-97.

Willcocks, F. C. 1916. The Insect and Related Pests of Egypt. Vol. I. The Insect and Related Pests Injurious to the Cotton Plant. Part 1. The Pink Bollworm. Sultanic Agric. Soc., Cairo. 339 p.

Willcocks, F. A. & S. Bahgat. 1937. The insects and related pests of Egypt. Insects and mites injurious to the cotton plant. Sultanic. Agric. Soc., Cairo 1(2). 791 p.

Williams, C. B. 1926. Seasonal variation in pink bollworm attack on cotton in Egypt in the years 1916-1924. Tech. Bull. Min. Agric. Egypt. 12 p.

Wilson, A. G. L. 1972. Distribution of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), in Australia and its status as a pest in the Ord irrigation area. J. Aust. Inst. Agric. Sci. 38: 95-9.

Wilson, A. G. L. & L. R. Greenup. The relative injuriousness of insect pests of cotton in the Namoi Valley, New South Wales. Aust. J. Ecol. 2: 319-28.

Wilson, A. G. L., R. D. Hughes & N. Gilbert. 1972. The response of cotton to pest attack. Bull. Ent. REs. 61: 405-14.

Wilson, F. 1960. A review of the biological control of insects and weeds in Australia and Australian New Guinea. Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Control Tech. Commun. 1. 102 p.

Wilson, L. T. & A. P. Gutierrez. 1980. Within-plant distribution of predators on cotton: comments on sampling and predator efficiencies. Hilgardia 48: 3-11.

Wilson, L. T., A. P. Gutierrez & T. F. Leigh. 1980. Within-plant distribution of immatures of Heliothis zea (Boddie) on cotton. Hilgardia 48: 12-23.

Windels, M. B., H. C. Chiang & B. Furgaia. 1976. Effects of Nosema pyrausta on pupal and adult stages of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. J. Invertebr. Path. 27: 239-42.

Wright, W. E. & M. I. Nikitin. 1964. A survey of insects in cotton in New South Wales. Aust. J. Sci. 27: 178-9.

Yasumatsu, K., K. Nomura, S. Utida & T. Yamasaki. 1953. Applied Entomology. Asakura Publ, Tokyo. 266 p. (in Japanese).

Yearian, W. C., J. J. Hamm & G. R. Carner. 1986. Efficacy of Heliothis pathogens, p. 92-103. In: S. J. Johnson, E. G. King & J. R. Bradley, Jr. (eds.), Theory and Tactics of Heliothis Population Management: 1- Cultural and Biological Control. Southern Coop. Ser. Bull. 316: 161 p.

Yukawa, J. & K. Kiritani. 1965. Polymorphism in the southern green stink bug. Pac. Insects 7: 639-42.

Zaki, F. N. 1985. Reactions of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens Westw. to certain insect sex pheromones. Zeit. angew. Ent. 99: 448-53.

Zhou, L. T. 1988. Study on parasitizing efficiency of Trichogramma confusum Viggiani in controlling Heliothis armigera Hübner and its modelling, p. 641-44. In: J. Voegele, J. Waage & J. C. van Lenteren (eds.), Trichogramma and other egg parasites. Second Intern. Symp. Guanzhou, People's Rep. of China. Colloques de l'INRA No. 43.

Zimin, G. 1935. Trichogrammes dus mais dans la lutte contre la pyrale du mais. Zach. Rast. 1: 69-80.