FILE:  <superhym.key.htm>                              Bibliography              Bibliography #2         Terminology               [Navigate to MAIN MENU

 

For educational purposes only; do not review, quote or abstract:--

A Public Service on the basics of Insect Identification

 

 

 

Keys to the Adults of Superfamilies of Hymenoptera

 

(Email Contacts)

 

(Derived fr. Boucek, 1988; Clausen, 1923; Crawford, 1909;

Gauld & Bolton, 1988; Hill, 1923; Masner & Dessart, 1967;

Noyes & Valentine, 1989; Riek, 1970 & Yoshimoto, 1984 by E. F. Legner)

 

Please refer also to the following for greater detail:   <Guide>, <Families>, <Principal Groups>

 

c2

1a.  Body without a marked constriction between the 1st and 2nd abdominal segments, resulting in abdomen being broadly joined to thorax); long-winged, fore wing with an enclosed anal cell and/or rounded projections on metanotum present; hind wing usually has at least 3 closed cells ........... (SYMPHYTA)   (Chalastogastra)--sawflies & horntails   <General Characteristics>

 

7

1b.  Body with a constriction between the 1st and 2nd abdominal segments, given the appearance of abdomen almost always being narrowly joined to thorax  (may be obscured in some taxa, but these have no enclosed cells in the fore wing); long-winged, short-winged or wingless, if long-winged then fore wing without an enclosed anal cell; hind wing usually has 2 or less closed basal cells; rounded projections on metanotum not present; ovipositor not developed into a sting.  (APOCRITA--Parasitica)   (Clistogastra, Petiolata)-- parasitic/predatory

 

35

1c.  Same as previous (1b) except that ovipositor not used for egg-laying but rather developed into a weapon for injecting venom and used for hunting, defense and aggression (sting); eggs emitted from apical gastral segments, at base of sting .......... (APOCRITA--Aculeata) (Stinging Hymenoptera)

 

---

2a.  Antennae inserted on ventral side of head adjacent to mouth; anal cell of forewing indistinct ............ Orussoidea   <Overview>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

3

2b.  Antennae inserted on anterior side of head well above mouth; fore wing with enclosed anal cell distinct

 

---

3a.  Fore wing with Rs branches; antennae highly modified with 3rd segment long and broad, followed by 9 or more slender threadlike segments .......... Xyeloidea

 

4

3b.  Fore wing with Rs unbranched; antennae various, never with both the 3rd segment long and broad and the remaining flagellar segments threadlike

 

5

4a.  Fore tibia with either a single apical spur, or with two spurs of unequal length, the shorter of which is almost vestigial

 

6

4b.  Fore tibia with two well developed, but unequal apical spurs

 

---

5a.  Rounded projections on metanotum absent; abdomen terminally laterally compressed, anteriorly slightly constricted between 1st and 2nd segments ......... Cephoidea

 

---

5b.  Rounded projections on metanotum present; abdomen cylindrical or depressed, not constricted anteriorly; antennae inserted under broad frontal ridge below eyes, just above mouth; small insects (8-14 mm. long) ............ Siricoidea

 

---

6a.  Pronotum in dorsal view with hind margin somewhat straight; fore wing with vein 2r-rs present;  labrum concealed; mid and hind tibiae with preapical spurs and antennae with >18 segments  ............ Megalodontoidea

 

---

6b.  Pronotum in dorsal view with hind margin much bowed, or if weakly bowed then fore wing with 2r-rs absent; vein 2r-rs otherwise present or absent; labrum exposed; mid and hind tibiae without preapical spurs, or if such spurs are present, then antennae with fewer than 10 segments; antennae othewise with 3-32 segments, often with 9 or less ........... Tenthredinoidea

 

---

7a.  Segment 1 of abdomen forming a node or scale, or first two segments nodiform, so segment 2 is fully separated (both dorsally and ventrally) from segments 1 and 3 .......... Vespoidea  (part)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [formerly  Formicoidea <Overview>]

 

8

7b.  Segment 1 of abdomen not scale-like, if rarely slightly nodiform then with segment 2 closely lying close to segment 3

 

9

8a.  Segment 1 of abdomen inserted high up on propodeum so distance between propodeal socket and insertion of hind coxa is ca. equal to or greater than distance between socket and hind margin of metanotum

 

---

8b.  Segment 1 of abdomen inserted low down on propodeum so distance between propodeal socket and insertion of hind coxa is very much less than distance between socket and hind margin of metanotum ...........10

 

---

9a.  Antennae with 14 or less segments; fore wing with costal cell distinct, hind wings lack closed cells, venation usually much reduced; abdomen attached high above hind coxae on thorax .............  Evanioidea

 

---

9b.  Antennae with 18 or more segments, usually filiform, unspecialized; fore wing with costal cell indistinct or absent, veins C, Sc, R and Rs fused between wing base and pterostigma; sternites of abdomen weakly sclerotized .......... Ichneumonoidea  (part)   <Overview>

 

11

10a.  Fully winged insects

 

25

10b.  Short-winged or wingless insects

 

12

11a.  Fore wing with one enclosed cell, or without any enclosed cells; sternites of abdomen usually heavily sclerotized; fore, mid & hind tarsi with 3 segments

 

19

11b.  Fore wing with two or more cells clearly delineated by veins

 

---

12a.  Fore wing with membrane reticulate; hind wing vestigial, with a forked apex; segments 1 and 2 of abdomen cylindrical, slender, forming a 2-segmented petiole (body length <1mm); pronotum short, does not reach tegula; many meatallic species  .......... Chalcidoidea  (part)   <Overview>  

 

13

12b.  Fore wing membrane not reticulate; hind wing fully developed though often very narrow, but never with a forked apex; abdomen with at most first segment cylindrical and slender so that petiole, if present, has 1 segment

 

---

13a.  Hind wing with a distinct stalk; pronotum short, does not reach tegula; many metallic species ............ Chalcidoidea  (part)   <Overview>

 

14

13b.  Hind wing not stalked

 

---

14a.  Mesosoma (= propodeum + metathorax) with pronotum not extending back to tegulae ; wings without enclosed cells; pronotum short, does not reach tegula; many metallic species ........... Chalcidoidea  (part)   <Overview>

 

15

14b.  Mesosoma with pronotum extending back to almost touch tegulae; wings with or without closed cells

 

16

15a.  Antennae inserted in center of face, their sockets separated from the clypeus by more than 2X their own diameter

 

17

15b.  Antennae inserted on face close to clypeus, their sockets separated from clypeus by ca. their own diameter or less

 

---

16a.  Antennae not inserted on a promontory or "shelf," those of female without a very elongated scape; fore wing venation characteristic, with a rather large radial cell, that is either open anteriorly, or the only enclosed cell in the wing; costal cell broad, anteriorly open, posteriorly bordered by a vein from which arises a long stub of Rs & M; stigma absent; filiform antennae with 1st segment slightly smaller than 2nd, or with 2nd segment small and 1st and 3rd segments smaller; abdomen compressed laterally ........... Cynipoidea  (part)   <Overview>   [ See Subfamilies]

 

---

16b.  Antennae inserted on facial promontory or "shelf," those of female geniculate, elbowed antennae, scape more than 3X as long as wide; fore wing without venation, or with a single linear vein, without a distinguishable radial cell, or if one is indicated then it is not defined distally and costal cell is only enclosed cell; if present, vein delineating costal cell posteriorly is without a stub of Rs & M; Fore wings with no closed basal cell; hind wings lack closed cells; abdomen attached near propodeum base, contiguous with or close to hind coxae; abdomen cylindrical or almost so; no metallic forms ........... Proctotrupoidea  (part)   <Overview>

 

---

17a.  Head distinctly prognathous; tergite 1 of abdomen as long as following tergites, separated from sternite, posteriorly overlapping tergite 2  .......... Chrysidoidea (= Bethyloidea) (part)   <Overview>  (part)

 

18

17b.  Head hypognathous; tergite 1 of abdomen shorter than the following apparent tergite (which may be a syntergite), or the two fused and tergite 1 visible as a ridged anterior rim of the first apparent tergite; tergite 1 usually fused with sternite to form a ring at anterior end of abdomen

 

---

18a.  Wing venation greatly reduced; fore wing with long vein along anterior margin, this vein distally with a curved stigmal branch, sometimes with a large pterostigma; fore tibia with two spurs ........... Ceraphronoidea  (part)   <Overivew>

 

---

18b.  Fore wing without any venation, or with a short vein that does not reach to level of middle  of wing, or if with a long vein, then this is proximally separated from anterior margin of wing, and its stigmal branch is almost straight; pterostigma not present, hind wings lack closed cells; fore tibia with a single spur; propodeum reaches to tegula; abdomen attached near propodeum base, contiguous with or close to hind coxae, abdomen cylindrical or almost so; elbowed antennae. .........  Proctotrupoidea  (part)   <Overview>

 

---

19a.  Tarsi with well developed membranous pads; antennae with 26-27 segments; fore wing with 10 enclosed cells .......... Trigonalyoidea   <Overview>

 

20

19b.  Tarsi without membranous pads, or if vestiges present then antennae with fewer than 14 segments; antennae otherwise with various numbers of segments, if more than 14 then fore wing with 7 or fewer enclosed cells; fore wing otherwise with 1-10 enclosed cells

 

---

20a.  Fore wing with costal cell indistinct or absent, veins C, Sc, R. and Rs fused or contiguous from wing base to pterostigma; hind wing without a distinct lobe at the base; antennae usually with 16 or more segments (rarely with as few as 12), and with a small small ringlike segments (= anelli) somewhat differentiated from proximal end of 1st flagellar segment ...........Ichneumonoidea  (part)   <Overview>

 

21

20b.  Fore wing with costal cell usually visible, though sometimes not bordered anteriorly by a vein, rarely when costal cell is virtually eliminated then a distinct lobe is present at the base of the hind wing; this lobe otherwise present or absent; antennae with 10-15 segments, without small anelli differentiated from proximal end of 1st flagellar segment (except in one taxon with a broad costal cell)

 

---

21a.  Fore wing with costal cell open, not delineated by a vein along anterior margin of wing; pterostigma absent; abdomen laterally compressed ........... Cynipoidea  (part)   <Overview>   [ See Subfamilies]

 

22

21b.  Fore wing with costal cell enclosed, bordered anteriorly by a vein, or if this vein is rarely absent the pterostigma is present, or costal cell is indistinct or absent; pterostigma otherwise present, or uncommonly, absent; abdomen cylindrical or depressed

 

---

22a.  First tergite of abdomen short, fused with sternite to form a ring-like, highly sclerotized segment; second tergite (or syntergite) longer than tergites 1 and 3+ combined; spiracles not present at least on first and apparent second gastral tergites; fore wing usually with 2 enclosed cells (costal and radial), rarely with up to 3 more enclosed cells (thus a max. of 5), no closed basal cell .......... Proctotrupoidea  (part)   <Overview>

 

23

22b.  First tergite of abdomen quite long, not fused with sternite to form short ring-like segment; second tergite not longer than tergites 1 and 3+ combined; first and second segments of abdomen with distinct spiracles (though these may be positioned ventrally on laterotergite); fore wing usually with 6 or more enclosed cells, rarely with 2-5 and then always with basal and subbasal cells enclosed, costal cell usually enclosed, radial cell sometimes not enclosed

 

---

23a.  Fore wing with radial cell either not indicated or open distally, and without any complete cubital (submarginal) cells; fore wings have at least 1 closed basal cell; hind wing without enclosed cells ............  Chrysidoidea (= Bethyloidea) (part)   <Overview>

 

24

23b.  Fore wing with an enclosed radial cell, and with at least one enclosed cubital cell; hind wing generally with two or three enclosed cells

 

---

24a.  Pronotum with upper hind corner widely separated from tegulae, and lower down the side with a pronounced pronotal lobe covering mesothoracic spiracle .......... Apoidea   <Overview> & Sphecoidea   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

24b.  Pronotum with upper hind corner reaching to or close to tegula, with or without a pronounced pronotal lobe ........... Vespoidea   (part)   <Overview>

 

---

25a.  Antennae with 16 or more segments, somewhat filiform, unspecialized; sternites of abdomen weakly sclerotized, tending to dry with median longitudinal fold. ............. Ichneumonoidea  (part)   <Overview>

 

26

25b.  Antennae with 15 or fewer segments, sometimes filiform and unspecialized, often geniculate with elongated scape and clavate distal segments; sternites of abdomen heavily sclerotized

 

---

26a.  Fore, mid and hind tarsi with 3 segments. .......... Chalcidoidea  (part)   <Overview>

 

27

26b.  All tarsi with 4 or 5 segments

 

---

27a.  Upper hind corner of pronotum separated from tegula by a prepectus ............. Chalcidoidea  (part)   <Overview>

 

28

27b.  Upper hind corner of pronotum somewhat touching tegula, or with tegula absent

 

29

28a.  First segment of abdomen somewhat conical, not dorsally fused with tergite 2; tergites 1 and 2 with spiracles

 

31

28b.  First segment of abdomen cylindrical or annular, or minute, indistinct, fused dorsally with tergite 2; tergites 1 and 2 without spiracles

 

---

29a.  Antennae with 10 segments ........... Chrysidoidea (= Bethyloidea) (part)   <Overview>

 

30

29b.  Antennae with 11-13 segments

 

---

30a.  Head prognathous and dorsoventrally flattened; clypeus with a median ridge extending between antennae ............. Chrysidoidea (= Bethyloidea) (part)   <Overview>  (part)

 

---

30b.  Head hypognathous, not dorsoventrally flattened; clypeus lacking a median ridge that extends between antennae ........... Vespoidea  (part)   <Overview>

 

---

31a.  Antennae never geniculate, the scape only slightly longer than broad, and slightly shorter than first flagellar segment; abdomen laterally compressed ............. Cynipoidea (part)   <Overview>   [ See Subfamilies]

 

32

31b.  Female (the most commonly encountered short-winged or wingless sex) with antennae geniculate, the scale elongated, at least twice the length of the first flagellar segment; abdomen of both sexes cylindrical or depressed

 

---

32a.  Anterior tibia with two apical spurs ............. Ceraphronoidea (part)   <Overivew>

 

33

32b.  Anterior tibia with one apical spur

 

---

33a.  Antennal socket separated from clypeus by its own diameter or less; first segment of abdomen with tergite and sternite separate; tergite 8 without spiracle; antennae with 12 or fewer segments .......... Proctotrupoidea  (part)   <Overview>  

 

34

33b.  Antennal socket separated from clypeus by more than twice its own diameter; first segment of abdomen with tergite and sternite fused; tergite 8 with spiracle; antennae almost always with 13 or more segments

 

---

34a.  Abdomen, particularly in females, laterally compressed; antennae of female with 14 segments, of male 13 segments; ovipositor concealed; head without shelf-like process; cerci absent; ovipositor opening ventral ............ Cynipoidea  (part)   <Overview>   [See Subfamilies]

 

---

34b.  Abdomen usually cylindrical; antennae with various numbers of segments, if with 14 segments in female or 13-segments in male then ovipositor exposed or antennae attached to a shelf-like process of the face; cerci present; ovipositor opening terminal ............. Proctotrupoidea  (part)   <Overview>

 

36

35a.  Have fully developed functional wings

 

49

35b.  Wingless or short-winged

 

37

36a.  Pronotum posterodorsally usually separated from mesonotal anterior margin by a somewhat well developed groove; pronotum posterolaterally remote from the tegulae, and lower down the side with a pronounced posterior lobe which covers the mesothoracic spiracle; posteroventrally the pronotum closely coadapted to the anterior mesopleural margin and reflexed mesally below, behind the fore coxae

 

38

36b.  Pronotum posterodorsally contiguous with the mesonotal anterior margin, lacking a groove; pronotum posterolaterally almost reaching the tegulae with or without a distinct posterior lobe which covers the mesothoracic spiracle; if pronotum posteroventrally closed coadapted to the anterior mesopleural margin then it is not reflexed below

 

---

37a.  Fore wing with a fold traversing 1m-cu between 1st and 2nd discal (= discoidal) cells, usually through a clear area (bulla), this fold discrete from the radial fold in the submarginal (= cubital) cells.  Basitarsi enlarged, those of hind legs expanded and flattened in anterior view, wider than following segments and usually only slightly narrower than hind tibiae.  Body setae plumose (branched), or partly so; pronotal lobe reaches or almost reaches tegula ........... Apoidea   <Overview>

 

---

37b.  Fore wing with a fold traversing the 2nd abiscissa of M, between the second discal (discoidal) and 2nd or 3rd submarginal (cubital) cells, usually through a clear area, this fold linking with the radial fold in the submarginal (cubital) cells.  Basitarsi not enlarged, those of hind legs slender, not flattened in anterior view, usually much narrower than the hind tibiae.  Body setae simple and unbranched all over; ;pronotal lobe does not reach tegula ............. Sphecoidea   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

38a.  Antennae distinctly geniculate, elbowed between scape and funiculus.  Body with 1-2 reduced separated node like or scale like segments between mesosoma (= propodeum + metathorax) and abdomen (= dorsal hump or node) ........... Vespoidea  (part)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [formerly  Formicoidea <Overview>]  (part)  

 

39

38b.  Antennae not geniculate, not elbowed between scape and funiculus.  Body without separated node like or scale like segments between mesosoma (= propodeum + metathorax) and abdomen

 

40

39a.  Fore wing usually with a complete closed marginal (= radial) cell which is bounded by tubular veins, and with at least one complete submarginal (cubital) cell; hind wing with 2-3 complete cells

 

46

39b.  Fore wing with marginal (radial) cells open, often with only a stub of tubular vein arising from the stigma; without any complete submarginal (cubital) cells; hind wing with much reduced venation, at most with an open costal cell but without complete cells posterior to this although up to 3 tubular veins may be present

 

---

40a.  Distal quarter or more of wing membranes longitudinally grooved (striated), with a densely corrugated appearance; fore wings usually have extensive venation; first discoidal cell shorter than submedian cell; hind wings have at least 1 closed basal cell; pronotum does not reach tegula ............. Scolioidea   <Overview>    [ formerly Pompiloidea <Overview>]

 

41

40b.  Distal quarter or more of wing membranes plain, without a densely corrugated appearance

 

---

41a.  Mesopleuron with a straight diagonal groove which traverses the mesopleural scrobe; eyes round or oval; antennae filiform. ............ Scolioidea   <Overview>  [ formerly Pompiloidea]  <Overview>

 

42

41b.  Mesopleuron lacking a straight diagonal groove which transverses the mesopleural scrobe

 

43

42a.  Fore wing with an elongated and very obvious discal (discoidal) cell, the wing like a fan from base to apex, and folded longitudinally when at rest.  Glossa and paraglossa terminating in small

clerotized pads; pronotum touches tegula; eyes deeply notched or if round, then antennae clavate ........... Vespoidea   <Overview>

 

44

42b.  Fore wing lacking an elongated discal (discoidal) cell, the wing not like a fan from base to apex, not folded longitudinally in repose.  Glossa and paraglossa without apical sclerotized pads

 

---

43a.  Tibiae of middle legs with a single spur.  Pretarsal claws 2-forked.  mandibles elongated and crossing over when closed, not simply overlapping ............ Vespoidea   <Overview>  (Eumenidae)

 

---

43b.  Tibiae of middle legs with two spurs.  Pretarsal claws simple.  Mandibles short, transverse when closed, but not crossing over ........... Vespoidea   <Overview>   (Vespidae)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

44a.  Hind wing with a well developed claval indentation marking the limits of the claval lobe, and with a very large lobe at the wing base which is at least 1/2 the length of the claval .  Male subgenital plate terminating in an upcurved spine.  Females with widely separated middle coxae and 2-forked pretarsal claws ............. Tiphioidea [Now in Vespoidea]  (Tiphiidae)  (part)   <Overview>   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

45

44b.  Hind wing without lobes or without a claval indentation marking the limits of the claval lobe; in the latter the lobe at the wing base small and less than 1/2 the length of the claval area.  Subgenital plate of males lacking an upcurved spine.  Females with contiguous middle coxae and simple or dentate pretarsal claws

 

---

45a.  Distal antennal segments thicker than proximal so that the antennae appears clubbed.  Abdomen with yellow maculae and body weakly hairy.  Pretarsal claws dentate ............ Tiphioidea  [Now in Vespoidea]      <Overview>  (Sapygidae)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

45b.  Distal antennal segments narrower than proximal so that the antennae tapers apically.  Abdomen without yellow maculae and body densely hairy.  Pretarsal claws edentate or 2-forked ............ Tiphioidea    [Now in Vespoidea]    <Overview>  (Mutillidae)  (males)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>]

 

47

46a.  Antennae with 10 segments

 

48

46b.  Antennae with 12-13 segments

 

---

47a.  Antennae arising from a high anteriorly projecting prominence on the head, the antennal insertions widely separated from the clypeus which is situated ventral to them ........... Chrysidoidea (= Bethyloidea) (part)   <Overview>   (Embolemidae)  (males)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

47b.  Antennae not arising from a high anteriorly projecting prominence on the head, the antennal insertions located close to the posterior clypeal margin ............ Chrysidoidea (= Bethyloidea)  (part)   <Overview> (Dryinidae)  (part)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

48a.  Abdomen with 3-5 segments visible.  Body heavily sculptured and brightly metallic ...........  Chrysidoidea (= Bethyloidea)  (Chrysididae)

 

---

48b.  Abdomen with more than 5 segments visible.  Body not heavily sculptured nor brightly metallic ........... Chrysidoidea (= Bethyloidea) (part)   <Overview> (Bethylidae)  (part)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

49a.  Antennae distinctly geniculate, elbowed between scape and funiculus.  Body with 1-2 conspicuously separated node like or scale like reduced segments between mesosoma (= propodeum + metathorax) and abdomen (= dorsal hump or node; mesosoma posterolaterally usually with metapleural gland swelling present ............ Vespoidea  (part)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [formerly  Formicoidea   <Overview>]  (part)

 

50

49b.  Antennae not geniculate, not elbowed between scape and funiculus.  Body without separated node like or scale like segments between mesosoma and abdomen; mesosoma posterolaterally without metapleural gland swelling

 

51

50a.  Antennae with 10 segments

 

52

50b.  Antennae with 12-13 segments

 

---

51a.  Antennal insertions widely separated from clypeus and the antennae arising from a high anteriorly projecting prominence on the head.  Fore tarsus terminating in a pair of small pretarsal claws, not chelate (females only) ............ Chrysidoidea (= Bethyloidea) (part)   <Overview>  (Embolemidae) (females)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

51b.  Antennal insertions close to posterior margin of clypeus and the antennae not arising from a high anteriorly projecting prominence on the head.  Fore tarsus in brachypterous males with a pair of small pretarsal claws; fore tarsus of females terminating in strong chelae composed of a large projecting 5th tarsal segment which is opposed by a much enlarged single apical claw............ Chrysidoidea (= Bethyloidea) (part)   <Overview>  (Dryinidae)  (part)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

52a.  Head prognathous and dorsoventrally flattened; clypeus with median ridge extending between

antennae ........... Chrysidoidea (= Bethyloidea) (part)   <Overview>  (Bethylidae)  (part)  <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

53

52b.  Head hypognathous and not dorsoventrally flattened; clypeus lacking a median ridge extending between antennae

 

---

53a.  Dorsal mesosoma (= propodeum + metathorax) shaped like a box and lacking sutures or at most the promesonotal forming the only transverse suture on the dorsum.  Body heavily sculptured and densely hairy.  Pretarsal claws simple  ............ Tiphioidea  [Now in Vespoidea]    <Overview>]  (Mutillidae)  (females)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>]

 

---

53b.  Dorsal mesosoma elongated and not shaped like a box, with 3 deeply impressed transverse sutures in broad depressions.  Body smooth and unsculptured, not densely hairy.  Pretarsal claws definitely 2-forked ............ Tiphioidea   [Now in Vespoidea]    <Overview>]   (Tiphiidae)  (part)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

 

REFERENCES:

 

Boucek, Z.  1988.  Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera).  A Biosystematic Revision of Genera of Fourteen 

     Families, with a Reclassification of Species.  C.A.B.  International, Wallingford, England.  832 p.

 

Clausen, C. P.  1923.  The biology of Schizaspidia tenuicornis Ashm., a eucharid parasite of Camponotus.  Ann.

     Ent. Soc. Amer. 16:  195-217. 

 

Crawford, J. C.  1909.  A new family of parasitic Hymenoptera.  Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 11:  63-4.

 

Gauld, I. & B. Bolton.  1988.  The Hymenoptera.  British Mus. Nat. Hist., Oxford Univ. Press.  332 p.

 

Hill, C. C.  1923.  Platygaster vernalis Myers, an important parasite of the Hessian fly.  J. Agr. Res. 25:  31-42.

 

Masner & Dessart.  1967.  La reclassification des categories taxonomiques superieures des Ceraphronoidea

     (Hymenoptera).  Bull. Inst. Sci. Nat. Belg. 43(2):  1-33.

 

Noyes, J. S. & E. W. Valentine.  1989.  Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera)-- Introduction, and Review of Genera

     in Smaller Families.  Fauna of New Zealand No. 18.  DSIR Publ., Wellington, New Zealand.  58 p.

 

Riek, E. F.  1970.  Hymenoptera (Wasps, bees, ants), p. 867-959.  In:  CSIRO, The Insects of Australia. 

     Mewlbourne Univ. Press.  1029 p.

 

Yoshimoto, C. M.  1984.  The Insects and Arachnids of Canada, Part 12.  The Families and Subfamilies of Canadian Chalcidoid Wasps.  Hymenoptera: chalcidoidea.  Biosys. Res. Ins. Res. Br. Canada. Publ 1760.  149p.