čFILE: <bc-31.htm>                                                                                                                                                                                                            GENERAL INDEX                 [Navigate to   MAIN MENU ]






         Because of the dramatic success with the cottony-cushion scale, and the chronic and often acute problems with coccids in agriculture, biological control of this group of insects has been practiced intensively since the late 1800's. As was discussed in an earlier section, it seems that coccids lend themselves more readily to classical biological control, and it was pointed out that their sessile habits, occurrence in perennial crops and inability to control by other means account to some extent for this disproportionate attention. Some of the more prominent references relating to biological control work with coccids are noted.



REFERENCES:         [Additional references may be found at  MELVYL Library ]

Bartlett, B. R. 1964. Integration of chemical and biological control. Chap. 17. In: P. DeBach (ed.), Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Reinhold Publ. Co., New York. 844 p.

Bedford, E. C. G. 1968. An integrated spray programme. S. Afr. Citrus J., No. 417. p. 9-28.

Bellows, T. S., Jr. & T. W. Fisher, (eds) 1999. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Broodryk, S. W. & R. L. Doutt. 1966. The biology of Coccophagoides utilis Doutt (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Hilgardia 27: 233-54.

Clausen, C. P. (ed.). 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds-- a World Review. U. S. Dept. Agric., Agric. Handbk. No. 48. 545 p.

Compere, H. 1955. A systematic study of the genus Aphytis Howard (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) with descriptions of new species. Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent. 10: 271-319.

Compere, H. 1961. The red scale and its insect enemies. Hilgardia 31: 173-78.

Conway, G. R. 1971a. Ecological aspects of pest control in Malaysia. In: M. R. Farvar & J. P. Milton (eds.), The Careless Technology-- Ecology and International Development. Natural History Press, New York.

Conway, G. R. 1971b. Pests of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Sabah and their control (with a list of the cocoa fauna). Kementerian Pertanian dan Perikanan Sabah, Malaysia (Dept. Agr. Sabah). p. 2-125.

Dean, H. A., M. F. Schuster, J. C. Boling & P. T. Riherd. 1979. Complete biological control of Antonina graminis in Texas with Neodusmetia sangwani (a classical example). Bull. Ent. Soc. Amer. 25: 262-67.

Dean, H. A., J. V. French & D. Meyerdirk. 1983. Development of integrated pest management in Texas citrus. Texas Agric. Exp. Sta. B-1434.

DeBach, P. 1958. The role of weather and entomophagous species in the natural control of insect populations. J. Econ. Ent. 51: 474-84.

DeBach, P. 1960. The importance of taxonomy to biological control as illustrated by the cryptic history of Aphytis holoxanthus n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a parasite of Chrysomphalus aonidum, and Aphytis coheni n. sp., a parasite of Aonidiella aurantii. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 53: 701-05.

DeBach, P. (ed.). 1964. Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Reinhold Publ. Co., New York. 844 p.

DeBach, P. 1964. The scope of biological control. Chap. I. In: P. DeBach (ed.), Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Reinhold Publ. Co., New York. 844 p.

DeBach, P. 1965. Weather and the success of parasites in population regulation. Canad. Ent. 97: 848-63.

DeBach, P. 1966. The competitive displacement and coexistence principles. Ann. Rev. Ent. 11: 183-212.

DeBach, P. 1969a. Biological control of diaspine scale insects on citrus in California. Proc. 1st Int. Citrus Symp., Riverside, Calif. (1968) 2: 801-16.

DeBach, P. 1969b. Uniparental, sibling and semi-species in relation to taxonomy and biological control. Israel J. Ent. 4: 11-28.

DeBach, P. 1974. Biological Control by Natural Enemies. Cambridge Univ. Press, London, New York. 323 p.

DeBach, P. & L. C. Argyriou. 1967. The colonization and success in Greece of some imported Aphytis spp. (Hym. Aphelinidae) parasitic on citrus scale insects (Hom. Diaspididae). Entomophaga 12: 325-42.

DeBach, P. & B. R. Bartlett. 1951. Effects of insecticides on biological control of insect pests of citrus. J. Econ. Ent. 44: 372-83.

DeBach, P. & C. A. Fleschner. 1947. Biological control of the long-tailed mealybug. Calif. Citrog. 33: 22-4.

DeBach, P. & J. Landi. 1959. California red scale parasites. Calif. Agric. 13: 9, 13.

DeBach, P. & J. Landi. 1961. The introduced purple scale parasite, Aphytis lepidosaphes Compere, and a method of integrating chemical with biological control. Hilgardia 31: 459-97.

DeBach, P. & D. Rosen. 1971. Biological control of coccids by introduced natural enemies. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.) "Biological Control." Plenum Press, N.Y. p. 165-94.

DeBach, P. & R. A. Sundby. 1963. Competitive displacement between ecological homologues. Hilgardia 34: 105-66.

DeBach, P. & D. Rosen. 1976. Armoured scale insects, p. 139-78. In: V. L. Delucchi (ed.), Studies in Biological Control. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.

DeBach, P. & D. Rosen. 1982. Aphytis yanonensis n. sp. (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae), a parasite of Unaspis yanonensis (Kuwana) (Homoptera, Diaspididae). Kontyu 50: 626-34.

DeBach, P. & D. Rosen. 1991. Biological Control by Natural Enemies. 2nd Ed. Cambridge Univ. Press. 448 p.

DeBach, P. & P. Sisojevic. 1960. Some effects of temperature and competition on the distribution and relative abundance of Aphytis lingnanensis and A. chrysomphali. Ecology 41: 153-60.

DeBach, P. & E. B. White. 1960. Commercial mass culture of the California red scale parasite Aphytis lingnanensis. Calif. Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 770. 58 p.

DeBach, P., C. A. Fleschner & E. J. Dietrick. 1949. Population studies of the long-tailed mealybug and its natural enemies on citrus in southern California, 1947. J. Econ. Ent. 42: 777-82.

DeBach, P., E. J. Dietrick, C. A. Fleschner & T. W. Fisher. 1950. Periodic colonization of Aphytis for control of the California red scale. Preliminary tests, 1949. J. Econ. Ent. 43: 783-802.

DeBach, P., E. J. Dietrick & C. A. Fleschner. 1951. Ants vs. biological control of citrus pests. Calif. Citrog. 36: 312, 347-48.

DeBach, P., C. A. Fleschner & E. J. Dietrick. 1953. Natural control of the California red scale in untreated citrus orchards in southern California. 7th Pacific Sci. Cong. Proc. (1949) 4: 236-48.

DeBach, P., T. W. Fisher & J. Landi. 1955. Some effects of meteorological factors on all stages of Aphytis lingnanensis, a parasite of the California red scale. Ecology 36: 743-53.

DeBach, P., D. Rosen & C. E. Kennett. 1971. Biological control of coccids by introduced natural enemies, p. 165-94. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological Control. Plenum Press, New York, London.

Doutt, R. L. 1954. An evaluation of some natural enemies of olive scale. J. Econ. Ent. 47: 39-43.

Doutt, R. L. 1958. Vice, virtue and the vedalia. Bull. Ent. Soc. Amer. 4: 119-23.

Doutt, R. L. & P. DeBach. 1964. Some biological control concepts and questions. Chap. 5. In: P. DeBach (ed.), Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Reinhold Publ. Co., New York. 844 p.

Ebeling, W. 1947. DDT preparations to control certain scale insects on citrus. J. Econ. Ent. 40: 619-32.

Flanders, S. E. J. L. Gressitt & T. W. Fisher. 1958. Casca chinensis, an internal parasite of California red scale. Hilgardia 28: 65-91.

Geier, P. W. 1966. Management of insect pests. Ann. Rev. Ent. 11: 471-90.

Hafez, M. & R. L. Doutt. 1954. Biological evidence of sibling species in Aphytis maculicornis (Masi) (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae). Canad. Ent. 86: 90-96.

Huffaker, C. B. & C. E. Kennett. 1966. Biological control of Parlatoria oleae (Colvee) through the compensatory action of two introduced parasites. Hilgardia 37: 283-35.

Huffaker, C. B. & P. S. Messenger. 1964. The concept and significance of natural control. Chap. 4. In: P. DeBach (ed.), Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Reinhold Publ. Co., New York. 844 p.

Huffaker, C. B., C. E. Kennett & G. L. Finney. 1962. Biological control of the olive scale, Parlatoria oleae (Colvee), in California by imported Aphytis maculicornis (Masi) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Hilgardia 32: 541-636.

Kennett, C. E., C. B. Huffaker & K. W. Optiz. 1965. Biological control of olive scale. Calif. Agr. 19(2): 12-15.

Kennett, C. E, C. B. Huffaker & G. L. Finney. 1966. The role of an autoparasitic aphelinid, Coccophagoides utilis Doutt, in the control of Parlatoria oleae (Colvee). Hilgardia 37: 255-82.

Maltby, H. L., E. Jimenez-Jimenez & P. DeBach. 1968. Biological control of armored scale insects in Mexico. J. Econ. Ent. 61: 1086-88.

Meyerdirk, D. E. & I. M. Newell. 1979. Importation, colonization and establishment of natural enemies on the Comstock mealybug in California. J. Econ. Ent. 72: 70-73.

Meyerdirk, D. E., I. M. Newell & R. W. Warkentin. 1981. Biological control of Comstock mealybug. J. Econ. Ent. 74: 79-84.

Meyerdirk, D. E., S. Khasimuddin & M. Bashir. 1988. Importation, colonization and establishment of Anagyrus indicus [Hym.: Encyrtidae] on Nipaecoccus viridis [Hom.: Pseudococcidae] in Jordan. Entomophaga 33: 229-37.

Muma, M. H. 1969. Biological control of various insects and mites on Florida citrus. Proc. 1st Int. Citrus Symp., Riverside, Calif. (1968) 2: 863-70.

Rose, M. 1990. Periodic colonization of natural enemies, p. 433-40. In: D. Rosen (ed.), Armored Scale Insects, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol. 4B. Elsevier Sci. Publ., Amsterdam.

Rosen, D. 1964. Parasites of the Coccoidea, Aphididea, and Aleurodidea of citrus in Israel. Ph.D. Thesis, Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem. 220 p.

Rosen, D. 1965. The hymenopterous parasites of citrus armored pests in Israel (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 58: 388-96.

Rosen, D. 1967. Biological and integrated control of citrus pests in Israel. J. Econ. Ent. 60: 1422-27.

Rosen, D. 1980. Integrated control of citrus pests in Israel. Proc. Intern. Symp. IOBC/WPRS, Integrated Control in Agriculture and Forestry (Vienna, 1979), p. 289-92.

Rosen, D. & P. DeBach. 1976. Biosystematic studies on the species of Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Mushi 49: 1-17.

Rosen, D. & P. DeBach. 1978. Diaspididae, p. 78-128. In: C. P. Clausen (ed.), Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: A world review. Agric. Handbk. 480, U. S. Dept. Agric., Washington, D. C.

Rosen, D. & P. DeBach. 1979. Species of Aphytis of the World (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). W. Junk, The Hague, Netherlands. 801 p.

Schuster, M. F. 1965. Studies on the biology of Dusmetia sangwani (Hymenoptera-- Encyrtidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 58: 272-75.

Schuster, M. F. 1967. Notes on Endodusmetia sangwani in Texas). In: Internatl. Adv. Com. Biol. Control, Biol. Control Inform. Bull. (Comm. Inst. Biol. Control) 2: 60.

Schuster, M. F. & H. A. Dean. 1976. Competitive displacement of Anagyrus antoninae ([Hym.: Encyrtidae] by its ecological homologue Neodusmetia sangwani [Hym.: Encyrtidae]. Entomophaga 21: 127-30.

Schuster, M. F., J. C. Boling & J. J. Marony, Jr. 1971. Biological control of Rhodesgrass scale by airplane releases of an introduced parasite of limited dispersing ability. p. 227-50. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.), "Biological Control." Plenum Press, N.Y. p. 227-50.

Taylor, T. H. C. 1935. The campaign against Aspidiotus destructor Sign., in Fiji. Bull. Ent. Res. 26: 1-102.

Varley, G. C. 1959. The biological control of agricultural pests. J. Roy. Soc. Arts 107: 475-90.

White, E. F., P. DeBach & M. J. Garber. 1970. Artificial selection for genetic adaptation to temperature extremes in Aphytis lingnanensis Compere (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Hilgardia 40: 161-92.