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                                     BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ARTHROPODS IN


                                               RANGE, FORAGE & GRAIN CROPS



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Range Grasses

[Additional crops being added]




          Crops included in this category are alfalfa, sorghum, sugar beets and cereal grains. Principal pests are Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Homoptera. Research effort is on integrated pest management, when the short-term nature of a crop, such as rice, tends to obstruct self-perpetuating classical biological control.

          Rice.--The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is distributed through southern Europe, the Middle East and Asia (Kahn et al. 1991). It feeds on the Poaceae, attacking more than 38 species of grass (Kinoshita & Kawada 1932, Kiritani & Iwao 1967, Romena and Heinrichs 1989, Kahn et al. 1991). it is one of the most injurious pests of cultivated and wild rice (Oryza spp.) (Kiritani & Iwao 1967, Hattori 1971, Reissig et al. 1986).


          The life cycle and biology of C. suppressalis was described by Banerjee & Pramanik (1967), Kiritani * Iwao (1967) and Pathak (1968). The pest lays its eggs in masses on the grass stem or leaf base, above the water line. During the first few days after hatching the neonates crawl between the leaf sheath and stem and feed on external plant tissue. Thereafter the larvae bore into the stem and feed for the rest of their larval period within the lumen (3-4 instars). Feeding by larval stem borers results in the severing of the stem apical to the point of damage. During Oryza's vegetative stage this results in the condition "dead heart," where the central leaf whorl does not unfurl, but dries out and turns brown. In the flowering stage, the panicle (seed stalk) dries out and takes on a whitish coloration as a result of stem borer feeding, a condition called "white heart." Pupation occurs in the lumen of the basal or middle internodes and follows the creation of a small circular exit hole produced for the escape of the adult moth. Mating occurs shortly after emergence from the stem and females lay ca. one mass every three days for 1-2 weeks. The life cycle requires 4-60 days, depending on temperature. In tropical areas such as the Philippines there are two or more rice crops annually, and stem borers are present year round (Cedaņa & Calora 1967).


          Control of stem borers in rice has involved chemical pesticides, varietal resistance and the use of natural enemies (Kiritani 1972, 1977, 1979; Kahn et al. 1991). Even though cultural practices have aided in reducing crop damage, other methods are still required (Loevinsohn et al. 1988). These borers are difficult to control with pesticides because they are protected within the grass stem throughout much of their life cycle. Control is only achieved after repeated foliar applications (Bess 1967, Prakasa-Rao et al. 1970). Emphasis has focused on the development of stem borer resistant varieties of rice because this approach is economical, durable and not hazardous to humans and beneficial organisms (Chaudhary et al. 1984, Heinrichs 1986). Screening of rice germplasm for resistance against C. suppressalis started in 1962 by the International Rice Research Institute, and by 1991 more than 17,000 breeding lines were evaluated (Kahn 1991). Except for several wild species of Oryza, varieties of cultivated rice (O. sativa) have proven to be only moderately resistant to stem borers (Chaudhary et al. 1984, Romena & Heinrichs 1989).


          There are ca. 100 species of parasitoids and 38 predators known to attack the striped stem borer (Kahn 1991). There are unknown numbers of bacteria, nematodes, viruses and fungi also able to attack this borer. Parasitism of the egg stage is high compared to lower rates of predation and parasitism of larval, pupal and adult stages (Bess 1967, Yasumatsu 1967, 1976; Yasamatsu & Torii 1968). Egg parasitoids in the genera Telenomus, Tetrastichus and Trichogramma can achieve a level of control that is near 100% in some years or areas (Rothschild 1970, Catling et al. 1983, Kim & Heinrichs 1985, Kim et al. 1986). A prominent parasitoid is Tetrastichus schoenobii Ferriere (Hym., Eulophidae) (Reissig et al. 1986, Kahn et al. 1991).


Tetrastichus schoenobii parasitizes stem borers of rice, corn, sugarcane, wheat many other grass species on Southeast Asia and India. Kahn et al. (1991) reported a total of 10 stem borer hosts. Although all juvenile stages of the striped stem borer are attacked, eggs suffer the highest parasitism (Reissig et al. 1986). This species is endoparasitic in stem borer eggs, but later instars of the parasitoid become predaceous on other host eggs within the egg mass (Rothschild 1970, Kim & Heinrichs 1985). An average of three host eggs are required to complete the larval period. Egg to adult eclosion requires ca. 9 days, and wasps mate immediately on emergence (Rothschild 1970, Bhuiyan & Sufian 1986). Both males and females multiply mate (Bhuijan & Sufian 1986). Mating in females is followed by a 24-h delay in oviposition, after which they begin to search for hosts (Bhuiyan & Sufian 1986). Wasps continually mature eggs during their lifetime (Rothschild 1970, Chao et al. 1979) and parasitize an average of 14 hosts per egg mass per day (Ding et al. 1986). Males and females life for 12-23 days, respectively (Bhuiyan & Sufian 1986).


Range Grasses-- Biological control of Rhodesgrass mealybug ,Dusmetia sangwani (Rao) , was achieved by airplane releases of an introduced parasite of limited dispersing ability.  Schuster (1965-67, 70, 73, 76, Schuster et al. 1971).  The parasitoid Anagyrus antoninae was, was imported to Texas from India where it provided completely biological control  [please see<ch-94.htm>].


REFERENCES: [Additional references may be found at  MELVYL Library ]

Banerjee, S. N. & L. M. Pramanik. 1967. The lepidopterous stalk borers of rice and their life cycles in the tropics, p. 103-24. In: The Major Insect Pests of the Rice Plant. Proc. Symp. IRRI. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD.

Baumgaertner, J. U., A. P. Gutierrez & C. G. Summers. 1981a. The influence of aphid prey consumption on searching behavior, weight increase, developmental time, and mortality of Chrysopa carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae. Canad. Ent. 113: 1007-14.

Baumgaertner, J. U., B. D. Frazer, N. Gilbert, B. Gill, A. P. Gutierrez, P. M. Ives, V. Nealis, D. A. Raworth & C. G. Summers. 1981b. Coccinellids (Coleoptera) and aphids (Homoptera): the overall relationship. Canad. Ent. 113: 975-80.

Bellows, T. S., Jr. & T. W. Fisher, (eds) 1999. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  1046 p.

Bess, H. A. 1967. Feasibility and problems of chemical control of rice stem borers (research on the natural enemies of rice stem borers). Mushi 39 (Suppl.): 45-60.

Bhuiyan, B. A. & M. A. Sufian. 1985. Biological studies of Tetrastichus schoenobii Ferriere (Hymenoptera: Tetrastichidae), an egg parasite of yellow rice borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker). Bangladesh J. Zool. 14: 75-82.

Burton, V. E., C. G. Summers, K. S. Hagen & V. M. Stern. 1987. Insects and mites, p. 1-13. In: IPM Manual Group, Univ. Calif., Davis, Alfalfa Pest Management Guidelines.

Burton, V. E., C. G. Summers, K. S. Hagen & V. M. Stern. 1989. Alfalfa pest management guidelines 1989. Univ. Calif., UCPMG Publ. No. 2. 14 p.

Catling, H., D. Z. Islam & B. Alam. 1983. Egg parasitism of the yellow rice borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Lep.: Pyralidae) in Bangladesh deepwater rice. Entomophaga 28: 227-39.

Cedaņa, S. M. & F. B. Calora. 1967. Insect pests of rice in the Philippines, p. 591-616. In: The Major Insect Pests of the Rice Plant. Proc. Symp. IRRI. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD.

Chang, T. 1976. The origin, evolution, cultivation, dissemination, and diversification of Asian and African rices. Euphytica 25: 425-41.

Chao, C., S. Chang & F. Doong. 1979. The influence of environmental factors on the reproductive capacity of Tetrastichus schoenobii Ferr. Acta Ent. Sin. 22: 289-93.

Chaudhary, R. C., G. S. Khush & E. A. Heinrichs. 1984. Varietal resistance to rice stem-borers in Asia. Insect Sci. Applic. 5: 447-63.

Cothran, W. R. & C. G. Summers. 1971. Biology and control of the Egyptian alfalfa weevil, Hypera brunneipennis (Boh.) in California. Proc. Alfalfa Prod. Symp, Fresno, CA., Dec 7-8, 1971. p. 59-62.

Cothran, W. R. & C. G. Summers. 1972. Sampling for the Egyptian alfalfa weevil: a comment on the sweep-net method. J. Econ. Ent. 65: 689-91.

Cothran, W. R., C. G. Summers & D. Gonzalez. 1971. Egyptian alfalfa weevil-- population and ecology research. Calif. Agr. 25(5): 5.

Cothran, W. R., C. G. Summers & C. E. Franti. 1975. Sampling for the Egyptian alfalfa weevil: comparison of two standard sweepnet techniques. J. Econ. Ent. 68: 563-4.

Ding, D., H. Qui & J. Du. 1986. Host recognition and host acceptance behavior of Tetrastichus schoenobii, p. 173-80. In: Trichogramma and Other Egg Parasites, 2nd Internatl. Symp., Guangzhou, China. INRA, Paris.

Gutierrez, A. P., C. G. Summers & J. Baumgaertner. 1979. The phenology and distribution of aphids in California alfalfa. Canad. Ent 112: 489-95.

Gutierrez, A. P., J. U. Baumgaertner & C. G. Summers. 1983. A case study in an alfalfa ecosystem. Canad. Ent. 116: 950-63.

Gutierrez, A. P., J. U. Baumgaertner & C. G. Summers. 1984. Multitrophic models of predator-prey energetics. Canad. Ent. 116: 923-4.

Hattori, I. 1971. Stem borers of graminaceous crops in Southeast Asia. Internatl. Symp. Rice Insects. Trop. Agr. Res. 5: 145-53.

Heinrichs, E. A. 1986. Perspectives and directions for the continued development of insect resistant rice varieties. Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 18: 9-36.

Kahn, Z. R., J. A. Litsinger, A. T. Barrion, F. F. D. Villanueva, N. J. Fernandez & L. D. Taylo. 1991. World Bibliography of Rice Stem Borers 1790-1990. IRRI, Los Baņos, Philippines.

Kim, H. S. & E. A. Heinrichs. 1985. Parasitization of yellow stem borer eggs (YST) Scirpophaga incertulas eggs. IRRI Newsletter 10: 14.

Kim, H. S., E. A. Heinrichs & P. Mylvaganam. 1986. Egg parasitism of Scirpophaga incertulas Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) by hymenopterous parasitoids in IRRI rice fields. Korean J. Plant Prot. 25: 37-40.

Kinoshito, S. & A. Kawada. 1932. A revision of the rice borers (Chilo) and their distribution. J. Imp. Agr. Expt. Stn. 2: 97-104.

Kiritani, K. 1972. Strategy in integrated control of rice pests. Rev. Plant Prot. Res. 5: 76-104.

Kiritani, K. 1977. Recent progress in the pest management of rice in Japan. JARQ 11: 40-9.

Kiritani, K. 1979. Pest management in rice. Ann. Rev. Ent. 24: 279-312.

Kiritani, K. & S. Iwao. 1967. The biology and life cycle of Chilo suppressalis (Walker) and Tryporyza (Schoenobius) incertulus (Walker) in temperate-climate areas, p. 45-101. In: The Major Insect Pests of the Rice Plant. Proc. Symp. IRRI. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD.

Lamp, W. D., K. V. Yeargan, R. F. Norris, C. G. Summers & D. G. Gilchrist. 1986. Miltiple pest interactions in alfalfa, p. 345-64. In: R. E. Frisbie & P. L. Adkisson (eds.), Integrated Pest Management on Major Agricultural Systems, Texas A. & M. Univ., College Sta., TX.

Lehman, W. F., C. G. Summers & V. L. Marble. 1990. Notice of release of UC 73 germplasm with resistance to Egyptian alfalfa weevil, Hypera brunneipennis (Boheman). Crop Sci.

Loevinsohn, M. E., J. A. Litsinger & E. A. Heinrichs. 1988. Rice insect pests and agricultural change, p. 161-82. In: M. K. Harris & C. E. Rogers (eds.), The Entomology of Indigenous and Naturalized Systems in Agriculture. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.

Pathak, M. D. 1968. Ecology of common insect pests of rice. Ann. Rev. Ent. 13: 257-94.

Pike, K. S., D. Allison, L. Boydston, C. O. Qualset, H. E. Vogt & C. G. Cummers. 1989. Suction trap reveals more than 60 species of aphids, including the Russian wheat aphid, a new pest in California. Calif. Agr. 43(6): 22-4.

Pimentel, D. & A. G. Wheeler, Jr. 1973. Species diversity of arthropods in the alfalfa community. Environ. Ent. 2: 659-68.

Prakasa-Rao, P. S., Y. S. Rao and P. Israel. 1970. Problems and prospects in the chemical control of rice stem borers. Oryza 7: 89-102.

Read, D. P., P. P. Feeny & R. B. Root. 1970. Habitat selection by the aphid parasite Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and hyperparasite Charips brassicae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Canad. Ent. 102: 1567-78.

Reissig, W. H., E. A. Heinrichs, J. A. Litsinger, K. Moody, L. Fiedler, T. W. Mew & A. T. Barrion. 1986. Illustrated Guide to Integrated Pest Management in Rice in Tropical Asia. IRRI, Los Baņos, Philippines. 411 p.

Romena, A. M. & E. A. Heinrichs. 1989. Wild species of rice Oryza spp. as sources of resistance to rice insects. J. Plant Prot. Trop. 6: 213-21.

Rothschild, G. H. L. 1970. Parasites of rice stemborers in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo). Entomophaga 15: 21-51.

Schuster, M. F.  1965a.  Studies on the biology of Dusmetia sangwani (Hymenoptera-- Encyrtidae).  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 58:  272-75.


Schuster, M. F.  1965b.  Comparative virulence of Texas and California polyhedrosis virus of the cabbage looper.  J. Rio Grande Valley Hort. Soc. 19:  87-8.


Schuster, M. F.  1967a.  Notes on Endodusmetia sangwani in Texas).  In:  Internatl. Adv. Com. Biol. Control, Biol. Control Inform. Bull. (Comm. Inst. Biol. Control) 2:  60.


Schuster, M. F.  1967b.  Response of forage grasses to rhodesgrass scale.  J. Range Management 20:  307-09.


Schuster, M. F. & J. C. Boling.  1970.  Biological control of rhodesgrass scale in Texas by Neodusmetia sangwani (Rao); effectiveness and colonization studies.  Texas A. & M. Univ. Tech. Rept.


Schuster, M. F. & H. A. Dean.  1973.  Rhodesgrass scale resistance studies in rhodesgrass.  J. Econ. Ent. 66:  467-69.


Schuster, M. F. & H. A. Dean.  1976.  Competitive displacement of Anagyrus antoninae ([Hym.: Encyrtidae] by its ecological homologue Neodusmetia sangwani [Hym.: Encyrtidae].  Entomophaga 21:  127-30.


Schuster, M. F., J. C. Boling & J. J. Marony, Jr.  1971.  Biological control of Rhodesgrass scale by airplane releases of an introduced parasite of limited dispersing ability. p. 227-50. In:  C. B. Huffaker (ed.), "Biological Control."  Plenum Press, N.Y.

Shang, Z. Z. & Y. S. Wanga. 1984. Study on the utilization of artificial diets for Chilo suppressalis Walker. Insect Knowledge 21: 5-9.

Stern, V. M., R. Sharma & C. G. Summers. 1980. Alfalfa damage from Acyrthosiphon kondoi and economic threshold studies in southern California. J. Econ. Ent. 73: 145-8.

Summers, C. G. 1975. The blue alfalfa aphid-- biology and economic thresholds. Proc. Alfalfa Prod. Symp, p. 49-52. Dec. 10-11, Fresno, CA.

Summers, C. G. 1976a. Aprostocetus diplosidis, a parasite of the sorghum midge found in California. Pan Pacific Ent. 52: 80-1.

Summers, C. G. 1976b. Population dynamics of selected arthropods in alfalfa: influence of two harvesting practices. Environ. Ent. 5: 103-10.

Summers, C. G. 1988. Cultivar and temperature influence on development, survival, and fecundity in four successive generations of Acyrthosiphon kondoi (Homoptera: Aphididae). J. Econ. Ent. 81: 516-21.

Summers, C. G. 1989a. Insect pests of forage alfalfa. Proc. 1989 Alfalfa Symp., Univ. Nevada, Reno. Special Publ. 89-1. p. 134-46.

Summers, C. G. 1989. Effect of selected pest and multiple pest complexes on alfalfa productivity and stand persistence. J. Econ. Ent. 82: 1782-91.

Summers, C. G. & R. L. Coviello. 1984. Impact of Acyrthosiphon kondoi (Homoptera: Aphididae) on alfalfa: field and greenhouse studies. J. Econ. Ent. 77: 1052-6.

Summers, C. G. & A. S. Newton. 1986. The leafhopper (Empoasca spp.) complex in California alfalfa: impact on yield nad quality. Proc. 16th Calif. Alfalfa Symp, p. 124-28, Dec. 11-12, 1986. Sacramento, CA.

Summers, C. G. & A. S. Newton. 1987. Low temperature decreases CUF 101 alfalfa resistance to blue alfalfa aphid. Calif. Agr. 41(9/10): 11-12.

Summers, C. G. & A. S. Newton. 1989a. Economic significance of the sugarbeet root aphid, Pemphigus populivenae Fitch (Homoptera: Aphididae) in California. J. Appl. Agr. Res. 4(3): 162-7.

Summers, C. G. & A. S. Newton. 1989. Relationship of herbivore imposed stress to weeds in alfalfa. Environ. Ent. 18: 958-63.

Summers, C. G., R. L. Coviello & W. R. Cothran. 1975a. The effect on selected entomophagous insects of insecticides applied for pea aphid control in alfalfa. Environ. Ent. 4: 612-4.

Summers, C. G., R. L. Coviello, W. E. Pendery & R. W. Bushing. 1975b. Sorghum midge pest management in the San Joaquin Valley. Calif. Agr. 29(9): 4-5.

Summers, C. G., R. E. Garrett & F. G. Zalom. 1984a. New suction device for sampling arthropod populations. J. Econ. Ent. 77: 817-23.

Summers, C. G., R. L. Coviello & A. P. Gutierrez. 1984b. Influence of constant temperatures on the development and reproduction of Acyrthosiphon kondoi. Environ. Ent. 13: 236-42.

Temple, S. R., C. G. Summers & V. E. Burton. 1987. Managing aphids and viruses to reduce losses to beet yellows. The Calif. Sugar Beet. p. 19-20.

Temple, S. R., V. E. Burton, C. G. Summers & M. Kirk. 1989. Epidemiological studies of beet yellows virus in California. J. Sugarbeet Res. 26(1): 24-5.

Temple, S. R., M. Kirk & C. G. Summers. 1990. Pest management and sugarbeet production. Calif. Sugarbeet 89: 19, 29.

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