FILE: <palear-3.key.htm> Bibliography Bibliography #2 Terminology [Navigate to MAIN MENU]

 

 

For educational purposes only; do not review, quote or abstract:--

A Public Service on the basics of Insect Identification

 

 

Key to Families of Northwestern European Chalcidoidea

Palearctic Area

 

(Derived from Graham, 1969 by E. F. Legner)

 

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[This key is in a form commonly used in North America. If the statement is true, proceed

to the designated couplet, whereas if it is false, go to "b" portion of the couplet. Numbers in

parentheses refer to previous couplet read]

 

 

[Please refer to <Guide> for additional illustrations & <Hymenoptera> for order details]

 

(Note: Not all illustrations are European species):

 

 

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1a. Petiole of abdomen composed of 2 segments, each of which is longer than broad, while both together are as long as the rest of abdomen (Mymaromma) ......... Mymaridae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

2

1b. Either abdomen has a petiole composed of one segment, which is sometimes inconspicuous, or it is sessile

 

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2a (1). Head with antennal toruli much nearer to eyes than to each other, and separated by not more than their own diam. from eyes; frons with an impressed transverse (= at right angles to longitudinal axis) straight line just above the antennal toruli; from the ends of this line 2 other pairs of lines extend along the orbits on to the vertex and face, respectively; nearly always macropterous, with hind wing having a basal stalk which is composed solely of the submarginal vein, the wing lamina not extending to its base; wing beyond the hamuli nearly always linear with its front and hind edges subparallel; forewing venation characteristic: marginal vein relatively short, stigmal rudimentary, the tip of latter mostly situated before middle of wing, rarely beyond it; antennae without true ring segments (= anelli); tarsi with 4-5 segments; body not metallic ......... Mymaridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

3

2b. Antennal toruli rarely nearer to eyes than to each other, if so then frons lacks impressed lines running along orbits and the transverse line, if present, is usually not straight, while the structure of the fore and hind wings is different; the antennae usually have one or more ring segments; body often metallic; tarsi sometimes with only 3 segments

 

4

3a (2). Apterous forms, or brachypterous forms having wings shortened, rudimentary, or (occasionally) represented by narrow filaments

 

10

3b. Forms having wings, except very rarely hind wings, fully developed, sometimes narrow but never filamentous

 

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4a (3). Males only: Species associated with figs (Ficus spp.); body and appendages often very aberrant in structure; apterous, or with wings represented by filaments; tarsi often heteromerous (= 3 pairs of tarsi differ in No. segments); ocelli usually absent........... Agaonidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> and some Torymidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (Sychophaginae).

 

5

4b. Males & Females: Species not associated with figs

 

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5a (4). Tarsi with 3 segments; small to minute species, 0.3 to 1.4 mm.; antennae with only 5-8 segments and usually very short ........... Trichogrammatidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniiles>

 

6

5b. Tarsi with 4-5 segments; species often larger; antennae often with a greater number of segments

 

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6a (5). Tarsi with 4 segments ......... Eulophidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

7

6b. Tarsi with 5 segments

 

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7a (6). Mid coxae inserted at or slightly in front of middle of mesepisternum; mid tarsi thickened proximally, tapering distally, their first segment, and often some of following segments, with a double row of short thick spines beneath; mesepisternum convex, without femoral groove ......... Encyrtidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2>; & <Juveniles>

 

8

7b. Mid coxae inserted at or near hind end of mesepisternum; mid tarsi with or without short thick spines beneath; mesepisternum with or without femoral groove

 

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8a (7). Mid tarsi thickened proximally, tapering distad, their 1st segment, and often some of following segments, with double row of short thick spines beneath; mesepisternum convex, without true femoral groove, though separated from mesosternum by an impressed line or suture; mid coxae ventrally with a membranous area at their bases ........ Eupelmidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

9

8b. Mid tarsi not thus thickened, without double row of short thick spines beneath; mesepisternum, except in a few Aphelinidae, not evenly convex, but having a femoral groove; mid coxae ventrally touching trochantinal lobes, without membranous area at their bases

 

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9a (8). Antennae with 6-8 segments; pronotum not large, shorter than mesoscutum ........... Aphelinidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

47

9b. Either antennae with 11-13 segments; or else pronotum large, longer than mesoscutum .......... Pteromalidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

11

10a (3). Females only: Tarsi heteromerous, fore and hind tarsi with 5 segments, mid tarsi with 4 segments

 

12

10b. Males & Females: Tarsi not heteromerous

 

47

11a (10). Antennae with 12-13 segments; forewing with postmarginal and stigmal veins well developed; moderately sized species, length 2.0 to 3.5 mm. (Macromesus only) .......... Pteromalidae

 

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11b. Antennae with 8 segments; forewing: postmarginal vein absent or rudimentary, stigmal short; minute species, length 0.5 to 0.8 mm. (some Encarsia) ......... Aphelinidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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12a (10). Tarsi with 3 segments; small to minute species, length 0.3 to 1.4 mm; antennae with only 5-8 segments and usually very short; hairs of forewing often in longitudinal lines .Trichogrammatidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniiles>

 

13

12b. Tarsi with 4-5 segments; species often larger; antennae often with a greater number of segments; hairs of forewing rarely arranged in longitudinal lines

 

42

13a (12). Tarsi with 4 segments

 

14

13b. Tarsi with 5 segments

 

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14a (13). Mid coxae inserted about level with middle of mesepisternum, or even anterior to this, the mesosternum being very short; mesepisternum enlarged and lat least partly covers mesepimeron, convex, without femoral groove; mid tibiae with very thick apical spur; mid tarsi thickened proximally, at least their 1st segment with 2 rows of short stout spines beneath; notauli usually absent, occasionally present or even complete but in such cases very superficial; metapleuron often very narrow or invisible; last tergite of abdomen often somewhat V-shaped ........ Encyrtidae <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2>; & <Juveniles>

 

15

14b. Mid coxae inserted behind level of middle of mesepisternum; mesepisternum, except in most and some Eupelmidae, and a few aberrant species of other families, neither enlarged nor evenly convex, but having a femoral groove; mid tibial spur and mid tarsi, except in most Eupelmidae, not thus modified

 

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15a (14). Mid tarsi thickened proximally and tapering distally, their 1st segment, and usually some of the following segments, with 2 rows of short stout spines beneath; mid coxae separated from trochantinal lobes of mesosternum by a membranous area which allows the coxae to swing directly forward; spur of mid tibia thick; mesepisternum (except in Oodera) greatly enlarged, evenly convex and without femoral groove, though separated from mesosternum by a linear suture; pronotum often divided longitudinally down middle by a groove, a membranous line, or a carina; postspiracular sclerite often longer than high, tending to be convex, sometimes free ventrally and overlapping mesepisternum somewhat; propodeum almost always shorter medially than at sides, sometimes absent medially; its hind margin being deeply, almost semicircularly, excised; antennae of mostly with one ring segment, 7 funicular segments and a solid 3-segmented clava ........ Eupelmidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

16

15b. Mid tarsi not modified as in previous; mid coxae without a membranous area ventrally and not capable of being swung directly forwards; spur of mid tibia rarely so thick; mesepisternum nearly always with a femoral groove extending from base of mid coxa towards base of forewing; pronotum, except in some exotic Pteromalidae (Cleonyminae), not divided longitudinally; postspiracular sclerite not free ventrally, nearly always as high or higher than broad, usually flat, or somewhat concave with its upper and hind margins slightly raised; propodeum usually not shorter, but often longer, medially than at the sides

 

17

16a (15). Postspiracular sclerite lying in the same plane as, and fused with, the lateral part of pronotum; the latter is rigidly coadapted to the mesepisternum; thorax in profile short and high; abdomen often with only 1-2 tergites visible in dorsal view; notauli complete

 

18

16b. Postspiracular sclerite [absent in a very few species] not lying in the same plane as, and not fused with, the lateral part of pronotum; the latter can usually swing forwards away from the mesothorax; thorax sometimes otherwise in shape; abdomen mostly with more than 2 tergites visible in dorsal view

 

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17a (16). Pronotum not visible from above, being hidden by mesoscutum which is strongly convex, or protuberant anteriorly; mandibles nearly always sickle-shaped, in a few species very short, straight and hanging down vertically; in these species the antennal scape is shorter than the 1st funicular segment and hardly longer than broad, while the head is narrower than the thorax; petiole of abdomen longer, often very much longer, than broad, often as long as the rest of abdomen; 3rd abdominal tergite usually covers the rest in dorsal view; forewing : stigmal vein usually directed at about a right angle relative to the costal edge, sometimes slightly oblique; head in front view usually somewhat triangular; antennae very variable in form: most often without ring segments or with only one, usually with 7-8 funicular segments; flagellum in often with branches; scutellum in exotic species often with bizarre processes ......... Eucharitidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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17b. Pronotum clearly visible in dorsal view of thorax; mandibles not sickle-shaped; antennal scape considerably longer than the 1st funicular segment, and much longer than broad; petiole very short and transverse; dorsal surface of abdomen often occupied wholly or nearly wholly by the connate 3rd and 4th abdominal tergites; forewing: stigmal vein oblique; head in front view not triangular; antennal formula usually 1173, sometimes 11171; flagellum without branches; scutellum without, or with at most short, teeth or processes ......... Perilampidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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18a (16). Females only: Mandible with proximal appendage lying against the underside of head and transversely ridged, these ridges sometimes appearing like serrations; 3rd or 4th segment of antenna often with a process or appendage; species associated with figs (Ficus spp.); the only species found in Europe is Blastophaga psenes (L.) which occurs in southwestern Europe, Asia and Africa .......... Agaonidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

19

18b. Males & Females: Mandibles without such an appendage; 3rd and 4th segments of antenna without processes; species, except some Torymidae and Eurytomidae, not associated with figs

 

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19a (18). Species associated with figs (Ficus spp.); in Europe only Philotrypesis caricae (Westwood), found in southwestern Europe, Asia and Africa; female has the last 2 gastral segment much lengthened to form a half cylinder which covers about the proximal 1/3rd of the ovipositor sheaths, the latter much longer than the body; spiracles of propodeum placed about midway between the front and hind margins of the sclerite (Sycophaginae)...Torymidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

20

19b. Species not associated with figs; apical segments of abdomen rarely thus lengthened, if so then the propodeal spiracles are close to the hind margin of metanotum

 

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20a (19). Females only: Last tergite of abdomen (9th abdominal) emarginate posteriorly, with a small articulated flap (epipygium, ep.) in the arc of the emargination; cerci [= pygostyles (p.): pair of small, latral hairy processes] attached very near to or at the hind margin of the tergite, and tending to be longer than thick; ovipositor sheaths somewhat exserted, their exserted portion usually equalling at least 1/3rd the length of hind tibia, sometimes longer than the whole body; sheaths often transversely striate; anterior margin of metapleuron often sinuate ......... Torymidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

21

20b. Males & Females: Last tergite of abdomen (9th abdominal) normally triangular and not emarginate posteriorly, without an articulated epipygial flap, its apex resting on the ovipositor sheaths, and its cerci somewhat less distant from its hind margin; cerci rarely longer than thick, sometimes placoid; in some Pteromalidae (Ormocerini) the last tergite is turned up, away from the ovipositor sheaths, and the cerci are attached to its hind margin; but these species have no articulated epipygial flap; ovipositor sheaths seldom far exserted, if so then they are reticulate, longitudinally aciculate, or smooth; anterior margin of metapleuron straight or evenly curved, except in some Torymidae

 

22

21a (20). Hind femora strongly swollen, only 1.5-3X as long as broad, their ventral edge armed with teeth or somewhat serrated; hind tibiae usually conspicuously curved, their apices sometimes obliquely truncate; antennae most often with one ring segment and 7 funicular segments, or without ring segments and with 8 funicular segments; head and dorsum of thorax most often with strong, and sometimes dense, umbilicate hairy punctures; pronotum often large and subrectangular

 

25

21b. Hind femora rarely so strongly swollen, if so then having their ventral edge unarmed; hind tibiae at most slightly curved, their apices not obliquely truncate; antennal formula often other than previously noted; head and dorsum of thorax very often without conspicuous hairy punctures; pronotum often shorter, or shaped differently

 

23

22a (21). Postspiracular sclerite usually invisible or forming only a small or narrow plate near the tegula, if rather larger (some Leucospidae) then the tegula nearly touches the pronotum; mesopleuron narrowing ventrad, mesepimeron absent or indistinctly defined because of coarse sculpture; body most often black, sometimes with white, yellow or red markings, rarely metallic; antennae with one ring segment and 7 funicular segments, or without ring segments but with 8 funicular segments

 

24

22b. Postspiracular sclerite larger and extending far ventrad; tegula usually separated from pronotum by at least its own length; mesopleuron usually distinctly divided into a mesepisternum and epimeron; body very often metallic, if not metallic then the antennal formula is usually different from that previously noted

 

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23a (22). Tegulae relatively short, up to 2X, but rarely more than 1.5X as long as broad, their front edge distinctly separated from pronotum; marginal vein of forewing at least slightly longer than stigmal, postmarginal usually not longer than marginal and sometimes very short or rudimentary; axillae separated by at most their own width; glossa not elongated, not or hardly projecting below mandibles; femoral groove extends far up the mesepisternum; notauli mostly complete and moderately deep, occasionally superficial posteriorly; female ovipositor not recurved over dorsum of abdomen, the latter without a dorsal groove or ridge .......... Chalcididae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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23b. Tegulae.elongated, 2.5-3.5X as long as broad, reaching or nearly reaching pronotum; marginal vein of forewing short, at most 3X as long as thick, sometimes nearly punctiform, not longer than stigmal vein, postmarginal vein very long; axillae very small and widely separated, often not distinctly marked off from scutellum; glossa somewhat elongated, projecting below mandibles; femoral groove shorter, extending barely 2/3rds up the mesepisternum; notauli usually absent, sometimes weakly indicated anteriorly; ovipositor in most species recurved and often lying in a groove along the dorsum of abdomen, if ovipositor is normal then the dorsum of the gaster is convex and hard, with a median longitudinal line or ridge .......... Leucospidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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24a (22). Inner orbits of eyes diverge at most slightly ventrad; antennae inserted at least slightly above level of ventral edge of eyes; postspiracular sclerite, sometimes also the metapleuron, bare; postmarginal vein of fore wing shorter than marginal, sometimes hardly longer than the short stigmal vein ......... Torymidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

47

24b. Inner orbits of eyes diverge strongly ventrad; antennae inserted distinctly, often far, below level of ventral edge of eyes; postspiracular sclerite and metapleuron usually somewhat hairy; postmarginal vein of forewing usually as long or longer than marginal vein ........ Pteromalidae (part) (Chalcidectinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

26

25a (21). Pronotal collar large, subrectangular, its length from about 2/3rds that of mesoscutum to longer than latter; head, and dorsum of thorax excluding propodeum, with numerous conspicuous hairy punctures which usually coalesce to form a deep, coarse honeycomb sculpture; genae with sharp edge or flange; propodeum usually grooved or excavated down middle; body usually not metallic, rarely metallic, sometimes partly to wholly yellow or reddish

 

27

25b. Characters not as previously described; if pronotal collar is comparable with the above in size and form, then either the head and thorax have a different type of sculpture, or else the genae are not sharp-edged

 

47

26a (25). Antennae with one ring segment, 7 funicular segments, and a solid or indistinctly segmented clava; inner orbits of eyes diverging strongly ventrad .......... Pteromalidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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26b. Antennae with at most 6 funicular segments; inner orbits of eyes diverging at most slightly ventrad .......... Eurytomidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

28

27a (25). Pronotal collar subrectangular, large, from about 1/2 as long to longer than mesoscutum; mesoscutal notauli complete

 

35

27b. Pronotal collar either not subrectangular, or else shorter than above; notauli complete or incomplete

 

47

28a (27). Marginal vein of forewing 4-8X as long as stigmal; postmarginal vein not or hardly longer than stigmal; one or more of the bristles on cerci of abdomen very long; either the antennal toruli touch edge of oral fossa, or else the face has tubercles or crests ....... Pteromalidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

29

28b. Either marginal vein of forewing is at most 3X as long as stigmal; or bristles of cerci relatively shorter, the antennal toruli are remote from the edge of the oral fossa, and the face is unarmed

 

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29a (28). Antennae with 10-11 segments, of which 4-6 are funicular segments; metapleuron not o indistinctly marked off from the propodeum, usually somewhat hairy; propodeum with a median longitudinal channel, or flat medially; axillulae not or only vaguely marked off from the scutellum; body usually not metallic, black, brown, or partly to entirely yellow to reddish, but rarely metallic .......... Eurytomidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

30

29b. Antennae usually with 13 segments, occasionally with 12; funicle with 6-9 segments; the other characters rarely present in combination

 

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30a (29). Body black, not metallic; propodeum with a median longitudinal channel; scutellum without an offset frenum ......... Eurytomidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

31

30b. Either body is at least partly metallic, or else propodeum lacks a median channel, and usually also the scutellum has a frenum marked off by an impressed line

 

47

31a (30). Abdomen with a conspicuous, subrectangular, reticulate or striate petiole; front margin of metapleuron not sinuate; hind femora neither swollen nor with teeth ventrally; stigma of forewing small .......... Pteromalidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

32

31b. Abdomen with a relatively inconspicuous, subconical, smooth or nearly smooth petiole

 

47

32a (31). Antennae inserted below level of the ventral edge of eyes; either forewing virtually lacks a speculum and has the marginal vein hardly longer than the stigmal vein, or else the vertex has 6-8 specialized dark bristles which point forwards .......... Pteromalidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

33

32b. Antennae inserted level with or above ventral edge of eyes; forewing usually with a speculum, marginal vein usually longer than stigmal; vertex either with more numerous or less specialized bristles

 

47

33a (32). Antennae with 9 funicular segments; stigma of forewing small; vertex with 6-8 long dark bristles ......... Pteromalidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

34

33b. Antennae with at most 7 funicular segments; either stigma of forewing large, or else vertex is clothed with more numerous ordinary hairs or bristles

 

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34a (33). Pronotal collar sharply margined anteriorly; squat, bright, metallic species much resembling Perilampidae; abdomen shorter than thorax, subglobose, ovipositor sheaths in not exserted; mandibles large, bidentate ......... Pteromalidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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34b. Pronotal collar not margined; characters disagreeing in some other respect from previously noted ......... Torymidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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35a (27). Hind tibia with 2 stout apical spurs, one or both of these curved; hind coxae nearly as long as their femora, with a fine carina along their dorsal edge; middle segments of abdomen with some strong hairy punctures which are usually modified and form part of transverse bands of characteristic sculpture; marginal vein of forewing 6-9X as long as the very short stigmal vein; antennae with 13 segments; postspiracular sclerite very narrow, fused with and lying in the same plane as mesopleuron .......... Ormyridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

36

35b. Hind tibia often with only one apical spur, if with 2 then both are straight; hind coxae rarely so long as in the above; middle segments of gaster most often without conspicuous hairy punctures, without transverse bands of sculpture resembling those of Ormyridae; marginal vein of forewing often relatively shorter and the stigmal relatively longer; antennal formula often otherwise; postspiracular sclerite rarely fused with mesopleuron

 

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36a (35). Hind coxae greatly enlarged and almost laminar; hind tibiae with a row of ca. 4-6 long bristles on their dorsal edge, and a series of ca. 4 others on their external surface, with 2 long apical spurs; forewing with 1-3 isolated bristles on the membrane below apex of submarginal vein; antennae with 9 segments .......... Elasmidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

37

36b. Hind coxae neither so greatly enlarged nor so strongly flattened; hind tibiae without specialized series of long bristles, often with only one apical spur; the other characters usually different

 

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37a (36). Thorax: axillae not distinctly marked off from scutellum, the two together forming a transverse band; propodeum with triangular median area; gaster sessile its basal segment as broad as propodeum; antennae with 5-7 segments, with scape, pedicellus, 2-4 ring segments, and a long undivided clava; forewing with fringes from 1/3rd to more than 1/2 breadth of wing, stigma rudimentary; external edge of mid tibia often with 2-4 long strong bristles; mid tarsi sometimes much longer than mid tibiae .......... Signiphoridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

38

37b. Thorax: axillae distinctly marked off from scutellum; propodeum without such a triangular median area; gaster most often petiolate or subpetiolate with its basal segment at least slightly narrower than the propodeum; antennal formula nearly always otherwise

 

39

38a (37). Antennae with 3-9 segments; postmarginal vein of forewing usually absent or represented by a short stub, only occasionally as long as the stigmal vein

 

40

38b. Antennae with 10-13 segments; postmarginal vein of forewing usually well-developed and as long as or longer than stigmal vein, occasionally shorter, but rarely absent

 

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39a (38). Abdomen subsessile, the petiolar segment, if present, transversely linear and not easily visible; postphragma extending at least slightly, often far, into the abdomen; postmarginal vein of forewing at most ca. 1/6th the length of marginal vein, but usually less; pronotum very short and strongly transverse; scutellum at least slightly, often strongly, transverse .......... Aphelinidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

40

39b. Abdomen petiolate, the petiolar segment, even if very short, clearly visible; either postmarginal vein at least 1/4th the length of marginal vein, or else the gastral petiole is conspicuous, rectangular and reticulate, and the pronotum is large, longer than the mesoscutum

 

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40a (39). Propodeum extensively pilose; its median 1/3rd with several hairs which converge towards the median line and leave at most a narrow strip down the middle uncovered; antennae with 11 segments of which 6 are funicular segments; hind edge of basal tergite of abdomen very convex, so that in some aspects it appears as if a rather deep groove is present between it and the 2nd tergite; spur of fore tibia weak and straight; forewing without a speculum; pronotum from nearly as long as to longer than, the mesoscutum; scutellum with 4 long bristles ......... Tetracampidae (Tetracampinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

41

40b. At least the middle 1/3rd of propodeum bare, except in some exotic Pteromalidae in which the antennae have 7 funicular segments; hind edge of basal tergite of abdomen not so convex, without the appearance of a groove between it and the 2nd tergite; spur of fore tibia usually stronger and curved; forewing often with a speculum; pronotum often relatively short; scutellum usually with more than 4 bristles

 

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41a (40). Females with spur of fore tibia weak, nearly straight, only about 1/4th as long as the 1st tarsal segment; spur of mid tibia not longer than that of the hind tibia; antennal formula 11163; Males with forewing with a black sausage-like swelling which occupies the marginal vein and the distal part of the submarginal vein; antennal formula 11153. Males & Females with pronotum bell-shaped, at least about 3/4ths as long as the mesoscutum; anterior tentorial pits forming conspicuous foveae, very large in males; occiput slightly margined ......... Tetracampidae (part) (Platynocheilinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

47

41b. Females with spur of fore tibia stronger and longer, nearly always curved but if straight then the antennal formula is different and the pronotum is relatively shorter; antennal formula rarely 11163, if so then the pronotum is relatively shorter, and the anterior tentorial pits are small; Males with forewings without a black swelling occupying this position, sometimes with the marginal vein short and broad, but not swollen ......... most Pteromalidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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42a (13). Marginal vein of forewing punctiform or virtually so; either the fringe of forewing extremely long, the length of its longest hairs fully equal to the breadth of the wing; or the antennae of with 5 segments with scape, pedicellus, 2 minute ring segments, and a long clava which is solid or has at most slight traces of segmentation; minute species, 0.5 to 0.7 mm. ........ Encyrtidae (part) (Antheminae & Arrhenophaginae) <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2>; & <Juveniles>

 

43

42b. Marginal vein of forewing very distinctly, usually much, longer than broad; fringe of forewing most often relatively shorter; antennae of nearly always with a different structure; size usually greater

 

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43a (42). Antennae with 6 funicular segments and one discoid ring segment, the latter often hard to see; middle 1/3rd of propodeum pilose, the hairs converging towards median line and leaving at most a narrow median strip uncovered; forewing without a speculum ........ Tetracampidae (part)

(Tetracampinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

44

43b. Antennae with at most 5 funicular segments; at least the middle 1/3rd of propodeum bare; forewing most often with a speculum

 

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44a (43). Hind legs having their coxae greatly enlarged and strongly compressed laterally, almost

laminar; outer surface of their tibiae with numerous coarse blackish bristles, some of which form a pattern like a series of lozenges; forewings narrow, nearly or almost 3X as long as broad, their front and hind margins nearly parallel; marginal vein extremely long, hardly at all bent at its junction with submarginal; postmarginal and stigmal very short; mid and hind femora flattened and strongly expanded; occiput with sharp edge, the posterior ocelli close to this or almost touching it .............. Elasmidae

 

45

44b. Hind coxae not so large and not laminately compressed; outer surface of hind tibiae without coarse bristles forming a pattern

 

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45a (44). Forewing with postmarginal vein as long as or longer than stigmal vein, the latter not very short ......... Eulophidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

46

45b. Forewing with postmarginal vein either absent, or clearly shorter than stigmal vein, the latter sometimes very short or even rudimentary

 

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46a (45). Abdomen distinctly constricted at its junction with propodeum, and a petiole always present even though sometimes strongly transverse; endophargma not extending into gaster; stigmal vein forming an angle of not less than ca. 35 with costal edge of wing; body mostly often at least partly metallic; if not metallic then scutellum usually with a pair of impressed submedian longitudinal lines .......... Eulophidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

46b. Abdomen subsessile, i.e., its base almost as broad as propodeum; the petiole, if present, very difficult to see; endophragma extends at least slightly, usually far, into gaster; stigmal vein usually forms a very acute angle with costal edge of wing; body not metallic, black, or partly to entirely yellow or brown; scutellum without submedian impressed longitudinal lines ......... Aphelinidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

Subfamilies of Pteromalidae [Also See: Additional Details]

 

48

47a. Mesoscutal notauli complete of (some Diparinae) incomplete but meeting on the disc of mesoscutum

 

78

47b. Notauli neither reaching hind margin of mesoscutum, nor meeting on its disc

 

---

48a (47). Antennal toruli touching lower edge of head and situated on facial lobes which project ventrad slightly below level of clypeus; antennae without ring segments, with 7 funicular segments, and a solid or 3-segmented clava; mesopleuron produced posteriorly in the form of a lamina which completely overlaps metapleuron; mesosternum with a broad deep median excavation (mesolcus) extending from its hind margin more than 1/2 way towards front of sclerite; propodeum with outer rim of each spiracle partly hidden by a raised flap of callus; postero-lateral corners of propodeum dentiform; body black or weakly metallic; head, and dorsum of thorax excluding propodeum, with very conspicuous hairy punctures, the interspaces between these to a large extent, or at least those of scutellum, with reduced microsculpture and so somewhat polished; mandibles bidentate .......... Spalangiinae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

95

48b. Antennal toruli nearly always at least slightly separated from lower edge of head, but if touching it then not situated on projecting facial lobes, and antennae with only 5-6 funicular segments; mesopleuron rarely produced posteriorly in the form of a lamina, if so (Spalangiopelta, some Pirenini) then lamina does not completely overlap metapleuron; mesosternum usually with at most a narrow median longitudinal impressed line, if this line is rather broad then it is situated mainly in the front portion of sclerite; propodeal spiracles not overlapped by a raised flap; the other characters not present simultaneously

 

---

49a (48). Ant-like species with head, thorax, and abdomen all at least partly testaceous; foramen magnum situated near top of head; face on either side of clypeus often with a tubercle, crest, or forwardly projecting tooth, sometimes with a second crest on each side just below level of antennal toruli; malar sulcus absent; antennae with 8-11 segments, without ring segments or, some only, with one ring segment; propodeal spiracles separated by much more than their own length from hind margin of metanotum; wings sometimes vestigial; when developed having marginal vein very long, the stigmal vein short, postmarginal vein equal to or shorter than stigmal; parastigma with a callus which often bears a conspicuous tuft of dark bristles; body of Theocolax & Cerocephalinae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

96

49b. Species rarely ant-like; head, thorax and abdomen rarely all testaceous-marked, if so then foramen magnum not situated near top of head, and face has neither crests nor teeth; antennae often with a different formula; propodeal spiracles rarely separated by more than their own length from the hind margin of metanotum

 

---

50a (49). Spiracles of propodeum situated about 1/2 way between front and hind margins of the sclerite; antennal toruli placed on either side of clypeus and close to edge of oral fossa, separated from it by a distance at least slightly less than the height of the toruli; antennae with 3 ring segments and 5 funicular segments; malar sulcus absent; mandibles bidentate; body of Cea ......... Ceinae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

97

50b. Spiracles of propodeum always nearer to front margin of sclerite than to its hind margin, sometimes even touching metanotum [Merostenu sexcavatus -- Eupelmidae-- has the propodeal spiracles only slightly nearer to front margin than to hind margin of propodeum, but it has 1 ring segment & 7 funicular segments in antennae]; antennal toruli separated from edge of oral fossa by at least their own height except in Neodipara, some Eunotinae, and some Cleonyminae, in which antennae have a different formula

 

---

51a (50). Antennae inserted on either side of clypeus, with their toruli touching edge of oral fossa; with 5 funicular segments, without ring segments or with only one minute ring segment; body black with a weak metallic tinge; gastral petiole elongated, yellow; mandibles bidentate ........ Neodiparinae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

98

51b. Antennal toruli at least slightly separated from edge of oral fossa, far above it in Dipara petiolata, the only species having a blackish body and elongated yellow gastral petiole

 

---

52a (51). Vertex, in addition to some fine hairs, with 6-12 conspicuously strong dark bristles, most or all of which curve forwards; scutellum with 4 long bristles only, usually (at least the frenum) longitudinally strigose; notauli usually complete and somewhat strongly convergent, sometimes incomplete but meeting on the disc of mesoscutum; gaster usually attached to the propodeum at a relatively high level, the lower edge of petiolar foramen being usually level with the upper surface of hind coxae as seen in profile; one or more of bristles of each cercus very long; antennae with 11-13 segments, with one ring segment; in with 7 funicular segments and a solid or 3-segmented clava; in with 9 funicular segments and a short clava which is solid or imperfectly 2-segmented; body of Dipara ........ Diparinae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

99

52b. Vertex clothed with hairs or bristles which are relatively uniform in length and most often finer and shorter than in the above; scutellum usually with more than 4 bristles, if with only 4 then scutellum is not longitudinally strigose; notauli complete, not meeting posteriorly; gaster usually attached to propodeum at a lower level, with the petiolar foramen located between the hind coxae

 

---

53a (52). Macropterous; front edge of costal cell of forewing strongly curved apically, so that wing appears excised at the point where submarginal vein meets marginal vein (Epicopterus and some exotic genera) ......... Eunotinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

100

53b. Either front edge of costal cell of forewing in its apical portion is straight or at most weakly sinuate; or species is brachypterous

 

---

54a (53). Species with the following combination of characters: head with posterior ocelli touching occipital edge, which is sharp; head in front very subtriangular; genae long to very long; scutellum large, slightly to considerably longer than mesoscutum, sometimes somewhat overlapping abdomen; forewing with postmarginal vein usually at most as long as, rarely slightly longer than, stigmal vein; 1st tergite of abdomen very large, usually concealing the remaining tergites though sometimes (Scutellista) occupying only ca. 1/2 the abdomen, in which case the scutellum partly overlaps the abdomen; propodeal callus with a raised longitudinal crest which ends posteriorly in a tooth; antennae with 8-10 segments, inserted at least slightly below level of ventral edge of eyes; body of Eunotus & ......... Eunotinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

55

54b. If occipito-vertical edge sharp, then posterior ocelli do not touch it (except sometimes in Pirene, in which the head is not subtriangular, the genae are short, the scutellum is smaller, and other characters do not all agree with above); head in front view more often somewhat oval; scutellum rarely distinctly longer than mesoscutum, not overlapping abdomen [except partly in some exotic Cleonyminae]; forewing with postmarginal vein often longer than stigmal; 1st tergite of abdomen rarely occupying more than 1/2 total length; propodeal callus rarely with a longitudinal ridge; antennal formula often otherwise

 

---

55a (54). Wings bitten off somewhere near their bases, so that venation, except part of submarginal vein, is missing (dealate specimens of Bairamlia) ........ Asaphinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

56

55b. Wings fully developed with complete venation

 

57

56a (55). Forewing with marginal vein conspicuously thickened, either throughout, or in its proximal 1/2

 

59

56b. Forewing with marginal vein not conspicuously thickened; Note: parastigma, which may be thickened, is not counted as part of marginal vein

 

---

57a (56). Clypeus with at most a trace of strigose sculpture at the sides, its anterior margin subtruncate; hind tibia with one spur; antennal formula 11263 ( Epicopterus only) ....... Eunotinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

58

57b. Either the clypeus is wholly radiately strigose, or its anterior margin is bilobed, and hind tibia has 2 spurs; or antennal formula is different

 

---

58a (57). Either head and thorax are yellow and black, not metallic; or the antennal formula is 11173 ......... Miscogasterinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

58b. Head and thorax usually metallic, if not metallic then without yellow markings; antennal formula otherwise ......... Pteromalinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

59a (56). Females with tarsi heteromerous, mid tarsi with only 4 segments; fore and hind tarsi with 5; face with a longitudinal impressed line on either side, each lying somewhat mesad of its corresponding malar sulcus, extending from the eye towards the oral edge; postspiracular sclerite imperfectly developed and not distinctly separated from mesopleuron, sometimes apparently absent; antennal formula 11174; Males with face with longitudinal impressed lines like those of ; postspiracular sclerite as described for ; antennal formula 11173 or 11182; body and appendages ........ Macromesinae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

60

59b. Females with tarsi not heteromerous, all with 5 segments; face, except in some species of exotic genus Belonea, without longitudinal impressed lines like those described for Macromesinae; postspiracular sclerite distinctly separated from mesopleuron by a suture, sometimes very small or narrow but often large; Males with face lacking longitudinal impressed lines like those described above; postspiracular sclerite as in females; antennal formula most often otherwise

 

---

60a (59). Males only with eyes very large and dorsally touching or almost touching posterior ocelli, but their inner orbits diverging strongly ventrad; antennae very short: either with 2 ring segments and 3 funicular segments, or 3 ring segments and 2 funicular segments; or 4 ring segments but only one funicular segment; small species, at most 2 mm. in length; (some Pirenini) .......... Miscogasterinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

61

60b. Either females or males with eyes smaller and not nearly touching posterior ocelli dorsally, and the other characters not all present simultaneously; males with inner orbits diverging strongly have longer antennae, with either one ring segment and 7 funicular segments, or no ring segments but 8 funicular segments

 

94

61a (60). Inner orbits of eyes diverging strongly ventrad, at an angle of 20 to 45 to vertical axis of head; antennae with 7-8 funicular segments, with only one ring segment, or without true ring segments; clava sometimes solid, sometimes 2-3 segmented; labrum often visible even when mandibles are closed; head and thorax often with numerous and conspicuous hairy punctures; postspiracular sclerite large and broad, often somewhat hairy

 

62

61b. Inner orbits of eyes parallel or diverging only slightly ventrad; antennae rarely with more than 6 funicular segments, if with 7, some Chrysolampinae, some Asaphinae, Skeloceras (Miscogasterinae), some % Torymidae, then the inner orbits of eyes are nearly parallel; at least one ring segment present, often 2, occasionally 3-4; clava most often with 3 segments, occasional with 2; labrum very rarely visible; head and thorax usually with sparser or inconspicuous hairy punctures; postspiracular sclerite large or small, nearly always bare

 

63

62a (61). Antennae with 13 segments, most often with 2 ring segments and 6 (occasionally 7) funicular segments,or 3 ring segments and 5 funicular segments; occasionally with only one ring segment, but then with 7 funicular segments; petiolar foramen of propodeum most often bounded by a somewhat crescentric, smooth or transversely aciculate strip; or with a convex, reticulate nucha; propodeum, medially, often produced caudad of the bases of hind coxae; the supracoxal flanges, except in a few species, are not very narrow and linear; anterior margin of clypeus often with teeth; postmarginal vein of forewing often longer than marginal vein; petiole of abdomen often distinctly sculptured, sometimes longer than broad

 

---

62b. Antennae with 10, 11 or 12 segments, if with 2 ring segments, then only 5 funicular segments; sometimes 3-4 ring segments but in that case at most 3 funicular segments; often only one ring segment but then at most 6 funicular segments; propodeum without nucha, its petiolar foramen bounded by a simple ridge; propodeum, medially, not or hardly produced caudad of the bases of hind coxae; supracoxal flanges, except in a few species, very narrow and linear; anterior margin of clypeus rarely with teeth; postmarginal vein of forewing in most species shorter than, and only rarely longer than, marginal vein; petiole of abdomen smooth, usually somewhat transverse, rarely as long as broad; body of Semiotellus & of Pirene ......... Miscogasterinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

64

63a (62). Antennae inserted very high on head, their toruli distinctly nearer to median ocellus than to the anterior margin of clypeus

 

65

63b. Antennae inserted lower down the head, their toruli equidistant from median ocellus and the anterior margin of clypeus, or nearer to the latter

 

---

64a (63). Antennal formula 11263; marginal vein of forewing 4-4.5X as long as stigmal vein, costal cell very narrow, 12-20X as long as its maximum breadth; all coxae, femora, and tibiae red, sometimes also the abdominal petiole and part of abdomen; body of Panstenon ........ Panstenoninae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

65

64b. Either the antennal formula is 11173, or else the marginal vein of forewing is less than 3X as long as stigmal vein, the costal cell is relatively broader, and at least the coxae are mainly metallic

 

---

65a (64). Marginal vein of forewing 3.5-6X as long as the stigmal vein; pronotal collar large, at least 1/2 as long as mesoscutum, sharply margined anteriorly; antennal formula 11263 or 11173; hind tibia with 2 strong apical spurs; petiole of abdomen usually distinctly sculptured, longer than broad, and subrectangular ......... Chrysolampinae [Illustrations unavailable]

 

66

65b. Marginal vein of forewing rarely more than 3X as long as stigmal vein; if more than 3X, then either the pronotal collar is shorter, or else it is immarginate

 

67

66a (65). Body either brown to black and not metallic; or the head and thorax at least partly yellow to reddish

 

68

66b. Body at least slightly metallic; head and thorax without yellow or reddish .markings

 

---

67a (66). Pronotum short, in dorsal view with its sides converging strongly forwards (a few Ormocerini; some exotic Brachyscelidiphagini) ......... Miscogasterinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

67b. pronotum long, in dorsal view appearing subrectangular, or having its sides at most slightly convergent ......... Torymidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

68a (66). Genae with sharp edge or border which extends well up the temples; occiput also margined; pronotum large and subrectangular; antennae inserted below level of ventral edge of eyes, 11263 or 11173 ,,,,,,,,,, Asaphinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

69

68b. Genae without sharp edge except sometimes near mandibles, in which case the occiput is not margined, while the pronotum is shorter and not subrectangular, and the antennae are inserted higher on head

 

---

69a (68). Postmarginal vein of forewing shorter than marginal vein; antennae inserted well below level of ventral edge of eyes, 11263 in , 11353 in ; anterior margin of clypeus without teeth (Bairamlia) ......... Asaphinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

70

69b. Either postmarginal vein of forewing is at least slightly longer than marginal vein, or else antennae are inserted level with or above the ventral edge of eyes; antennal formula sometimes otherwise; anterior margin of clypeus often with a tooth or teeth

 

71

70a (69). Antennae lack clearly differentiated ring segments, or with only one ring segment

 

72

70b. Antennae with 2 or more ring segments

 

95

71a (70). Males only: either petiole and base of abdomen reddish, or pedicellus with a comb of outstanding hairs beneath, and genae with some conspicuously long hairs; scutellum tapers forwards to a point

 

---

71b. Females or Males not having the above characters (Brachylelatus, some male Torymidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>, and some non-European Miscogasterinae (Brachyscelidiphagini). <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

73

72a (70). Forewing with postmarginal vein at least slightly longer than marginal vein

 

29

72b. Forewing with postmarginal vein not longer than marginal vein [Also try 79]

 

---

73a (72). Postspiracular sclerite narrow; clypeus wholly strigose (only a very few species key out here) ........... Pteromalinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

74

73b. Postspiracular sclerite large and broad; clypeus either mainly to entirely reticular, or smooth....

 

96

74a (73). Occiput margined, at least medially

 

---

74b. Occiput not margined ........ Miscogasterinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

75a (72). Anterior margin of clypeus with 3 asymmetric teeth, or with 2 teeth of which the left-hand one is somewhat bifid ......... Miscogasterinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

76

75b. Anterior margin of clypeus either edentate or, if teeth present, they are neither asymmetrically placed nor bifid

 

---

76a (75). Petiole of abdomen strongly sculptured, reticulate or strigose, often somewhat rectangular, or longer than broad ......... Miscogasterinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

77

76b. Petiole of abdomen smooth or nearly so, usually somewhat transverse though sometimes as long as broad

 

---

77a (76). Antennae inserted low down, their toruli not or hardly above the level of the ventral edge of eyes, 11263; clypeus without, or with at most some vague, striae ......... Miscogasterinae (part)

 

78

77b. Either antennae are inserted distinctly above level of ventral edge of eyes, or else their formula is 11353; or clypeus has numerous radiating striae

 

---

78a (77). Either clypeus is mainly striate, or its anterior margin has a tooth, or two lobes ..... Pteromalinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

98

78b. Clypeus not striate, its anterior margin without teeth

 

93

79a (47). Face and/or frons with a crest or tubercle on each side; or the outer edges of the deep antennal grooves are raised to form crests

 

80

79b. Face and frons without crests or tubercles, the interantennal tubercle, which is sometimes carinate, is not counted; outer edges of antennal grooves not crested, such grooves often shallow

 

95

80a (79). Inner orbits of eyes diverge strongly ventrad, at an angle of 20 to 45 to the vertical axis of head; antennae either with one ring segment and 7 funicular segments, or without ring segments but having 8 funicular segments

 

81

80b. Inner orbits of eyes parallel or diverging only slightly; antennae almost always with 2-3 ring segments, and rarely more than 6 funicular segments; if there are 7 or 8 funicular segments, then nearly always 2 ring segments are present

 

---

81a (80). Brachypterous or apterous species (some Callitula, Meraporus, Leptomeraporus, Artholytus, Nasonia, Platypteromalus and Eupteromalus) ......... Pteromalidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

82

81b. Macropterous species

 

83

82a (81). Antennae with 10, 11 or 12 segments

 

84

82b. Antennae with 13 segments

 

---

83a (82). Antennae without ring segments or with only one ring segment; clava neither acutely pointed nor with an apical process, 2-3 segmented ......... Miscogasterinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

83b. Antennae with 2-3 ring segments; clava acutely pointed, acuminate, or with an apical process,

usually solid or indistinctly segmented (Callitula, Merisus, some Homoporus, Norbanus and Picroscytoides key out here) .......... Pteromalinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

84a (82). Axillae produced forwards far in advance of scutellar base, the latter broad; forewing with stigmal vein very short, the stigma almost sessile, marginal vein 3-4X as long as stigmal, postmarginal vein relatively short; hind tibiae somewhat compressed, their posterior edge with a row of spines, 2 strong apical spurs present of which the 2nd is only slightly shorter than the 1st; hind coxae very long, at least 3/4ths as long as their femora, the latter compressed; spiracles of propodeum touch metanotum, the latter often covering front part of spiracular rim; last 2-3 segments of abdomen clothed with dark bristles; antennal formula 11263 in 11353 ........ Colotrechninae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

85

84b. Axillae very rarely produced so far in advance of scutellar base, if so then the latter is narrower; venation of forewing usually quite unlike above, if somewhat similar then hind tibiae have no spines along their posterior edge, and have only one apical spur, while hind coxae are relatively shorter and propodeal spiracles are at least slightly separated from metanotum

 

86

85a (84). Antennae inserted high on head, their toruli nearer to median ocellus than to anterior margin of clypeus

 

87

85b. Antennae inserted at a lower level, their toruli either midway between median ocellus and anterior margin of clypeus, or nearer to latter

 

---

86a (85). Marginal vein of forewing 4-4.5X as long as stigmal vein; costal cell narrow, 12-20X as long as its max. breadth .......... Panstenoninae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

87

86b. Marginal vein of forewing less than 3X as long as stigmal vein; costal cell relatively broader than in the above

 

---

87a (86). Marginal vein of forewing conspicuously thickened, either throughout or in its proximal half ........ Pteromalinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

88

87b. Marginal vein of forewing not conspicuously thickened

 

---

88a (88). Anterior margin of clypeus with 3 asymmetric teeth ...... Miscogasterinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

89

88b. Anterior margin of clypeus either edentate, or if with teeth or lobes, then these are not asymmetric

 

90

89a (88). Petiole of abdomen conspicuous, sculptured, reticulate or strigose, usually somewhat elongated, rarely transverse

 

91

89b. Petiole of abdomen smooth or nearly so, usually somewhat transverse and relatively inconspicuous, rarely somewhat longer than broad

 

---

90a (89). Anterior margin of clypeus bi- or tridentate ........ Miscogasterinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

90b. Anterior margin of clypeus without teeth .......... Pteromalinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

92

91a (89). Anterior margin of clypeus with 2 slightly projecting sharp teeth

 

---

91b. Anterior margin of clypeus not of this form, often somewhat less emarginate or incised but then the angles on either side of emargination are blunt ........ Pteromalinae (most species) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

92a (91). Antennae inserted low on head, not or hardly above level of ventral edge of eyes; axillae meet or nearly meet, so that scutellum touches mesoscutum only on a narrow base or at a point; clypeus reticulate or smooth ........ Miscogasterinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

92b. Antennae inserted higher, distinctly above level of ventral edge of eyes; axillae widely separated, so that scutellum touches mesoscutum on a broad base; clypeus most often striate .......... Pteromalinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

93a (79). Antennae with 3 ring segments and 5 funicular segments (Nikolskayana only) ........ Pteromalinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

94

93b. Antennae with one ring segment, or without such segments; with 7-8 funicular segments

 

---

94a (93). Head massive, somewhat, broader than thorax; clypeus with strong radiating striae which extend some distance up face and genae; inner orbits of eyes virtually parallel; head and thorax without conspicuous hairy punctures; antennal formula 11083 (ring segments not clearly differentiated) ........ Cratominae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

95

94b. Head less massive, not much broader than thorax; clypeus without strong radiating striae (nearly always reticulare without any striae); inner orbits of eyes usually diverge ventrad, sometimes strongly so; head and thorax sometimes with conspicuous hairy punctures; antennae often with an ring segment

 

---

95a (94). Males only: Either the pedicellus has a comb of outstanding hairs beneath, or the coxae, gastral petiole, and base of gaster are all somewhat red, the propodeal spiracles are small, circular, and separated by much more than their own diam. from the hind margin of metanotum ......... Eupelmidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

95b. Either or in which antennal pedicellus lacks a comb of outstanding hairs beneath, the coxae petiole and base of gaster are not simultaneously red, and the propodeal spiracles are not more than their own diam. from hind margin of metanotum ......... Cleonyminae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

97

96a (74). Antennae with 2 or more ring segments

 

100

96b. Antennae with only one ring segment (11173)

 

---

97a (96). Either hind femora beneath have a tooth, some teeth, or fine serrations, or else the occiput is margined .......... Torymidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

98

97b. Hind femora without teeth or serrations; occiput not margined

 

---

98a (79). Antennae with 2 ring segments ......... Torymidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

99

98b. Antennae with 3 or more ring segments

 

---

99a (98). Proximal segments of antennal flagellum increasing gradually in size, so that there is no very clear distinction between ring segments and funicular segments ......... Torymidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

99b. Antennae with 3 ring segments which are obviously smaller than any of the succeeding funicular segments (antennal formula 11353) ........ Pteromalinae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

100a (96). Anterior margin of metapleuron not sinuate; ventral edge of hind femora without teeth or serrations; occiput not margined ......... Eupelmidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

---

100b. Either anterior margin of metapleuron sinuate, or ventral edge of hind femora has a tooth, teeth or fine serrations; of occiput is margined ......... Torymidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

 

REFERENCES:

Graham, M. W. R. de V. 1969. The Pteromalidae of Northwestern Europe (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Bull. British Museum of Nat. Hist., Entomology, Suppl. 16. 909 p.