1a. Adults with two pairs of well-developed membranous wings, not hardened or leathery, not covered with scales, sometimes rudimentary, but never veinless nor fringed with long hairs; hind wings smaller than front wings and with fewer veins; front wings with 20 or less cells; tarsi with 3-5 segments; mouthparts mandibulate (= mandibles adapted for chewing); body quite hard, wasp-like insects, the abdomen usually very constricted at base (Figs. A-E)........................................................................................................................... ................................. 2

 

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1b. Front wings without veins, hard or leathery, at least at base usually meeting in a straight line down iddle of back; hind wings, if developed, usually membranous, narrow and with few veins, but usually longer than front wings when unfolded; mouthparts mandibulate; tarsi with 5 or less segments; abdominal cerci (= pair of appendages at abdominal apex) not like forceps; antennae generally with 11 or fewer segments; beetle-like insects (Fig. A) .................................................................................................................................. COLEOPTERA......49

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