The People, Their Art & Writing
For Comparison with Findings in South
Sumerian culture emerged about 4,000 B.C.E. on a floodplain along the
Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which is now southern Iraq. Sumerians are known for their cuneiform
script, a vibrant religious and literary tradition and advancement in
government, mathematics, urbanization and agriculture. The discovery in South America of the Fuente Magna
and other artifacts attests to their presence in ancient times.
The Sumerian towns often numbered over 80,000 inhabitants,
but they often waged war among their city-states. At least one Sumerian woman was chosen as a ruler. Their cuneiform writing prevailed for more
than 3,000 years, and they produced the "Epic of Gilgamesh",
which involves a historical person.
Merchants traveled to other lands and possessed ships that would have
been capable of trans-Atlantic voyages, either accidental or
intentional. Their mathematic and
measurement techniques survive to the 21st Century, and their agriculture
developed some of our major food crops, such as wheat. The first beer was invented.
However, knowledge of Sumerian culture was lost for a few thousand
until it was rediscovered in the 19th Century. A theory of their Language formation was presented (Sumerian origins )
Following are some images depicting the Sumerian people, their art and
CLICK on photos to enlarge
Sumer 1 - Ancient Mesopotamia
Sumer 2 - Bronze Age ship
Sumer 3 - Cuneiform
Sumer 4 - Cuneiform
Sumer 5 - Cuneiform
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DURANT, W. 1954.
1954. Our Oriental
Heritage. Simon & Schuster
Publ. 1052 pp.
KRAMER, S. N. 1988.
1988. History Begins at
Sumer. Univ. of Pennsylvania Press. 416
KRAMER, S. N. 1971. The Sumerians. Univ. of Chicago Press.
KRIWACZEK, P. 2014. Babylon.
Thomas Dunne Books.
LEICK, G. 2010.
The A to Z of Mesopotamia.
A. H. 2013. The Ancient Near East.
Oxford Univ. Press. 168 pp.