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BIOLOGICAL CONTROL IN TROPICAL

 

& SUBTROPICAL ORCHARDS

(Contacts)

          Crops in this category include coconut, oil palms, macadamia, avocado, banana, pineapple citrus, coffee, cocoa, guavas and passion fruit, almonds and olives. Principal pests are fruit flies, scale insects and fruit piercing and scavenger moths (Bennett et al. 1976).

          Many tropical and subtropical crops are raised successfully in temperate climates of California South Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean where winter temperatures are moderate, and tropical pests that have moved with these crops often do not pose as severe a threat as in their places of origin. However, several species can become problematic at time, and some temperature zone pests have moved over to tropical plants when the latter appear in their territory. Citrus of all the tropical crops has been most successfully adapted to temperate regions where the added stress of winter even stimulates fruit production. Avocados because of the origins of several species at high elevations in the Neotropics are also adapted to temperate climates. However, the latter sustain comparably fewer pest species than citrus in such areas. Almonds have sustained invasions of damaging proportions on a few occasions, with notable pests being navel orangeworm and peach twig borer. The references in this section stress work performed on crops in and for tropical regions of the world below 24° Lat., while greater detail on tropical crops in temperate regions may be found in the Case History, Coccidae and regional sections especially.

Please see Research #1 for greater detail.

 

REFERENCES:        [Additional references may be found at  MELVYL Library ]

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Annecke, D. P. 1969. Recent developments in biological and integrated control of citrus pests in South Africa. Proc. 1st Int. Citrus Symp. Riverside, Calif. 2: 849-54.

Annecke, D. P. & M. J. Mynhardt. 1972. The species of the insidiosus group of Metaphycus Mercet in South Africa with notes on some extralimital species (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 85: 227-74.

Argov, Y. & Y. Rössler. 1988. Introduction of berneficial insects into Israel for the control of insect pests. Phytoparasitica 16: 303-15.

Argyriou, L. C. 1963. Studies on the morphology and biology of the black scale [Saissetia oleae (Bernard)] in Greece. Ann. Inst. Phytopath. Benaki, N.S. 5: 353-77.

Argyriou, L. C. 1974. Data on the biological control of citrus scales in Greece. Bull. SROP 1974/3: 89-94.

Argyriou, L. C. 1984. Present status of parasite complex in olive groves in Greece, p. 177-78. In: R. Vavalloro & A. Piavaux (eds.), C.E C. Programme on Integrated and Biological Control. Final Report 1979/83. Comm. European Comm., Directorat, Luxembourg.

Argyriou, L. C. & P. DeBach. 1968. The establishment of Metaphycus helvolus (Compere) (Hymenoptera: Encytidae) on Saissetia oleae (Bern.) (Homoptera: Coccidae) in olive groves in Greece. Entomophaga 13: 223-28.

Awibowo, R. 1934. Der Klapperbladkever, Brontispa froggatti var. celebensis, ein zijn biologische bestrijding op Celebes (Voorloopige mededeeling). Landbouw. Buitenz. 10: 76-92.

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Bartlett, B. R. 1960. Biological races of the black scale, Saissetia oleae, and their specific parasites. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 53: 383-85.

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Bartlett, B. R. 1969. The biological control campaigns against soft scales and mealybugs on citrus in California. Proc. 1st Int. Citrus Symp., Riverside, Calif. 2: 875-78.

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Clausen, C. P. 1956a. Biological Control of Insect Pests in the Continental United States. U. S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. No. 1139. 151 p.

Clausen, C. P. 1956b. Biological control of fruit flies. J. Econ. Ent. 49: 176-78.

Clausen, C. P. & P. A. berry. 1932. The citrus blackfly in Asia, and the importation of its natural enemies into tropical America. U. S. Dep. Agr. Bull. 320.

Clausen, C. P., D. W. Clancy & Q. C. Chock. 1965. Biological control of the Oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and other fruit flies in Hawaii. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 1322.

Cochereau, P. 1969. Installation de Tetrastichus brontispae Ferr. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), parasite de Brontispa longissima Gestro, var. froggatti Sharp (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Hispinae) dans la presqu'lle de Noumea. Cah. ORSTOM Ser. Biol. 7: 139-41.

Cochereau, P. 1970a. Recherches aux Nouvelles-Hébrides de Pleurotropis parvulus Ferr. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), parasite de Promecotheca pulchellus Gestro (Coleoptera: Hispinae), et expéditions sur la Cote d'Ivoire. Nouméa, N. Caledonia, Off. Rech. Sci. Tech. Outre Mer. (Multigr.).

Cochereau, P. 1970b. Les mouches des fruits et leurs parasites dans la zone indo-australopacifique et particulierement en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Cah. ORSTOM Ser. Biol. 12: 15-50.

Cochereau, P. 1976. Biologie et dynamique des populations, en Nouvelle-Calédonie, d'un papillon piqueur de fruits: Othreis fullonia Clerck (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Catocalinae). Mem. ORSTOM, Paris. 258 p.

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Daane, K. M., D. Bromberger & L. E. Caltagirone. 1990. Improving biological control of black scale, Saissetia oleae, in California olive orchards. Statewide UCIPM Project, Progress Rept., 1990.

Daane, K. M., C. E. Kennet, L. E. Caltagirone & M. S. Barzman. 1992. Black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier) (Homoptera: Coccidae) . In: J. W. Beardsley & G. Jackson (eds.), Case History of Biological Control of Arthropod Pests in Western United States. (in press).

Daane, K. M., M. S. Barzman, C. E. Kennett & L. E. Caltagirone. 1992. Establishment in California olive orchards of Prococcophagus probus and Coccophagus rusti (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), parasites of black scale, Saissetia oleae (Homoptera: Coccidae). Pan-Pacific Ent. (in press).

Davis, C. J. 1964. The introduction, propagation, liberation and establishment of parasites to control Nezara viridula var. smaragdula (Fabricius) in Hawaii. Proc. Hawaii. Ent. Soc. 18: 369-75.

Davis, C. J. 1967. Progress in the biological control of the southern stink bug Nezara viridula var. smaragdula (Fabricius) in Hawaii (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Mushi Suppl. 39: 9-16.

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DeBach, P. & B. R. Bartlett. 1951. Effects of insecticides on biological control of insect pests of citrus. J. Econ. Ent. 44: 372-83.

DeBach, P. & K. S. Hagen. 1964. Manipulation of entomophagous species, p. 429-58. In: DeBach, P. (ed.), Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Reinhold, New York. 844 p.

DeBach, P. & J. Landi. 1961. The introduced purple scale parasite, Aphytis lepidosaphes Compere, and a method of integrating chemical with biological control. Hilgardia 31: 459-97.

DeBach, P. & R. A. Sundby. 1963. Competitive displacement between ecological homologues. Hilgardia 34: 105-66.

DeBach, P. & S. C. Warner. 1969. Research on biological control of whiteflies. Citrograph 54: 301-03.

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1964   Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman.  1964.  Spiders on apple in Wisconsin and their abundance in a natural and two artificial environments.

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1983   Legner, E. F.  1983.  Influence of residual Nonpareil almond mummies on densities of the navel orangeworm and parasitization.  J. Econ.

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1983  Legner, E. F.  1983.  Patterns of field diapause in the navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) and three imported parasites.  Ann.

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1987  Legner, E. F. & R. D. Goeden.  1987.  Larval parasitism of Rhagoletis completa (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Juglans microcarpa

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1962   Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman.  1962.  Effects of Thuricide on the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana.  J. Econ. Entomol. 5(5):  677-

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1983   Legner, E. F. & A. Silveira-Guido.  1983.  Establishment of Goniozus emigratus and Goniozus legneri [Hym: Bethylidae] on navel

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1992  Legner, E. F. & G. Gordh.  1992.  Lower navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) population densities following establishment of

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1982a  Legner, E. F., G. Gordh, A. Silveira-Guido & M. E. Badgley.  1982.  New larvicidal wasp to attempt control of navel orangeworm.

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1982b Legner, E. F., G. Gordh, A. Silveira-Guido & M. E. Badgley.  1982.  New wasp may help control navel orangeworm.  Calif. Agric. 38(5-

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