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For educational purposes only; do not review, quote or abstract:--

A Public Service on the basics of Insect Identification

 

 

Keys to the Hymenoptera of European Russia

 

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[The following keys are in a form commonly used in Eastern Europe.  If the statement is true, proceed to the next line, whereas if it is false, go to the line shown in parentheses]

 

          (Note:  Not all illustrations are European species):

 

     ------ Please CLICK for specific Superfamily:

 

Chrysidoidea    Chalcidoidea    Proctotrupoidea   Ceraphronoidea

 

 

Keys to the Hymenoptera of European U.S.S.R.-- Chrysidoidea (= Bethyloidea)

 

(Derived from Alekseev, 1978, Boucek, 1951, 1956; Debauche, 1948, Ferriere, 1947,

Graham, 1969, Hedquist,1975, Kieffer, 1914, Kozlov, 1978, Masner, 1976, Masner & Dessart, 1967, Medvedev, 1978, Nikolskaya,1952, Nikolskaya & Zerova, 1978, Peck et al., 1964, Richards, 1939,

Tryapitcyn, 1978 by E. F. Legner)

 

 

1 (2).    Antennae with 12-13 segments, attached near mouth margin; body long and narrow; usually somewhat flat insects .......... Bethylidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

2 (1).    Antennae with 10 segments, attached at projection near dorsal margin of clypeus

 

3 (4).    Head of female not pear-shaped; fore tarsi female with claws; if claws absent, then female dipterous (genus Aphelopus); fore wings without closed discoidal cell  ........... Dryinidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

4 (3).    Head of female pear-shaped; fore tarsi of female without claws; female always wingless; fore wings with closed discoidal cell  .......... Embolemidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

 

Keys to the Hymenoptera of European U.S.S.R.-- Chalcidoidea

 

(derived from Medvedev, 1978 by E. F. Legner)

 

 

1 (76).    Wings not reduced; fore wings, when folded back, extend beyond tip of abdomen.

 

2 (3).    Tarsi with 3 segments; very minute species (body length 0.30 - 1.40 mm.); antennae usually very short, with 4-8 segments; hairs on fore wings often arranged in longitudinal rows; endoparasitoids of insect eggs .......... Trichogrammatidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniiles>

 

3 (2).    Tarsi with 4-5 segments

 

4 (21).    Tarsi of at least middle pair of legs with 4 segments

 

5 (8).    Middle tarsi with 4 segments; fore- and hind tarsi with 5 segments

 

6 (7).    Antennae with 12 segments; fore wings with fairly long postmarginal and radial veins; body length 2.0 - 3.5 mm .......... Pteromalidae  (only females of Macromesinae)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

7 (6).    Antennae with 8 segments; fore wings without postmarginal vein and radial vein short; body length  0.5 - 0.8 mm .......... Aphelinidae  (some species of Trichaporus & Encarsia)  <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

8 (5).    Tarsi of all legs with 4 segments

 

9 (10).    Antennal sockets closer to inner margin of eyes than to each other; distance from antennal socket to eye margin less than diameter of antennal socket; frons above antennal sockets with straight, deep, transverse stria; two pairs of longitudinal striae originate from ends of transverse stria and continue along inner margin of eyes; antennae without rings, proceed directly from pedicel; marginal vein of fore wings short; radial vein rudimentary, its apex in most cases falling short of mid wing; base of hind wings represented by only submarginal vein, and speculum does not reach wing base; margins of hind wings usually almost parallel beyond hamuli (= series of hooks); body not metallic; endoparasitoids of insect eggs ......... Mymaridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

10 (9).    Antennal sockets usually not closer to inner margin of eyes than to each other (if closer to inner margin of eyes, then frons without deep transverse stria and longitudinal striae originating from its ends; if transverse frontal stria present, usually not straight)

 

11 (12).    Marginal vein of fore wings dotted, or almost dotted; sides of mesothorax not delineated; fore wings either with very long marginal fimbria, not shorter than maximum width of wing (Anthemus), or antennae of female with 5 segments, 2 rings, and very small, nonsegmented clava  (Arrhenophagus); body length 0.50 - 0.70 mm ........ Encyrtidae  (only Anthemus & Arrhenophagus)   <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2>; & <Juveniles>

 

12 (11).    Marginal vein of fore wings much longer than wide; sides of mesothorax delineated

 

13 (14).    Antennal funicle with 6 segments (excluding very thin rings between pedicel and 1st segment of funicle); fore wings without speculum (= area running obliquely from parastigma to hind margin) (base of wing pubescent) ......... Tetracampidae  (only males of Tetracampinae)  <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2>; & <Juveniles>

 

14 (13).    Antennal funicle, at most, with 5 segments (excluding slender rings between pedicel and 1st segment of funicle, which may vary in number from 1-5); fore wings usually with speculum

 

15 (16).    Hind coxae highly disk-like, broad and flat, almost lamellate; outer surface of tibiae with numerous short, dark, coarse bristles arranged in somewhat zigzag pattern; fore wings narrow, with almost parallel anterior and posterior margins; marginal vein of fore wings very long ......... Elasmidae  (only Elasmus)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

16 (15).    Hind coxae broad, disk-like; outer surface of tibiae without zigzag pattern or dark bristles

 

17 (18).    Postmarginal vein of fore wings equal in length to radial vein, or longer; radial vein not very short ........... Eulophidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

18 (17).    Postmarginal vein of fore wings either absent or distinctly shorter than radial vein; radial vein of fore wings very short or even rudimentary

 

19 (20).    Abdomen distinctly attenuates at juncture with median segment; abdominal petiole always well defined, even if sometimes represented by only a transverse ring; endophragm usually does not continue into abdomen; angle between radial vein of fore wings and wing margin not less than 35-deg.; body often (at least partly) metallic; if not metallic, then scutellum with two deep longitudinal striae near midpoint .......... Eulophidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

20 (19).    Abdomen appears almost sessile, i.e., its base almost equal in width to median segment; abdominal petiole very difficult to distinguish; endophragm continues into abdomen; angle between radial vein of fore wings and wing margin usually very acute; body not metallic; scutellum without deep median longitudinal striae .......... Aphelinidae

 

21 (4).    Tarsi of all legs with 5 segments

 

22 (23).    Antennal sockets closer to inner margin of eyes than to each other; distance from antennal socket to margin of eye less than diameter of antennal socket; frons above antennal socket with straight, deep, transverse stria; two pairs of longitudinal striae originate from ends of transverse stria and continue along inner margin of eyes; antennae without rings, proceed directly from pedicel; marginal vein of fore wings short; radial vein rudimentary, its apex in most cases falling short of mid wing; base of hind wings represented by only submarginal vein, and speculum does not reach wing base; margins of hind wings usually almost parallel beyond hamuli; body not metallic; endoparasitoids of insect eggs .........  Mymaridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

23 (22).    Antennal sockets usually not closer to inner margin of eyes than to each other (if closer to inner margin of eyes, then frons without transverse deep stria and longitudinal striae originating from its ends; if transverse frontal stria present, usually not straight)

 

24 (25).    Middle coxae situated almost at midpoint of episternum of mesothorax, sometimes even before its midpoint; mesothorax very short; sides of mesothorax convex, consist of highly enlarged episternum; spurs of middle tibiae usually highly thickened and long; 1st segment of middle tarsi usually much longer than other segments ); shield of mesonotum usually without parapsidal grooves (if such present, very fine and shallow); cerci usually situated some distance from tip of abdomen  .........  Encyrtidae   <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2>; & <Juveniles>

 

25 (24).    Middle coxae situated behind level of midpoint of episternum of mesothorax; sides of mesothorax usually delineated, not convex, and do not broaden  (except in && of Eupelmidae; spurs of middle tibiae usually not very long and thick (except in Eupelmidae & Signiphoridae)

 

26 (27).    Middle tarsi thickened at base and attenuate toward apex; 1st segment of middle tarsi, and usually some subsequent segments, with 2 rows of short, thick spinules on lower surface; middle coxae separated from trochanter lobes of mesothorax by membrane and, as a result, coxae able to move straight forward; spurs of middle tibiae very long and thick, but without spines; sides of mesothorax highly enlarged, almost not demarcated, but set off from mesothorax by longitudinal suture; pronotum often longitudinally divided medially by groove, membranous stria, or carina; antennae mostly with one ring, 7-segmented funicle, and nonsegmented  or 3-segmented clava (also see .......... Eupelmidae  (only females)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

27 (26).    Middle tarsi not thickened at apex [sic] and without row of thick spinules on lower surface; middle coxae not separated from mesothorax by membrane and unable to move straight forward; spurs of middle tibiae not elongated and not thickened but, if sometimes very long, then with long spines (Signiphoridae); sides of mesothorax usually separated by suture, which extends from base of middle coxae toward base of fore wings; pronotum usually not medially divided by longitudinal groove or carina.

 

28 (31).    Postspiracular sclerite situated in same plane as lateral part of pronotum or fused with it; pronotum firmly attached to episternum of mesothorax; thorax (in profile) short and high; 3rd and 4th abdominal tergites highly enlarged and usually occupy entire or almost entire dorsal part of abdomen

 

29 (30).    Pronotum not visible in dorsal view, concealed by highly convex or forwardly protruding shield of mesonotum; abdominal petiole long, often slightly longer than wide; radial vein of fore wings forms a right angle or almost a right angle with wing margin; head (facial view) usually somewhat triangular; mandibles almost always falciform (sometimes very short, straight, arranged vertically .......... Eucharitidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

30 (29).    Mesonotum distinctly visible in dorsal view (except in Philomides Haliday); abdominal petiole very short, transverse; radial vein of fore wings forms an acute angle with wing margin; head (facial view) not triangular; mandibles not falciform .......... Perilampidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

31 (28).    Postspiracular sclerite not situated in same plane as lateral part of pronotum and not fused with it

 

32 (35).    Species associated with fig fruits (Ficus carica).

 

33 (34).    Length of raised part of ovipositor constitutes about 1/4 length of abdomen; ovipositor not overlapped by last abdominal tergite on dorsal side; fore wings 2X longer than their maximum width; 1st segment of antennal funicle with process; mandibular base with process with transverse carinae .......... Agaonidae  (only females)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

34 (33).    Ovipositor very long, much longer than abdomen; about 1/3rd of ovipositor overlapped by last abdominal tergite on dorsal side; fore wings 3X longer than max. width; mandibles with 2 teeth .......... Torymidae  (only females of Idarninae)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

35 (32).    Species not associated with fig fruits

 

36 (37).    Last (9th) abdominal tergite with notch on back side and small lobe (epipygium) in middle of this notch; cerci (= pygostyles) longer than wide; ovipositor usually long; hind coxae several times larger than fore coxae ......... Torymidae  (only females)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

37 (36).    Last (9th) abdominal tergite without notch on back side and without lobe; cerci usually not longer than wide

 

38 (43).    Hind femora highly broadened and dilated, only 1.5 - 3.0 times longer than max. width, and ventral margin with teeth or serrated; hind tibiae usually distinctly curved

 

39 (40).    Postspiracular sclerite large, extending notably downward; distance from tegula to posterior margin of pronotum almost equal to tegula; body usually metallic; antennae usually attached at least slightly above level of lower margin of eyes; postmarginal vein of fore wings shorter than marginal vein .......... Torymidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

40 (39).    Postspiracular sclerite usually poorly perceptible; if sometimes large (in some members of Leucospidae), tegulaealmost touch pronotum; body usually not metallic.

 

41 (42).    Tegulae not more than 2X longer than wide, their anterior margin situated at a notable distance from margin of pronotum; distance between apices of axillae not greater than axillar width; parapsidal grooves usually continuous, sometimes shallow on back side; fore wings not folded along their length; ovipositor does not turn  toward dorsal side of abdomen .......... Chalcididae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

42 (41).    Tegulae 2.5 - 3.5 times longer than wide, their anterior margin almost reaching margin of pronotum; axillae very small; distance between their apices several times greater than axillar width; axillae often indistinctly separated from scutellum; shield of mesonotum without parapsidal grooves; sometimes grooves barely perceptible on front; fore wings folded along length, as in wasps of the family Vespidae; ovipositor turns toward dorsal surface of abdomen .......... Leucospidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

43 (38).    Hind femora not highly broadened (if sometimes notably broadened, then ventral surface without teeth or denticles); hind tibiae do not curve or only slightly so.

 

44 (47).    Pronotum (except neck) long, almost rectangular, its length at least 2/3rds length of mesonotal shield; genae with acute margin; surface of head and dorsal side of thorax with very dense, almost fused, coarse punctation; body usually not metallic

 

45 (46).    Antennal funicle, at most, with 6 segments; inner margin of eyes diverges slightly toward lower side ......... Eurytomidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

46 (45).    Antennal funicle with 7 segments (excluding ring); inner margin of eyes diverges notable toward lower side ......... Pteromalidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

47 (44).    Pronotum transverse (if pronotum long and almost rectangular, then genae either without sharp margin, or head and dorsal part of thorax without coarse and deep punctation)

 

48 (63).    Pronotum (excluding neck) almost rectangular, long, its length constituting at least 1/2 length of mesonotal shield;mesonotal shield with continuous parapsidal grooves (= mesoscutal marks).

 

49 (50).    Marginal vein of fore wings 4-8X longer than radial vein (postmarginal vein not longer or barely longer than radial vein); hairs of abdominal cerci very long; antennal sockets either touch margin of mouth or face, and with

 tubercles or crests .......... Pteromalidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

50 (49).    Marginal vein of fore wings either maximally 3X longer than radial vein, or hairs of cerci short; antennal sockets do not touch margin of mouth and face, and without tubercles or crests.

 

51 (52).    Antennae with 10-11 segments, of which 4-6 constitute funicle; sides of metathorax not distinguished  or indistinctly separated from median segment; body usually without metallic glaze ......... Eurytomidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

52 (51).    Antennae with 12-13 segments (usually 13, rarely 12), of which 6-9 constitute funicle.

 

53 (54).    Body black, without metallic glaze; median segment with median longitudinal groove; scutellum without distinctly discernible frenum ......... Eurytomidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

54 (53).    Body at least partly with metallic glaze, or median segment without median longitudinal groove; scutellum usually with frenum distinguished by distinct, deep stria.

 

55 (56).    Abdomen with well-defined, almost rectangular, reticulate or striated petiole; anterior margin of sides of metathorax do not curve; hind femora not dilated and without ventral serration; radial vein of fore wings with poorly broadened apex ............ Pteromalidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

56 (55).    Abdomen with petiole relatively less visible, almost conical, and smooth or almost smooth

 

57 (58).    Antennae attached below level of lower margin of eyes; fore wings either virtually without speculum and marginal vein barely longer than radial, or vertex with 6-8 large, dark, and forwardly directed hairs .......... Pteromalidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

58 (57).    Antennae attached at level of lower margin of eyes or above margin.

 

59 (60).    Antennal funicle with 9 segments; radial vein of fore wings with poorly broadened apex ......... Pteromalidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

60 (59).    Antennal funicle, at most, with 7 segments

 

61 (62).    Neck of pronotum with sharp margin in front; abdomen shorter than thorax, almost spherical; ovipositor does notprotrude; mandibles large, with 2 teeth ......... Pteromalidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

62 (61).    Neck of pronotum without sharp margin in front .......... Torymidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

63 (48).    Pronotum (excluding neck) either not rectangular or shorter than 1/2 length of mesonotal shield

 

64 (65).    Hind tibiae with 2 strong apical spurs, of which one or both curve; hind coxae almost equal in length to hind femora, with slender carina along dorsal margin; middle segments of abdomen with unique sculpture; marginal  vein of fore wings 6-9X longer than very short radial vein; antennae with 13 segments ........ Ormyridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

65 (64).    Hind tibiae often with only one apical spur (if with 2, then both spurs straight); hind coxae usually shorter; middle segments of abdomen without unique sculpture.

 

66 (67).    Hind coxae highly broadened  and almost lamellate; hind tibiae with short row of 4-6 long bristles on dorsal margin and row of 4 such bristles on outer surface; apices of hind tibiae with 2 long spurs; fore wings with 1-3 individual bristles near apex of submarginal vein; antennae with 9 segments ......... Elasmidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

67 (66).    Hind coxae neither broad nor flat; hind tibiae without such rows of long bristles; apices of hind tibiae often with only one spur.

 

68 (69).    Axillae indistinctly separated from scutellum, forming with it a single transverse sclerite; median segment with triangular middle area; abdomen sessile, its basal segment equal in width to median segment; antennae with 5-7 segments, 2-4 rings, and very long nonsegmented clava; fore wings with long marginal fimbria, equal in length to at least 1/3rd wing width; middle tibiae with long spur ........ Signiphoridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

69 (68).    Axillae distinctly separated from scutellum; median segment without triangular middle area; abdomen somewhat petiolate, or almost so; if abdomen appears sessile, then its basal segment at least slightly narrower than median segment.

 

70 (71).    Antennae with 3-9 segments; postmarginal vein of fore wings not longer than 0.16 length of marginal vein; abdomen almost sessile; abdominal petiole, if present, highly transverse (= at right angles to longitudinal axis) and difficult to discern; postphragm extends atleast slightly into abdomen; pronotum very short and highly transverse; scutellum at least slightly transverse .......... Aphelinidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

71 (70).    Antennae with 10-13 segments; postmarginal vein of fore wings usually well developed and equal in length to radial vein or longer.

 

72 (73).    Median segment pubescent; middle 1/3rd with some hairs so that only narrow median strip remains glabrous; spur of fore tibiae weak and straight; fore wings without speculum; pronotum not shorter than shield of mesonotum; scutellum with 4 long bristles ......... Tetracampidae  (only females of Tetracampinae)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

73 (72).    Median segment pubescent at least in middle 1/3rd; spur of fore tibiae usually strong and curved; fore wings often with speculum; pronotum often comparatively short; scutellum usually with more than 4 bristles.

 

74 (75).    Females:  Spur of fore tibiae weak, almost straight, and almost equal in length to 1/4 of 1st segment of fore tarsi; antennae with one ring, 6-segmented funicle, and 3-segmented clava.  Males:  Fore wings with large black longitudinal dilation that occupies marginal vein and distal part of submarginal .  Females & Males:  Pronotum bell-shaped, its length ca. 3/4ths length of shield of mesonotum .......... Tetracampidae  (only Platynocheilus)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

75 (74).    Females:  Spur of fore tibiae strong and long, almost always curved (if spur straight, then antennal formula different).  Males:  Fore wings without large black dilatation .......... Pteromalidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

76 (1).    Wings highly reduced or rudimentary.

 

77 (78).    Tarsi with 3 segments; very minute species (body length 0.3 - 1.3 mm.); antennae usually very short, with 4-8 segments; endoparasitoids of insect eggs .......... Trichogrammatidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniiles>

 

78 (77).    Tarsi with 4-5 segments (only in males of Blastophaga, found in the ovaries of the fig Ficus carica, do fore tarsi consist of 2 segments)

 

79 (82).    Tarsi with 4 segments.

 

80 (81).    Antennal sockets closer to inner margin of eyes than to each other; distance from antennal socket to margin of eye less than diameter of antennal socket; antennae slender, without rings (also see couplet 9) .......... Mymaridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

81 (80).    Antennal sockets closer to each other than to inner margin of eyes .......... Eulophidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

82 (79).    Tarsi with 5 segments.

 

83 (86).    Found in the ovaries of the fig Ficus carica

 

84 (85).    Antennae with 3 segments; head broader than long ......... Agaonidae  (only malesof Blastophaga)

  <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

85 (84).    Antennae with 11 segments; head almost squared ........... Torymidae  (only males of Philotrypesis)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

88 (87).    Middle coxae situated near posterior end of mesepisternum

 

89 (90).    Middle tarsi thickened at base and attenuate toward apex; 1st segment of middle tarsi (and often some subsequent segments) on lower side with 2 rows of short, thick spinules; mesepisternum  highly enlarged, convex, without femoral groove, but separated from mesothorax by deep stria or suture; middle coxae with membranousparts on lower side near base ........... Eupelmidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

90 (89).    Middle tarsi not thickened at base and without rows of short, thick spinules on lower side; mesepisternum (in addition to a few members of Aphelinidae in which antennae with 7-8 segments) separated by femoral groove; middle tarsi without membranous parts on lower side near base

 

91 (92).    Antennae with 6-8 segments; pronotum not long, shorter than shield of mesonotum ........... Aphelinidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

92 (91).    Antennae wither with 11-13 segments, or pronotum longer than shield of mesonotum

 

93 (94).    Pronotum broadens toward front; body not metallic, and covered with long hairs; found in stems of wheat, phytophagous,.Eurytomidae  (only Philachyra)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

94 (93).    Pronotum does not broaden toward front (see couplet 49) .......... Pteromalidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

 

Keys to the Hymenoptera of European U.S.S.R.-- Proctotrupoidea

 

(Derived from Kozlov, 1978 by E. F. Legner)

 

 

1 (4).    First (basal) antennal segment 1.5X longer than max. width; hind wings with anal lappet

 

2 (3).    Antennae with 16 segments; tarsal claws crestate; abdominal petiole at least 2X longer than wide; fore wings with 1M (1st discoidal cell); female ovipositor not protruding from abdominal valves; parasitoids of larvae of Chrysopidae ......... Heloridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

3 (2).    Antennae with 13 segments; tarsal claws simple, rarely with 2-3 denticles; abdominal petiole not longer than max. width, at least not in dorsal view; fore wings without 1 M; female ovipositor protrudes from abdominal valves; parasitoids predominantly of larvae of beetles, rarely larvae of Diptera .......... Proctotrupidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

4 (1).    First (basal) antennal segment at least 3X (usually more than 3X) longer than max. width; hind wings without anal appet

 

5 (10).    Abdominal petiole consists of one segment

 

6 (7).    Tergites and sternites of abdominal petiole fused; frons with process; antennae attached at frontal projection at level of midpoint of eye; if attachment different, then antennae with 14-15 segments; abdomen roundish on sides, without sharp margin; parasitoids of larvae and pupae of Diptera, rarely of larvae of bethyloid wasps ........... Diapriidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

7 (6).    Tergites and sternites of abdominal petiole not fused; frons without process; antennae attached almost at level of lower margin of eyes near opening of mouth; abdomen bordered on sides or with sharp margin.

 

8 (9).    Antennae usually with 12 segments, rarely 11 segments; if exceptionally with 7 or 10 segments, then fore wingsat least with marginal vein, or 7th antennal segment forms very flat clava; parasitoids of insect & spider eggs  ............. Scelionidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

9 (8).    Antennae usually with 10 segments; rarely with 7-9; fore wings with only subcostal vein, often without veins; parasitoids of gall midges, whiteflies, coccids, and rarely eggs of beetles .......... Platygastridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

10 (5).    Abdominal petiole consists of 2 segments; fore wings like Mymaridae (long processes) .......... Mymarommatidae (normally placed in Chalcidoidea)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

 

Keys to the Hymenoptera of European U.S.S.R-- Ceraphronoidea

<Overivew>

 

(Derived from Alekseev, 1978 by E. F. Legner)

 

1 (2).    All tibiae with 2 spurs at apex; longer spur of fore tibiae apically bifurcate; antennae with 11 segments in both sexes; antennal funicle of females fusiform, thick in middle; mesonotum with parapsidal and median grooves over greater part; pterostigma usually semielliptical, rarely linear; anterior margin of 1st abdominal tergite elongated toward front and constricts into a "neck"; Waterston organ  absent ........... Megaspilidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

2 (1).    Middle tibiae with one spur at apex; other tibiae with 2; longer spur on fore tibiae not bifurcate; antennae of females with 9-10 segments; antennae of males with 11 segments; antennal funicle of females with somewhat distinct clava; mesonotum with only median groove or all grooves entirely absent; pterostigma linear; anterior margin of 1st abdominal tergite does not constrict and bordered by transverse suture; Waterston organ present  .......... Ceraphronidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

3 (--).  Not included in this key is a small family with hosts in the Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Homoptera.  They are more generally found as secondary external parasitoids of Aphididae and dactylopine Coccidae, through Braconidae and chalcidoid primaries.  Calliceras abnormis Perk. attacks mature dryinid larvae in their cocoons in Hawaii, and Lygocerus semiramosus Kieff, is a secondary parasitoid of Chermidae through Encyrtidae in India (Clausen 1940/1962) ........... Calliceratidae    <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

 

REFERENCES:

 

Alekseev, V. N.  1978a.  Superfamily Ceraphronoidea (Ceraphronids). p. 1213-.  In:  G. S. Medvedev (ed.) 1987,

     Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. Vol. 3 Hymenoptera, Pt. 2.  Akad. Nauk., Zool. Inst.,

     Leningrad, SSSR. (trans. fr. Russian, Amerind. Publ. Co., Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi).  1341 p

 

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