FILE: <bc-30.ref.htm>                                                                                                                                                             GENERAL INDEX                                       [Navigate to   MAIN MENU ]

 

 

COLONIZATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES

 (References)

   (Contacts)

 

     REFERENCES ( Culture of Hosts For Natural Enemies, Culture of Natural Enemies and Colonization of Natural Enemies,

                                      respectively):

 

             [Additional references may be found at  MELVYL Library ]

 

Allen, H. W. & M. H. Brunson. 1947. Control of Nosema disease of potato tuberworm, a host used in the mass production of Macrocentrus ancylivorus. Science 105: 394.

Amis, A. A. & J. W. Snot. 1985. Conotrachelus nenuphar, pp. 227-235. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Ankersmit, G. W. 1985. Adoxophyes orana, pp. 165-175. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Argyriou, L. C. 1981. Establishment of the imported parasite Prospaltella perniciosi [Hym.: Aphelinidae] on Quadraspidiotus perniciosus [Hom.: Diaspididae] in Greece. Entomophaga 28: 125-30.

Ashby, M. D., P. Singh & G. K. Clare. 1985. Cydia pomonella, pp. 237-248. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Aspi, J.  2000.  Inbreeding and outbreeding depression in male courtship song characters in Drosophila Montana.  Heredity 84:  273-82.

Bailey, D. L. & J. A. Seawright. 1984. Improved techniques for mass rearing Anopheles albimanus, pp. 200-205. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Barbosa, P., J. A. Saunders & M. Waldvogel. 1982. Plant-mediated variation in herbivore suitability and parasitoid fitness. In: Proc. 5th Int. Sym. Insect-Plant Relationships, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 1-4 March, 1982: 63-71.

Barrows, E. M. & M. E. Hooker. 1981. Parasitization of the Mexican bean beetle by Pediobius foveolatus in urban vegetable gardens. Environ. Ent. 10: 782-86.

Bartlett, A. C. 1984. Genetic changes during insect domestication, pp. 2-8. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt Printing Office.

Bartlett, A. C. 1985. Guidelines for genetic diversity in laboratory colony establishment and maintenance, pp. 7-17. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Bartlett, A. C. & W. W. Wolf. 1985. Pectinophora gossypiella, pp. 415-430. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Baumhover, A. H. 1985. Manduca sexta, pp. 387-400. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

 

1963  Bay, E. C. & E. F. Legner.  1963.  Quality control in the production of Hippelates collusor (Tsnd.) for use in the search and rearing of   

           their natural enemies.  Proc. New Jersey Mosquito Exterm. Comm. 1963.  403-410

 

Beach, R. M. & J. W. Todd. 1986. Foliage consumption and larval development of parasitized and unparasitized soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens [Lep.: Noctuidae], reared on a resistant soybean genotype and effects on an associated parasitoid, Copidosoma truncatellum [Hym.: Encyrtidae]. Entomophaga 31: 237-42.

Beirne, B. P. 1975. Biological control attempts by introductions against pest insects in the field in Canada. Canad. Ent. 107: 225-36.

Belloncik, S., C. Lavallée & I. Quevillon. 1985. Euxoa scandens and Euxoa messoria, pp. 293-99. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Bellows, T. S., Jr. & T. W. Fisher, (eds) 1999. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  1046 p.

Bennett, F. D. 1966. Current status of citrus blackfly and introduced parasites in Barbados. Agr. Soc. Trinidad Tobago Jour. 66: 35-6.

Bennett, F. D. & L. W. van Wherlin. 1966. Occurrence of the citrus black fly in Barbados. Agr. Soc. Trinidad Tobago Jour. 66: 31-4.

Bezark, L. G. 1989. Suppliers of beneficial organisms in North America. Calif. Dept. Food Agr., Biological Control Services Program, 3288 Meadowview Road, Sacramento, CA 95832. 12 p.

Biemont, C. & M. Bouletreau.  1980.  Hybridization and inbreeding effects on genome coadaptation in a haplo-diploid Hymenoptera:  Cothonaspis boulardi (Eucoilidae).  Experientia 36:  45-47.

Blenk, R. G., R. J. Gouger, T. S. Gallo, L. K. Jordan & E. Howell. 1985. Agrotis ipsilon, pp. 177-187. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Boller, E. F. 1985. Rhagoletis cerasi and Ceratitis capitata, pp. 135-144. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Bouse, L. F., J. B. Carlton & R. K. Morrison. 1981. Aerial application of insect egg parasites. Trans. ASAE 14: 1093-98.

Bouse, L. F., J. B. Carlton, S. L. Jones, R. K. Morrison & J. R. Ables. 1980. Broadcast aerial release of an egg parasite for lepidopterous insect control. Trans. ASAE 23: 1359-63, 1368.

Brinton, F. E., M. D. Proverbs & B. E. Carty. 1969. Artificial diets for mass production of the codling moth, Carpocapsa pomonella (L>) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). Canad. Ent. 101: 577-84.

Brooks, W. M. 1974. Protozoan infections, pp. 237-300. In: G. E. Cantwell (ed.), Insect diseases, Vol. I. Marcel Dekker, New York.

Brower, J. H. 1983. Eggs of stored-product Lepidoptera as hosts for Trichogramma evanescens [Hym.: Trichogrammatidae]. Entomophaga 28: 355-62.

Brown, H. E. 1984. Mass production of screwworm flies, Cochliomyia hominivorax, pp. 193-199. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Bucher, G. E. & P. Harris. 1961. Food-plant spectrum and elimination of disease of cinnabar moth larvae, Hypocrita jacobaeae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Canad. Ent. 93: 931-36.

Bush, G. L., R. W. Neck & G. B. Kitto. 1976. Screwworm eradication: inadvertent selection of non-competitive ecotypes during mass Rearing. Science 193: 491-93.

Campbell, M. M. 1975. Establishing Aphytis melinus in citrus orchards by a new simple method. J. Aust. Inst. Agric. Sci. 41: 42-53.

Campbell, M. M. 1976. Colonization of Aphytis melinus DeBach [Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae] in Aonidiella aurantii (Mask.) [Homoptera: Coccidae] on citrus in South Australia. Bull. Ent. Res. 65: 659-68.

Chambers, D. L. & T. R. Ashley. 1984. Putting the control in quality control in insect rearing, pp. 256-260. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Chambers, R. J. 1956. Preliminary experiments on the potential of hoverflies [Dipt.: Syrphidae] for the control of aphids under glass. Entomophaga 31: 197-204.

Chen, X.  1993.  Comparison of inbreeding and outbreeding in hermaphroditic Arianta arbustorum (L.) (land snail).  Heredity 71:  456-61.

Chianese, R. 1985. Cotesia melanoscelus, pp. 395-400. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

1982  Chiri, A. A. & E. F. Legner.  1982.  Host-searching kairomones alter behavior of Chelonus sp. nr. curvimaculatus, a hymenopterous parasite of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders).  Environ. Entomol. 11(2):  452-455.

 

1986    Chiri, A. A. & E. F. Legner.  1986.  Response of three Chelonus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) species to kairomones in scales of six Lepidoptera.  Canad. Entomol. 118(4):  329-333.

Clair, D. J., D. L. Dahlsten & E. R. Hart. 1987. Rearing Tetrastichus gallerucae [Hymenoptera: Eulophidae] for biological control of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola. Entomophaga 32: 457-61.

Clausen, C. P. 1940 [reprinted 1972]. Entomophagous Insects. Hafner, New York. 688 p.

Clausen, C. P. [ed.]. 1977. Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds: a world review. U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Handbook No. 480: 551 p.

Collins, A. M. 1984. Artificial selection of desired characteristics in insects, pp. 9-19. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.) Advances and Challenges in insect rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

HCook, J. M.  1993.  Experimental tests of sex determination in Goniozus nephantidis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae).  Heredity 71: 130-37.

Cossentine, J. E. & L. C. Lewis. 1986. Studies on Bonnetia comta [Dipt.: Tachinidae] parasitizing Agrotis ipsilon [Lep.: Noctuidae] larvae. Entomophaga 31: 323-30.

Coulson, J. R., A. Carrell & D. L. Vincent. 1988. Releases of beneficial organisms in the United States and territories - 1981. U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Publ. No. 1464. 324 pp.

Coulson, T., S. Albon, J. Slate & J. Pemberton.  1999.  Microsatellite loci reveal sex-dependent responses to inbreeding in red deer calves.  Evolution 56:  1951-60.

Croft, B. A. & J. A. McMurtry. 1972. Minimum releases of Typhlodromus occidentalis to control Tetranychus mcdanieli on apple. J. Econ. Ent. 65: 188-91.

Cross, T. F.  2000.  Genetic implications of translocations and stocking of fish species, with particular reference to Western Australia.  Aquacultural Res. 31:  83-94.

DeBach, P. [ed.]. 1964. Biological control of insect pests and weeds. Chapman & Hall, London. 844 p.

DeBach, P. & K. S. Hagen. 1964. Manipulation of entomophagous species, pp. 429-458. In: P. DeBach (ed.), Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Chapman & Hall, London.

DeMeester, L.  1993.  Inbreeding and outbreeding depression in Daphnia.  Oecologia 96:  80-84.

Dickerson, W. A., J. D. Hoffman, E. G. King, N. C. Leppla & T. M. O'Dell. 1979. Arthropod species in culture in the United States and other countries. Ent. Soc. Amer.,College Park, MD. 93 p.

Dobzhansky, T.  1948.  Genetics of natural populations.  XVIII.  Experiments on chromosomes of Drosophila pseudoobscura from different geographical regions.  Genetics 33:  588-602.

Drea, J. J., Jr. & R. M. Hendrickson, Jr. 1986. Analysis of a successful classical biological control project: the alfalfa blotch leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in the northeastern United States. Environ. Ent. 15: 448-55.

Dreistadt, S. , K. S. Hagen & D. L. Dahlsten. 1986. Predation by Iridomyrmex humilis [Hym.: Formicidae] on eggs of Chrysoperia carnea [Neu.: Chrysopidae] released for inundative control of Illinoia liriodendri [Hom.: Aphididae] infesting Liriodendron tulipifera. Entomophaga 31: 297-400.

Drooz, A. T. & M. L. Weems. 1982. Cooling eggs of Eutrapela clemataria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) to -10°C forestalls decline in parasite production with Ooencyrtus ennomophagus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Canad. Ent. 114: 1195-96.

Drummond, F. A., R. L. James, R. A. Casagrande & H. Faubert. 1984. Development and survival of Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a predator of the Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Environ. Ent. 13: 1383-86.

Ekbom, B. S. 1977. Development of a biological control program for greenhouse whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood) using its parasite Encarsia formosa (Gahan) in Sweden. Z. angew. Ent. 84: 145-54.

1974  Eskafi, F. M. & E. F. Legner.  1974.  Parthenogenetic reproduction in Hexacola sp. near websteri, a parasite of Hippelates eye gnats. 

           Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 67(5):  767-768.

Etzel, L. K. 1983. Phthorimaea operculella, pp. 431-442. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

1999   Etzel, L. K. & E. F. Legner.  1999.  Culture and Colonization.  In:  T. W. Fisher & T. S. Bellows, Jr. (eds.), Chapter 15, p. 125-197,

           Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA  1046 p.

Etzel, L. K., S. O. Levinson & L. A. Andres. 1981. Elimination of Nosema in Galeruca rufa, a potential biological control agent for field bindweed. Environ. Ent. 10: 143-46.

Fabre, J. P. & J. M. Rabasse. 1987. Introduction dans le sud-est de la France d'un parasite: Pauesia cedrobii [Hym.: Aphidiidae] du puceron: Cedroblum laportei [Hom.: Lachnidae] du cedre de l'atlas: Cedrus atlantica. Entomophaga 32: 127-41.

Fedde, V. H., G. F. Fedde & A. T. Drooz. 1982. Factitious hosts in insect parasitoid rearings. Entomophaga 27: 379-88.

Finney, G. L. & T. W. Fisher. 1964. Culture of entomophagous insects and their hosts, pp. 328-55. In: P. DeBAch (ed.), Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Chapman & Hall, London.

Finney, G. L., S. E. Flanders & H. S. Smith. 1947. Mass culture of Macrocentrus ancylivorus and its host, the potato tuber moth. Hilgardia 17: 437-83.

Fisher, T. W. & T. S. Bellows, Jr. (eds) 1999. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA

Fisher, W. R. 1984. The insectary manager, pp. 295-299. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Flanders, R. V. 1984. Comparison of bean varieties currently being used to culture the Mexican bean beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Environ. Ent. 13: 995-99.

Forbes, A. R., B. D. Frazer & C. K. Chan. 1985. Aphids, pp. 353-359. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Force, D. C.  1967.  Genetics in the colonization of natural enemies for biological control.  Annals Ent. Soc. Amer. 60:  722-29.

Frick, K. E. & R. F. Wilson. 1982. Some factors influencing the fecundity and flight potential of Bactra verutana. Environ. Ent. 11: 181-88.

Friend, W. G. & R. J. Tanner. 1985. Culiseta inornata. pp 35-40. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Friese, D. D., B. Mengevand & J. S. Yaninek. 1987. Culture maintenance and mass production of exotic phytoseiids. Symposium XI of the International Conference on Tropical Entomology: Africa-wide Biological Control Programme of Cassava Pests. Insect Sci. Applic. 8: 875-78.

Furuhashi, K. & M. Nishino. 1983. Biological control of arrowhead scale, Unaspis yanonensis by parasitic wasps introduced from the People's Republic of China. Entomophaga 28: 277-86.

Galford, J. R. 1985. Enaphalodes rufulus, pp. 255-264. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Galichet, P. F., M. Riany & D. Agounke. 1985. Bioecology of Lydella thompsoni Hertig, [Dip.: Tachinidae] within the Rhone delta in southern France. Entomophaga 30: 315-28.

Gantt, C. W., E. G. King & D. F. Martin. 1976. New machines for use in a biological insect control program. Tarns. ASAE 19: 242-43.

Gardiner, B. O. C. 1985a. Schistocerca gregaria, pp. 465-468. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Gardiner, B. O. C. 1985b. Mamestra brassicae, pp. 381-385. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Gardiner, B. O. C. 1985c. Pieris brassicae, pp. 453-457. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Gerling, D. 1966. Biological studies on Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 59: 142-43.

Glass, E. H. & W. L. Roelofs. 1985. Argyrotaenia velutinana, pp. 197-205. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Godfray, H. C. J. 1985. Mass rearing the tachinid fly Argyrophylax basifulva, a parasitoid of the greater coconut spike moth [Tirathaba spp.] [Lep.: Pyralidae]. Entomophaga 30: 211-15.

Goodenough, J. L. 1984. Materials handling in insect rearing, pp. 77-86. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Goodenough, J. L., D. D. Wilson & C. J. Whitten. 1978. Visual sensitivity of four strains of screwworm flies. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 71: 9-12.

Goodwin, R. H. 1954. Recognition and diagnosis of diseases in insectaries and the effects of disease agents on insect biology, pp. 96-129. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.) Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Gordh, G. & B. A. Hawkins.  1981.  Goniozus emigratus (Rohwer), a primary external parasite of Paramyelois transitella (Walker), and comments on bethylids attacking Lepidoptera (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 54:  787-803.

Gordh, G. 7 L. Moczar.  1990.  A catalog of the world Bethylidae (Hymenoptera: Aculeata).  Mem. Amer. Ent. Inst. 46:  364 p.

Gordh, G., J. B. Woolley & R. A. Medved.  1983.  Biological studies on Goniozus legneri Gordh (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) a primary external parasite of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella and pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, gGelechiidae).  Contrib. Amer Ent. Inst. 20:  433-68.

Gould, H. W., W. J. Parr, H. C. Woodville & S. P. Simmonds. 1975. Biological control of glasshouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) on cucumbers. Entomophaga 20: 285-92.

Grant, J. F. & M. Shepard. 1985. Influence of three soybean genotypes on development of Voria ruralis (Diptera: Tachinidae) and on foliage consumption by its host, the soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Fla. Entomol. 68: 672-77.

Grant, J. F. & M. Shepard. 1987. Development of Brachymeria ovata (Say) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) in freezer-stored pupae of lepidopteran species. Environ. Ent. 16: 1207-10.

Greany, P. D., G. E. Allen, J. C. Webb, J. L. Sharp & D. L. Chambers. 1977. Stress-induced septicemia as an impediment to laboratory rearing of the fruit fly parasitoid Biosteres (Opius) longicaudatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae). J. Invertebr. Pathol. 29: 153-61.

Green, R. F., G. Gordh & B. A. Hawkins.  1982.  Precise sex ratios in highly inbred parasitic wasps. Amer. Naturalist 120:  653-65.

Greenberg, B. & J. George. 1985. Calliphora vicina, Phormia regina and Phaenicia cuprina, pp. 25-33. In: P. Singh & F. R. Moore (eds. Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol II. Elsevier, New York.

Greenblatt, J. A. & P. Barbosa. 1981. Effect of host's diet on two pupal parasitoids of the gypsy moth Brachymeria intermedia (Nees) and Coccygominus turionellae (L.). J. Appl. Aecol. 18: 1-10.

Grisdale, D. G. 1984. A laboratory method for mass rearing the eastern spruce budworm, Choristonerur fumiferana, pp. 223-23.. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Grisdale, D. G. 1985a. Lambdina fiscellaria, pp. 345=-53. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol II. Elsevier, New York.

Grisdale, D. G. 1985b. Malacosoma disstria, pp. 369-379. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Gross, H. R., Jr. 1988. Effect of temperature, relative humidity and free water on the number and normalcy of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) emerging from eggs of Heliothis zea (Boddie). Environ. Ent. 17: 470-75.

Gross, H. R., Jr., W. J. Lewis & D. A. Nordlund. 1975. Kairomones and their use for management of entomophagous insects: III. Simulation of Trichogramma achaeae, T. pretiosum, and Microplitis croceipes with host-seeking stimuli at time of release to improve their efficacy. J. Chem. Ecol. 1: 431-38.

Gross, H. R., Jr., W. J. Lewis & D. A. Nordland. 1981. Trichogramma pretiosum: Effect of prerelease parasitization experience on retention in release areas and efficiency. Environ. Ent. 10: 554-56.

Gross, H. R., Jr., W. J. Lewis, M. Beevers & D. A. Nordlund. 1984. Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae): Effects of augmented densities and distributions of Heliothis zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host eggs and kairomones on field performance. Environ. Ent. 13: 981-85.

Guthrie, W. D., J. C. Robbins & J. L. Jarvis. 1985. Ostrinia nubilalis, pp. 407-413. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Guy, R. H., N. C. Leppla, J. R. Rye, C. W. Green, S. L. Barrette & K. A. Hollien. 1985. Trichoplusia ni, pp. 487-494. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Halfhill, J. E. & P. E. Featherston. 1973. Inundative releases of Aphidius smithi against Acyrthosiphon pisum. Environ. Ent. 2: 469-72.

Hamilton, W. D.  1967.  Extraordinary sex ratios.  Science 156:  477-88.

Hansen, L. S. 1988. Control of Thrips tabaci [Thysanoptera: Thripidae] on glasshouse cucumber using large introductions of predatory mites Amblyseius barkeri [Acarina: Phytoseiidae]. Entomophaga 33: 33-42.

Harcourt, D. G., J. C. Guppy & F. Meloche. 1988. Population dynamics of the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Diptera: Agromyzidae), in Eastern Ontario: Impact of the exotic parasite Dacnusa dryas (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environ. Ent. 17: 337-43.

Harris, E. J. & R. Y. Okamoto. 1983. Description and evaluation of a simple method for the collection of the parasite Biosteres oophilus [Hym.: Braconidae]. Entomophaga 28: 241-43.

Harrison, W. W., E. G. King & J. D. Ouzts. 1985. Development of Trichogramma exiguum and T. pretiosum at five temperature regimes. Environ. Ent. 14: 118-21.

Hartley, G. G., C. W. Gantt, E. G. King & D. F. Martin. 1977. Equipment for mass rearing of the greater wax moth and the parasite Lixophaga diatraeae. U. S. Agric. Res. Serv. (Rep.) ARS-Ser. 164. 4 p.

Hartley, G. G., E. G. King, F. D. Brewer & C. W. Gantt. 1982. Rearing of the Heliothis sterile hybrid with a multicellular larval rearing container and pupal harvesting. J. Econ. Ent. 75: 7-10.

Harwallkar, M. R., H. D. Rananavare & G. W. Rahaikar. 1987. Development of Trichogramma brasiliensis [Hym.: Trichogrammatidae] on eggs of radiation sterilized females of potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella [Lep.: Gelechiidae]. Entomophaga 32: 159-62.

Haug, T., H. R. Herren, D. J. Nadel & J. B. Akinwumi. 1987. Technologies for the mass-rearing of cassava mealybugs, cassava green mites and their natural enemies. Symposium XI of the Intern. Conf. on Tropical Entomology: Africa-wide Biological Control Programme of Cassava Pests. Insect Sci. Applic. 8: 879-81.

Heather, N. W. & R. J. Corcoran. 1985. Dacus tryoni, pp. 41-48. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Hedderwick, M. P., M. El Agoze & G. Periquey.  1988.  Enzymatic polymorphism, inbreeding and occurrence of diploid males in Diadromus pulchellus.  Le Colleques de l INRA 48:  109-110.

Henry, J. E. 1985. Melanoplus spp., pp. 451-464. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Herren, H. R. 1987. A review of objectives and achievements. Symposium XI of the International Conf. on Tropical Entomology: Africa-wide Biological Control Programme of Cassave Pests. Insect Sci. Applic. 8: 837-40.

Herren, H. R., R. J. Bird & D. J. Nadel. 1987. Technology for automated aerial release of natural enemies of the cassave mealybug and cassava green mite. Symposium XI of the International Conf. on Tropical Entomology: Africa-wide Biological Control Programma of Cassave Pests. Insect Sci. Applic. 8: 883-85

Hodek, I. 1973. Biology of coccinellidae. Academia, Prague, Czechoslovakia. 292 p.

Hoffman, J. D., C. M. Ignoffo, P. Peters & W. A. Dickerson. 1984. Fractional colony propagation--a new insect rearing system. pp. 232-233. In: E. G King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Hoffmann, R. W. & C. E. Kennett. 1985. Effects of winter temperatures on the sex ratios of Aphytis melinus [Hym.: Aphelinidae] in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Entomophaga 30: 125-32.

Hain, Chi & W. M. Getz. 1988. Mass rearing and harvesting based on an age-stage, two-sex life table: A potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) case study. Environ. Ent. 17: 18-25.

Ignoffo, C. M. & O. P. Boening. 1970. Compartmented disposable plastic trays for rearing insects. J. Econ. Ent. 63: 1696-97.

Isenhour, D. J. 1985. Campoletis sonorensis [Hym.: Ichneumonidae] as a parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda [Lep.: Noctuidae]: host stage preference and functional response. Entomophaga 30: 31-36.

Jackson, J. J. 1985. Diabrotica spp., pp. 237-254. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Jalali, S. K., S. P. Singh, P. Kumar & C. R. Ballal. 1988. Influence of the food plants on the degree of parasitism of larvae of Heliothis armigera by Cotesia kazak. Entomophaga 33: 65-71.

Johnson, S. J. 1985. Low-level augmentation of Trichogramma pretiosum and naturally occurring Trichogramma spp. Parasitism of Heliothis spp. in cotton in Louisiana. Environ. Ent. 14: 28-31.

Jones, S. L., R. K. Morrison, J. R. Ables & D. L. Bull. 1977. A new and improved technique for the field release of Trichogramma pretiosum. Southwest Ent. 2: 210-15.

Jones, S. L., R. K. Morrison, J. R. Ables, L. F. Bouse, J. B. Carlton & D. L. Bull. 1979. New techniques for the aerial release of Trichogramma pretiosum. Southwest. Ent. 4: 14-19.

Jones, W. A., Jr. 1985. Nezara viridula, pp. 339-343. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Joslyn, D. J. 1984. Maintenance of genetic variability in reared insects, pp. 20-29. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Kamal, A. S. 1958. Comparative study of thirteen species of sarcosaprophagous Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae (Diptera). I. Bionomics. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 51: 261-71.

Katsoyannos, P. I. & L. Argyriou. 1985. The phenology of the San Jose scale Quadraspidiotus perniciosus [Hom.: Diaspididae] and its association with its natural enemies on almond trees in northern Greece. Entomophaga 30: 3-11.

Kfir, F. 1981. Effect of hosts and parasite density on the egg parasite Trichogramma pretiosum [Hym.: Trichogrammatidae]. Entomophaga 26: 445-51.

Kfir, R. & H. van Hamburg. 1988. Interspecific competition between Telenomus ullyetti (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and Trichogrammatoidea lutea (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitizing eggs of the cotton bollworm Heliothis armigera in the laboratory. Environ. Ent. 17: 664-70.

Kfir, R., F. Kirsten & N. J. van Rensburg. 1985. Pauesia sp. (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae): a parasite introduced into South Africa for biological control of the black pine aphid, Cinara cronartii (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environ. Ent. 14: 597-601.

King, E. G., G. G. Hartley. 1985a. Diatraea saccharalis, pp. 265-270. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

King, E. G., & G. G. Hartley. 1985b. Galleria mellonella, pp. 301-305. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

King, E. G. & G. G. Hartley. 1985c. Lixophaga diatraeae, pp. 119-123. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

King, E. G. & N. C. Leppa (eds.). 1984. Advances and Challenges in Insect Raring. U. S. Govt. Printing Office. 306. pp.

King, E. G. & R. K. Morrison. 1984. Some systems for production of eight entomophagous arthropods, pp. 206-222. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Elsevier, New York.

King, E. G. G. G. Hartley, D. F. Martin, J. W. Smith, T. E. Summers & R. D. Jackson. 1979. Production of the tachinid Lixophaga diatraeae on its natural host, the sugarcane borer, and on an unnatural host, the greater wax moth. USDA, SEA, AAT-S-3/April 1799. 16 p.

King, E. G., J. H. Hatchett & D. F. Martin. 1978. Biological characteristics of two populations of Lixophaga diatraeae (Tachinidae: Diptera) and their reciprocal crosses at three different temperatures in the laboratory, pp. 509-516. Proc. Int. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. 16th Congr. Ent. Section.

King, E. G., J. Sanford, J. W. Smith & D. F. Martin. 1981. Augmentive releases of Lixophaga diatraeae (Dip.: Tachinidae) for suppression of early season sugarcane borer populations in Louisiana. Entomophaga 26: 59-69.

Krishnamoorthy, A. & S. P. Singh. 1987. Biological control of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri with an introduced parasite, Leptomastix dactylopii in India. Entomophaga 32: 143-48.

Kumar, A., S. Shanker, P. P. Pandey, T. B. Sinha & C. P. M. Tripathi. 1988. Parasitoid-host relationship between Trioxys (Binodoxys) indicus [Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae] and Aphis craccivora [Hemiptera: Aphidiidae]. VI. Impact of males on the number of progeny of the parasitoid reared on certain host plants. Entomophaga 33: 17-23.

Laing, J. E. & J. M. Heraty. 1981. Establishment in Canada of the parasite Apanteles pedias Nixon on the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (Fabr.). Environ. Ent. 10: 933-35.

Lasota, J. A. & L. T. Kok. 1986a. Parasitism and utilization of imported cabbageworm pupae by Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Environ. Ent. 15: 993-98.

Lasota, J. A. & L. T. Kok. 1986b. Larval density effects on pupal size and weight of the imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), and their suitability as hosts for Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Environ. Ent. 15: 1234-36.

1966  Legner, E. F.  1966.  Competition among larvae of Hippelates collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae) as a natural control factor.  J. EconEntomol. 59(6):  1315-1321.

 

1967  Legner, E. F.  1967.  Behavior changes the reproduction of Spalangia cameroni, S. endius, Muscidifurax raptor, and Nasonia  vitripennis  (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at increasing fly host densities.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 60(4):  819-826.

 

     Legner, E. F.  1972.  Observations on hybridization and heterosis in parasitoids of synanthropic flies.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer 

     65:  254-63.

 

1979a  Legner, E. F.  1979.  Prolonged culture and inbreeding effects on reproductive rates of two pteromalid parasites of muscoid flies.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 72(1):  114-118.

 

1979b  Legner, E. F.  1979.  Reproduction of Spalangia endius, Muscidifurax raptor and M. zaraptor on fresh vs. refrigerated fly hosts.  Ann.  Entomol. Soc. Amer. 72(1):  155-157.

 

1979c  Legner, E. F.  1979.  Emergence patterns and dispersal in Chelonus spp. near curvimaculatus and Pristomerus hawaiiensis, parasitic on  Pectinophora gossypiella.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 72(5):  681-686.

 

1983  Legner, E. F.  1983.  Patterns of field diapause in the navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) and three imported parasites.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 76(3):  503-506

 

1985  Legner, E. F.  1985.  Natural and induced sex ratio changes in populations of thelytokous Muscidifurax uniraptor            (Hymenoptera:  Pteromalidae).  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 78(3):  398-402.

 

1986a  Legner, E. F.  1986.  Breeding superior parasitoids of Diptera using a novel extranuclear inheritance mechanism.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. &  Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 44:  156-159.

 

1986b  Legner, E. F.  1986.  Importation of exotic natural enemies.  In:  pp. 19-30, "Biological Control of Plant Pests and of Vectors of Human  and Animal  Diseases."  Fortschritte der Zool. Bd. 32:  341 pp.

 

1987a  Legner, E. F.  1987.  Transfer of thelytoky to arrhenotokous Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Canad. Entomol. 119(3):  265-271

 

1987b   Legner, E. F.  1987.  Pattern of thelytoky acquisition in Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 12(2):  517-527

 

1987c  Legner, E. F.  1987.  Inheritance of gregarious and solitary oviposition in Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera:   Pteromalidae).  Canad. Entomol. 119(9):  791-808.

 

1987c  Legner, E. F.  1987.  Further insights into extranuclear influences on behavior elicited by males in the genus Muscidifurax   (Hymenoptera:  Pteromalidae).  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 55:  127-130.

.

1988a   Legner, E. F.  1988.  Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) females exhibit postmating oviposition behavior typical of the male genome.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 81(3):  522-527.

 

1988b  Legner, E. F.  1988.  Quantitation of heterotic behavior in parasitic Hymenoptera.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 81(4):  657-681.

 

1988c  Legner, E. F.  1988.  Hybridization in principal parasitoids of synanthropic Diptera:  the genus Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Hilgardia 56(4):  36 pp.

 

1989  Legner, E. F.  1989.  Wary genes and accretive inheritance in Hymenoptera.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 82(3):  245-249.

 

1964   Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1964.  Natural exposure of Hippelates eye gnats to field parasitization and the discovery of one pupal and two larval parasites.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 57(6):  767-769.

 

1965  Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1965.  Culture of Hippelates pusio (Diptera: Chloropidae) in the West Indies for natural enemy exploration and  some notes on behavior and distribution.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 58(4):  436-440.

 

1967  Legner, E. F. & D. Gerling.  1967.  Host-feeding and oviposition on Musca domestica by Spalangia cameroni, Nasonia vitripennis, and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) influences their longevity and fecundity.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 60(3):  678-691.

 

1992  Legner, E. F. & G. Gordh.  1992.  Lower navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) population densities following establishment of  Goniozus legneri (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in California.  J. Econ. Ent. 85(6):  2153-60.

 

1981  Legner, E. F. & C. A. Murray.  1981.  Feeding rates and growth of the fish Tilapia zillii [Cichlidae] on Hydrilla verticillata,  Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum var. exalbescens and interactions in irrigation canals in southeastern California.   J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 41(2):  241-250.

 

1983   Legner, E. F. & A. Silveira-Guido.  1983.  Establishment of Goniozus emigratus and Goniozus legneri [Hym: Bethylidae] on navel  orangeworm, Amyelois transitella [Lep: Phycitidae] in California and biological control potential.  Entomophaga 28(2):  97-106.

 

1977  Legner, E. F. & S. N. Thompson.  1977.  Effects of the parental host on host selection, reproductive potential, survival and fecundity of  the egg-larval parasitoid Chelonus sp. near curvimaculatus, reared on Pectinophora gossypiella and Phthorimaea operculella.   Entomophaga 22(1):  75-84.

 

1978  Legner, E. F. & S.-C. Tsai.  1978.  Increasing fission rate of the planarian mosquito predator, Dugesia dorotocephala, through biological filtration.  Entomophaga 23(3):  293-298.

 

1985   Legner, E. F. & R. W. Warkentin.  1985.  Genetic improvement and inbreeding effects in culture of beneficial arthropods.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 52:  156-161

 

1987a  Legner, E. F.  1987.  Some quantitative aspects of inheritance in breeding synanthropic fly parasitoids.  Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 12(2) 528- 533.

 

1987b  Legner, E. F.  1987.  The importance of single species in determining the average density of plants and animals.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. &  Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc.  55:  121-123.

 

1987c  Legner, E. F.  1987.  Further insights into extranuclear influences on behavior elicited by males in the genus Muscidifurax  (Hymenoptera:  Pteromalidae).  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 55:  127-130.

 

1988  Legner, E. F. & R. W. Warkentin.  1988.  Parasitization of Goniozus legneri (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) at increasing parasite and host Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) densities.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 81(5):  774-776.

Leppla, N. C. 1985. Anticarsia gemmatalis, pp. 189-196. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Leppla, N. C. & T. R. Ashley (eds.). 1978. Facilities for insect research and production. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 1576, U. S. Govt. Printing Office. 86 p.

Leppla, N. C. & W. K. Turner. 1975. Carbon dioxide output and mating in adult cabbage loopers exposed to discrete light regimes. J. Insect Physiol. 27: 1233-36.

Leppla, N. C., P. V. Vail & J. R. Rye. 1984. Mass rearing the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, pp. 248-253. In: E. G. King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Margolies, D. C. 1987. Conditions eliciting aerial dispersal behavior in banks grass mite, Oligonychus pratensis (Acari: Tetranychidae). Environ. Ent. 16: 928-32.

Mariel, P., H. J. Svec & C. R. Harris. 1975. Mass rearing of the carrot weevil, Listronotus oregonensis [Coleoptera: Curculionidae], under controlled environmental conditions. Canad. Ent. 107: 95-98.

McFarlane, J. E. 1985. Acheta domesticus, pp. 427-434. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

McLaughlin, R. E. 1966. Laboratory techniques for rearing disease-free insect colonies: Elimination of Mattesia grandis McLaughlin, and Nosema sp. from colonies of boll weevils. J. Econ. ent. 59: 401-404.

McMurtry, J. A., H. G. Johnson & M. H. Badii. 1984. Experiments to determine effects of predator releases on populations of Oligonychus punicae [Acarina: Tetranychidae] on avocado in California. Entomophaga 29: 11-19.

Meadow, R. J., W. C. Kelly & A. M. Shelton. 1985. Evaluation of Aphidoletes aphdimyza [Dip.: Cecidomyiidae] for control of Myzus persicae [Hom.: Aphididae] in greenhouse and field experiments in the United States. Entomophaga 30: 385-92.

Medrano, F. G. & E. A. Heinrichs. 1985. Nilaparvata lugens, pp. 361-372. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Mendel, Z. 1988. Effects of food, temperature and breeding conditions on the life span of adults of three cohabiting bark beetle (Scolytidae) parasitoids (Hymenoptera). Environ. Ent. 17: 293-98.

Meyerdirk, D. E., S. Khasimuddin & M. Bashir. 1988. Importation, colonization and establishment of Anagyrus indicus [Hym.: Encyrtidae] on Nipaecoccus viridis [Hom.: Pseudococcidae] in Jordan. Entomophaga 33: 229-37.

Moore, R. F. 1985. Artificial diets: development and improvement, pp. 67-83. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Moore, R. F. & F. F. Whisnant. 1985. Anthonomus grandis, pp. 217-225. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Moore, R. F., T. M. O'Dell & C. O. Calkins. 1985. Quality assessment in laboratory-reared insects, pp. 107-135. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Moraes, G. J. de, & J. A. McMurtry. 1987. Physiological effect of the host plant on the suitability of Tetranychus urticae as prey for Phytoseiulus persimilis [Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae]. Entomophaga 32: 35-38.

Morgan, P. B. 1985. Musca domestica, pp. 129-134. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Morrison, R. K. 1985a. Trichogramma spp., pp. 413-417. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Morrison, R. K. 1985b. Chrysopa carnea, pp. 419-426. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Morrison, R. K. & E. G. Kong. 1977. Mass production of natural enemies, pp. 183-217. In: R. L. Ridgway & S. B. Vinson (eds.), Biological Control by Augmentation of Natural Enemies. Plenum Press, New York.

Munstermann, L. E. & L. B. Leiser. 1985. Toxorhynchites amboinensis, pp. 157-164. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Munstermann, L. E. & L. M. Wasmuth. 1985a. Aedes aegypti, pp. 7-14. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Munstermann, L. E. & L. M. Wasmuth. 1985b. Aedes triseriatus, pp. 15-24. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Myers, J. H. & M. D. Sabath. 1980. Genetic and phenotypic variability, genetic variance and the success of establishment of insect introductions for biological control of weeds. Prin. Vint. Symp. Biol. Contr. Weeds, Brisbane, Australia 1980. pp. 91-102.

Navon, A. 1985. Spodoptera littoralis, pp. 469-475. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Nechols, J. R. & R. S. Kikuchi. 1985. Host selection of the spherical mealy bug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) by Anagyrus indicus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae): Influence of host stage on parasitoid oviposition, development, sex ratio and survival. Environ. Ent. 14: 32-37.

Nettles, W. C., Jr. 1986. Effects of soy flour, bovine serum albumin, and three amino acid mixtures on growth and development of Eucelatoria bryani (Diptera: Tachinidae) reared on artificial diets. Environ. Ent. 15: 1111-15.

Nettles, W. C., Jr. 1987. Eucelatoria bryani (Diptera: Tachinidae): Effect on fecundity of feeding of hosts. Environ. Ent. 16: 437-40.

Nettles, W. C., Jr., R. K. Morrison, Z-Neng Xie, D. Ball, C. A. Shenkir & S. B. Vinson. 1982. Synergistic action of potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate on parasitoid wasp oviposition. Science 218: 164-66.

Nguyen, R. W., W. H. Whitcomb & M. Murphy. 1976. Culturing of Chrysopa fufilabris (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Florida Entomol. 59: 21-26.

Nicide, D. A. & D. W. Hagstrum. 1981. Provisioning with preparalyzed hosts to improve parasite effectiveness: A pest management strategy for stored commodities. Environ. Ent. 10: 560-64.

Norris, D. M. & H. M. Chu. 1985. Xyleborus ferrugineus, pp. 303-315. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Obrycki, J. J. & M. J. Tauber. 1984. Natural enemy activity on glandular pubescent potato plants in the greenhouse: an unreliable predictor of effects in the field. Environ. Ent. 13: 679-83.

Obrycki, J. J., M. J. Tauber, C. A. Tauber & B. Gollands. 1985. Edovum puttleri (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an exotic egg parasitoid of the Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): responses to temperate zone conditions and resistant potato plants. Environ. Ent. 14: 48-54

Obrycki, J. J., M. J. Tauber, C. A. Tauber & B. Gollands. 1987. Developmental responses of the Mexican biotype of Edovum puttleri (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to temperature and photoperiod. Environ. Ent. 16: 1319-23.

O'Dell, T. M., R. A. Bell, V. C. Mastro, J. A. Tanner & L. F. Kennedy. 1984. Production of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, for research and biological control, pp. 156-166. In: E. G King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

O'Dell, T. M., C. A. Butt, & A. W. Bridgeforth. 1985. Lymantria dispar, pp. 355-367. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Orr, D. B. & D. J. Boethel. 1985. Comparative development of Copidosoma truncatellum (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and its host, Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on resistant and susceptible soybean genotypes. Environ. Ent. 14: 612-16.

Orr, D. B., D. J. Boethel & W. A. Walker. 1985. Biology of Telenomus chloropus from eggs of Nezara viridula reared on resistant and susceptible soybean genotypes. Canad. Ent. 117: 1137-42.

Own, O. S. & W. M. Brooks. 1986. Interactions of the parasite Pediobius foveolatus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) with two Nosema spp. (Microsporida: Nosematidae) of the Mexican bean beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Environ. Ent. 15: 32-39.

Palmer, C. A. & S. Edmands.  2000.  Mate choice in the face of both inbreeding and out breeding depression in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus.  Marine Biology 136:  693-98.

Palmer, D. J. 1985. Brachymeria intermedia, pp. 383-393. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol I. Elsevier, New York.

Papacek, D. F. & D. Smith. 1985. Aphytis lingnanensis, pp. 373-381. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Parker, F. D. & R. E. Pinnell. 1972. Further studies of the biological control of Pieris rapae using supplemental host and parasite releases. Environ. Ent. 1: 150-57.

Parr, W. J. 1972. Biological control of glasshouse pests. J. R. Agric. Soc. Eng. 133: 48.

Patana, R. 1985a. Heliothis zea / Heliothis virescens, pp. 329-334. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Patana, R. 1985b. Spodoptera exigua, pp. 465-468. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Penman, D. R. & R. B. Chapman. 1980. Integrated control of apple pests in New Zealand. 17: Relationships of Amblyseius fallacis to phytophagous mites in an apple orchard. New Zealand J. Zool. 7: 281-87.

Petersen, J. J. 1986. Augmentation of early season releases of filth fly (Diptera: Muscidae) parasites (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with freeze-killed hosts. Environ. Ent. 15: 590-93.

Petersen, J. J. & J. R. Matthews. 1984. Effects of freezing of host pupae on the production of progeny by the filth fly parasite, Muscidifurax zaraptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 56: 397-403.

Pickens, L. G. & R. W. Miller. 1978. Using frozen host pupae to increase the efficiency of a parasite-release program. Florida Ent. 61: 153-58.

Pickett, C. H. & F. E. Gilstrap. 1986. Inoculative releases of phytoseiids (Acari) for the biological control of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in corn. Environ. Ent. 15: 790-94.

Poinar, G. O., Jr. & G. M. Thomas. 1978. Diagnostic manual for the identification of insect pathogens. Plenum Press, New York. 218 pp.

Powell, J. E. & L. Lambert. 1984. Effects of three resistant soybean genotypes on development of Microplitis croceipes and leaf consumption by its Heliothis spp. hosts. J. Agric. Ent. 1: 169-76.

Powell, J. E. & M. Shepard. 1982. Biology of Australian and United States strains of Trissolcus basalis, a parasitoid of the green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula. Aust. J. Ecol. 7: 181-86.

Powell, J. A., M. Shepard & M. J. Sullivan. 1981. Use of heating, degree day and physiological day equations for predicting development of the parasitoid Trissolcus basalis. Environ. Ent. 10: 1008-1011.

Price, P. W., C. E. Bouton, P. Gross, B. A. McPheron, J. N. Thompson & A. E. Weis. 1980. Interactions among three trophic levels: influence of plants on interactions between insect herbivores and natural enemies. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11: 41-65.

Propp, G. D. & P. B. Morgan. 1983. Superparasitism of house fly, Musca domestica L., pupae by Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Environ. Ent. 12: 561-66.

Rahalkar, G. W., M. R. Harwalkar, H. D. Rananavare, A. J. Tamhankar & K. Shanthram. 1985. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, pp. 279-286. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Rappaport, N. & M. Page. 1985. Rearing Glypta fumiferanae [Hym.: Ichneumonidae] on a multivoltine laboratory colony of the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis) [Lep.: Tortricidae]. Entomophaga 30: 347-52.

Rasmy, A. H. & A. Y. M. Ellaithy. 1968. Introduction of Phytoseiulus persimilis for two-spotted spider mite control in greenhouses in Egypt [Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae]. Entomophaga 33: 435-38.

Raulston, J. R. & E. G. King. 1984. Rearing the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, and the corn earworm, Heliothis zea, pp. 167-175. In: E. G King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Raupp, J. J. & K. W. Thorpe. 1985. Estimating total mortality caused by the parasitoid Cotesia melanosecelus. Gypsy Moth News 9: 5; U. S. Dept. Agric. Forest Service.

Reed, D. K. & N. J. Tromley. 1985a. Cydia pomonella, pp. 249-256. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Reed, D. K. & N. J. Tromley. 1985b. Synanthedon pictipes, pp. 477-482. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Reeves, B. G. 1975. Design and evaluation of facilities and equipment for mass production and field release of an insect parasite and an insect predator. Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A. & M. University, College Station, Texas. 180 p.

Remington, C. L. 1968. The population genetics of insect introduction. Ann. Rev. Ent. 13: 415-27.

Riddiford, L. M. 1985. Hyalophora cecropia, pp. 335-343. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Ridgway, R. L., E. G. King & J. L. Carillo. 1977. Augmentation of natural enemies for control of plant pests in the Western Hemisphere, pp. 379-416. In: R. L. Ridgway & S. B. Vinson (eds.), Biological Control by Augmentation of Natural Enemies. Plenum Press, New York.

Roberson, J. L. & J. E. Wright. 1984. Production of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis, pp. 188-192. In: E. G King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Robertson, J. L. 1985a. Choristoneura occidentalis and Choristoneura fumiferana, pp. 227-236. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Robertson, J. L. 1985b. Orgyia pseudotsugata, pp. 401-406. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Rogers, D. J. & M. J. Sullivan. 1986. Nymphal performance of Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) on pest-resistant soybeans. Environ. Ent. 15: 1032-1036.

Rosen, D. & P. DeBach. 1979. Species of Aphytis of the world. W. Junk B. V. The Hague. p. 17-48.

Rössler, Y & P. DeBach. 1972. The biosystematic relations between a thelytokous and an arrhenotokous form of Aphytis mytilaspidis (LeBaron) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). 1. The reproductive relations. Entomophaga 17: 391-423.

Rotheray, G. E., P. Barbosa & P. Martinat. 1984. Host influences on life history traits and oviposition behavior of Brachymeria intermedia (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae). Environ. Ent. 13: 243-47.

Roush, R. T.  1990.  Genetic variation in natural enemies:  critical issues for colonization in biological control, p. 263-288, IN:  Critical issues in Biological Control, M. Mackauer, L. E. Ehler & J. Roland (eds.), Intercept, Andover,, Hants, UK.

Rubink, W. L. & S. L. Clement. 1982. Reproductive biology of Bonnetia comta (Fallen) (Diptera: Tachinidae), a parasitoid of the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environ. Ent. 11: 981-85.

Rutz, D. A. & R. C. Axtell. 1981. House fly (Musca domestica) control in broiler-breeder poultry houses by pupal parasites (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae): Indigenous parasite species and releases of Muscidifurax raptor. Environ. Ent. 10: 343-45.

Sailer, R. I. 1976. Organizational responsibility for biocontrol research and development inputs, pp. 10-10. In: Organized Programs to Utilize Natural Enemies of Pests in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. (Papers presented at the Joint Symposium, National Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Nov. 30-Dec. 4, 1975, New Orleans, LA. Published by PPQ-APHIS-U. S. Dept. Agric. (APHIS 81-28).

Schaefer, P. W., R. J. Dysasrt, R. V. Flanders, T. L. Burger & K. Ikebe. 1983. Mexican bean beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larval parasite Pediobius foveolatus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Japan: Field release in the United States. Environ. Ent. 12: 852-54.

Schierup, J. J. & F. B. Christiansen.  1996.  Inbreeding depression and outbreeding depression in plants.  Heredity 77:  461-468.

Schlinger, E. I. & J. C. Hall. 1959. A synopsis of the biologies of three imported parasites of the spotted alfalfa aphid. J. Econ. Ent. 52: 154-57.

Schneller, J. J.  1996.  Outbreeding depression in the fern Asplenium ruta-muraria L.:  Evidence from enzyme electrophoresis, meiotic irregularities and reduced spore viability.  Biological Journal of the Linnean Soc. 59:  281-95.

Sengonca, C. & S. Gerlach. 1984. Einfluss der Blattoberfläche auf die Wirksamkeit des Räuberischen Thrips, Scolothrips longicornis [Thysan.: Thripidae]. Entomophaga 29: 55-61.

Shaffer, P. L. 1963. Prediction of variation in development period of insects and mites reared at constant temperatures. Environ. Ent. 12: 1012-1019

Shapiro, M. 1984. Microorganisms as contaminants and pathogens in insect rearing, pp. 130-142. In: E. G King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Shapiro, M, R. A. Bell & C. D. Owens. 1978. Influence of diet upon gypsy moth NPV production. J. New York Ent. Soc. 88: 322.

Sikorowski, P. P. 1984. Microbial contamination in insectaries. Occurrence, prevention and control, pp. 143-153. In: E. G King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Sikorowski, P. P. & R. H. Goodwin. 1985. Contaminant control and disease recognition in laboratory colonies, pp. 85-105. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Simmonds, H. W. 1944. The effect of the host fruit upon the scale Aonidiella aurantii Mask. in relation to its parasite Comperiella bifasciata How. J. Australian Inst. Agric. Sci. 10: 38-39.

Singh, P. 1984. Insect diets--Historical developments, recent advances and future prospects. pp. 32-44. In: E. G King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Singh, P. 1985. Multiple-species rearing diets, pp. 19-44. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Singh, P. & M. D. Ashby. 1985. Insect rearing management, pp. 185-215. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Singh, P. & R. F. Moore (eds.) 1985. Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol I. Elsevier, New York. 488 p.

Singh, P. & R. F. Moore (eds.). 1985. Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York. 514 p.

Singh, P., G. K. Clare & M. D. Ashby. 1985. Epiphyas postvittana, pp. 271-282. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Smith, N. G. C.   2000.  The evolution of haplodiploidy under inbreeding.  Heredity 84:  186-92.

Smith, S. M. 1988. Pattern of attack on spruce budworm egg masses by Trichogramma minutum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) released in forest stands. Environ. Ent. 17: 1009-1015.

Sorati, M., M. Newman & A. A. Hoffman.  1996.  Inbreeding and incompatibility in Trichogramma nr. brassicae:  evidence and implications for quality control.  Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 78:  283-290.

Sparks, A. N. & E. A. Harrell. 1975. Corn earworm rearing mechanization. U. S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1554. 11 p.

Speirs, R. D. 1985. Trogoderma spp., pp. 295-301. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Stansly, P. A. 1984. Introduction and evaluation of Chilocorus bipustulatus [Col.: Coccinellidae] for control of Parlatoria blanchardi [Hom.: Diaspididae] in date groves of Niger. Entomophaga 29: 29-39.

Stenseth, C. & I. Aase. 1983. Use of the parasite Encarsia formosa [Hym.: Aphelinidae] as a part of pest management on cucumbers. Entomophaga 28: 17-26.

Stevens, L. M., A. L. Steinhauer & J. R. Coulson. 1975. Suppression of Mexican bean beetle on soybeans with annual inoculative releases of Pediobius foveolatus. Environ. Ent. 4: 947-52.

Stewart, F. D. 1984. Mass rearing the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, pp. 176-187. In: E. G King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Stinner, R. E. 1977. Efficacy of inundative releases. Ann. Rev. Ent. 22: 515-31.

Stoltz, D. B. & S. B. Vinson. 1979. Viruses and parasitism in insects. Adv. Virus Res. 24: 125-71.

Stouthamer, R, R. F. Luck & W. D. Hamilton. 1990. Antibiotics cause parthenogenetic Trichogramma (Hymenoptera / Trichogrammatidae) to revert to sex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 87: 2424-2427.

Strand, M. R. & S. B. Vinson. 1982. Stimulation of oviposition and successful rearing of Telenomus heliothidis [Hym.: Scelionidae] on nonhosts by use of a host-recognition kairomone. Entomophaga 27: 265-70.

Tanigoshi, L. K. & H. J. Griffiths. 1982. A new look at biological control of citrus thrips. Citrograph 67: 157-58.

Tanigoshi, L. K., J. Y. Nishio-Wong & J. Fargerlund. 1983. Greenhouse and laboratory rearing studies of Euseius hibisci (Chant) (Acarina: Phytoseiidae), a natural enemy of the citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Environ. Ent. 12: 1298-1302.

Thompson, S. N. 1986. Nutrition and in vivo culture of insect parasitoids. Ann. Rev. Ent. 31: 197-219.

Thorpe, K. W. & G. P. Dively. 1985. Effects of arena size on laboratory evaluations of the egg parasitoids Trichogramma minutum, T. pretiosum, and T. exiguum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Environ. Ent. 14: 762-67.

Tolman, J. H., J. W. Whistlecraft & C. R. Harris. 1985. Delia antiqua, pp. 49-57. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Unruh, T. R. & R. H. Messing.  1993.  Intraspecific biodiversity in Hymenoptera: implications for conservation and biological control, p. 27-52, IN:  Hymenoptera and Biodiversity, J. LaSalle & I. D. Gauld (eds.).  CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Unruh, T. R., W. White, D. Gonzalez, G. Gordh & R. F. Luck. 1983. Heterozygosity and effective size in laboratory populations of Aphidius ervi (Hym.: Aphidiidae). Entomophaga 28: 245-58.

Vail, P. V. & D. K. Cowan. 1985. Estigmene acrea, pp. 283-292. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Vail, P. V., T. J. Henneberry, A. N. Kishaba & K. Y. Arakawa. 1968. Sodium hypochlorite and formalin as antiviral agents against nuclear polyhedrosis virus in larvae of the cabbage looper. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 10: 89-93.

van den Bosch, R., P. S. Messenger & A. P. Gutierrez. 1982. An introduction to biological control. Plenum Press, New York. 247 p.

van den Bosch, R., E. I. Schliner, E. J. Dietrick & I. M. Hall. 1959. The role of imported parasites in the biological control of the spotted alfalfa aphid in southern California. J. Econ. Ent. 52: 142-54.

van de Veire, M. & V. Vacante. 1984. Greenhouse whitefly control through the combined use of the colour attraction system with the parasite wasp Encarsia formosa [Hym.: Aphelinidae]. Entomophaga 29: 303-10.

Waage, J. K. 1982. Sex ratio and population dynamics of natural enemies-- some possible interactions. Ann. Appl. Biol. 101: 159-67.

Waage, J. & D. J. Greathead (eds.). 1986. Insect parasitoids. Academic Press, London. 389 p.

Waage, J. K., K. P. Carl, N. J. Mills & D. J. Greathead. 1985. Rearing entomophagous insects, pp. 45-66. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Wajnberg, E., G. Prévost & M. Boulétreau. 1985. Genetic and epigenetic variation in Drosophila larvae suitability to a hymenopterous endoparasitoid. Entomophaga 30: 187-91.

Werren, J. H.  1993.  The evolution of inbreeding in haplodiploid organisms, p. 42-59, In:  The natural History of Inbreeding and Outbreeding, N. W. Thornhill (ed.), Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

Waser, N. M.  1993.  Sex, ating systems, inbreeding and outbreeding, p. 1-13, In:  The Natural History of Inbreeding and Outbreeding, N. W. Thornhill (ed.), Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

Waser, N. M., V. Price & R,. G. Shaw.  2000.  Outbreeding depression varies among cohorts of Ipomopsis agregata planted in nature.  Evolution 54:  485-91.

Wheeler, R. E. 1984. Industrial insect production for insecticide screening, pp. 240-247. In: E. G King & N. C. Leppla (eds.), Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing. U. S. Govt. Printing Office.

Whistlecraft, J. W., J. H. Tolman & C. R. Harris. 1985a. Delia piatura, pp. 59-65. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Whistlecraft, J. W., J. H. Tolman & C. R. Harris. 1985b. Delia radicum, pp. 67-73. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Whiting, P. W.  1943.  Multiple alleles in complementary sex determination of Habrobracon.  Genetics 28:  265-82.

Wight, D. P., Jr. 1985. Spodoptera eridania, pp. 459-464. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Willey, R. B. 1985. Arphia conspersa, pp. 435-450. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I. Elsevier, New York.

Woets, J. 1973. Integrated control in vegetables under glass in the Netherlands. Bull. O.I.L.B./ S.R.O.P. 1973/4. 26-31.

Woets, J. 1878. Development of an introduction scheme for Encarsia formosa Gahan [Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae] in greenhouse tomatoes to control the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) [Homoptera: Aleyrodidae]. Med. Fac. Landbouwet, Rijksunivers. Gent 43: 379-85.

Woets, J. & J. C. van Lenteren. 1976. The parasite-host relationship between Encarsia formosa [Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae] and Trialeurodes vaporariorum [Homoptera: Aleyrodidae]. Bull. O.I.L.B./S.R.O.P. 1976/4. 151-64.

Yanes, J. & D. J. Boethel. 1983. Effect of a resistant soybean genotype on the development of the soybean looker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and an introduced parasitoid Microplitis demolitor Wilkinson (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environ. Ent. 12: 1270-74.

Yaninek, J. S. & O. T. Aderoba. 1986. Culture maintenance. In: IITA Ann. Rept. for 1985, Ibadan, Nigeria. p. 70-71.

Yoon, J. S. 1985. Drosophilidae I: Drosophila melanogaster, pp. 75-84. In: P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II. Elsevier, New York.

Young, J. R., J. J. Hamm, R. L. Jones, W. D. Perkins & R. L. Burton. 1976. Development and maintenance of an improved laboratory colony of corn earworm. U. S. Agric. Res. Serv. [Rep.] ARS-S-110. 4 p.

Yu, D. S. & R. F. Luck. 1988. Temperature-dependent size and development of California red scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and its effect on host availability for the ectoparasitoid, Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Environ. Ent. 17: 154: 161.

Yu, D. S. K., E. A. C. Hagley & J. E. Laing. 1984. Biology of Trichogramma minutum Riley collected from apples in southern Ontario. Environ. Ent. 13: 1324-1329.

Yu, H.-S., E. F. Legner & R. D. Sjogren. 1974. Mass release effects of Chlorohydra viridissima [Coelenterata] on field populations of Aedes  nigromaculis and Culex tarsalis in Kern County, California. Entomophaga 19: 409-20.