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References for:  “KEY TO ADULTS OF PRINCIPAL PARASITOIDS

OF SYNANTHROPIC DIPTERA BREEDING IN

DECOMPOSING ORGANIC WASTES”

 

 

     Please CLICK on First Letter of Authors Last Name: [For Subject Matter, depress Ctrl/F]

 

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Ables, J. R. & M. Shepard.  1974a.  Hymenopterous parasitoids associated with poultry manure.  Environ. Ent. 3(5):  884-86.

 

Ables, J. R. & M. Shepard.  1974b.  Responses and competition of the parasitoids Spalangia endius and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at different densities of house fly pupae.  Canad. Ent. 106:  825-30.

 

Ables, J. R. & M. Shepard.  1976a.  Seasonal abundance and activity of indigenous hymenopterous parasitoids attacking the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae).  Canad. Ent. 108:  841-44.

 

Ables, J. R. & M. Shepard.  1976b.  Influence of temperature on oviposition by the parasites Spalangia endius and Muscidifurax raptor.  Environ. Ent. 5:  511-13.

 

Ables, J. R., R. P. West & M. Shepard.  1975.  Response of the house fly and its parasitoids to Dimilin (TH-6040).  J. Econ. Ent. 68:  622-24. 

 

Ables, J. R., M. Shepard & J. R. Holman.  1976.  Development of the parasitoids Spalangia endius and Muscidifurax raptor in relation to constant and variable temperatures:  simulation and validation.  Environ. Ent. 5:  329-32.

 

Abraham, R.  1975.  Über die wirkung der temperature auf die Flugaktivität parasitischer Hymenopteren.  Z. angew. Ent. 79:  113-23.

 

Abraham, R.  1978a.  On the flight activity of Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) depending on temperature and relative humidity.  Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. 105:  489-501.  [in German with English summary].

 

Abraham, R.  1978b.  Die Parasitierung von Phormia regina (Dipt.) durch Nasonia vitripennis (Hym., Pteromalidae) in Abhängigkeit von Temperatur und relativer Luftfeuchtigkeit im Freiland.  Mitt. dt. Ges. allg. angew. Ent., Giessen 1:  277-80.

 

Abraham, R.  1985.  Nasonia vitripennis an insect from bird's nests (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae).  Ent. Gen. 10:  121-24.

 

Abraham, R. & H. König.  1977.  Der Einfluss der Temperatur auf die Anstichaktivität bei Nasonia vitripennis und Spalangia nigra (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae).  Entomophaga 22:  299-308.

 

Adashkevich, B. P.  1970.  Rearing Aleochara bilineata (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in the laboratory.  Zool. Zh. 49(7):  1081-5.  [in Russian].

 

Adashkevich, B. P. & O. N. Perekrest.  1973.  Mass-rearing of Aleochara bilineata (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in the laboratory.  Zool. Zh. 52(11):  1705-9.  [in Russian].

 

Adashkevich, B. P. & O. N. Perekrest.  1974.  Use of Aleochara bilineata Gill (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in controlling cabbage maggot and onion fly, p. 9-16.  In:  Entomofagi, fitofagi, i mikroorganiszmy v zashchite rastenii.  Shtiintsa Publ., Kishinev.  [in Russian].

 

Allee, M. C.  1969.  Aleochara tristis Gravenhorst (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) as a potential means of controlling the face fly Musca autumnalis De Geer (Diptera: Muscidae).  Diss. Abstr. B., Sci. Eng. 29:  1393.

 

Altson, A. M.  1920.  The life-history and habits of two parasites of blow flies.  Proc. Zool. Soc. London 15:  196-243.

 

Andriescu, I. & K. Fabritius.  1981.  Eupteromalus terginae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), ein Puparienparasit von Lucellia tergina Zett. (Anthomyiidae) und Musca domestica L. (Muscidae).  Nachr. Bl. bayer. Ent., München 30:  73-8.

 

Ankersmit, G. W., J. Th. Locher, H. H. W. Velthuis & K. W. R. Szart.  1962.  Effect of insecticides, acaricides and fungicides on Mormoniella vitripennis Walker (Hym. Pteromalidae).  Entomophaga 7:  251-.

 

Anonymous.  1938.  Biological control of dung breeding insects.  Report of the Puerto Rico Experiment Station, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.  p. 107.

 

Anonymous.  1972.  Investigations on natural enemies of some flies that breed in dung and vegetable refuse.  Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr., Annu. Rept. 1970-1972, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

 

Arditi, R.  1980.  A model for the functional response of parasitoids.  Rev. Suisse Zool. 87:  887-93.

 

Arellano, G. M. & L. M. Rueda.  1988.  Biological study of the house fly pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Philipp. Ent. 7:  329-50.

 

Ashmead, W. H.  1887.  Studies on the North American Chalcididae, with descriptions of new species, chiefly from Florida.  Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 14:  183-203.

 

Ashmead, W. H.  1896a.  A synopsis of the Spalangiinae of North America.  Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 3:  27-40.

 

Ashmead, W. H.  1896b.  Descriptions of new parasitic Hymenoptera.  Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 23:  179-234.

 

Ashmead, W. H.  1899.  Classification of the old family Chalcididae.  Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 4:  242-49.

 

Ashmead, W. H.  1904.  Classification of the chalcid flies of the superfamily Chalcidoidea, with descriptions of new species in the Carnegie Museum, collected in South America by Herbert H. Smith.  Mem. Carnegie. Mus. 1(4):  225-551.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1981.  Use of predators and parasites in filth fly IPM programs in poultry housing. p. 26-43.  In: Status of Biological Control of Filth Flies, USDA Sci. Educ. Adm. Publ. A106. 2: F64, 212 p.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1986.  Status and potential of biological control agents in livestock and poultry pest management systems.  In:  Biological Control of Muscoid Flies (Patterson, R.S. and D.A. Rutz, editors).  Misc. Publications Entomological Society of America. 61, p. 1-9.

 

Axtell, R. C.  1990.  Potential of biocontrol for livestock and poultry pests.  Chapter 20, p. 293-304 In:  Rutz, D.A. and Patterson, R.S. (eds.), Biocontrol of Arthropods Affecting Livestock and Poultry, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.

 

Axtell, R. C. & D. A. Rutz.  1986.  Role of parasites and predators as biological fly control agents in poultry production facilities.  In:  Biological control of Muscoid Flies (Patterson, R.S. and D.A. Rutz, editors).  Misc. Publications Entomological Society of America. 61, p. 88-100.

 

Azab, A. K., M. f. S. Tawfik & K. T. Awadallah.  1963.  Insect enemies of common flies of Giza region.  Bull. Ent. Soc. d'Egypte 47:  227-86.

 

Azab, A. K., M. F. S. Tawfik & K. T. Awadallah.  1967a.  Morphology of the early stages of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Bull. Soc. Ent. d'Egypte, Cairo 51:  457-67.

 

Azab, A. K., M. F. S. Tawfik & K. T. Awadallah.  1967b.  Biology of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Bull. Soc. Ent. d'Egypte, Cairo 51:  469-82.

 

Azizov, N.  1972.  A contribution to the biology of Spalangia nigroaenea (Hymenoptera, Spalangiidae).  Zool. Zhurn. (Moscow) 51(6):  925-26.  [in Russian with English summary].

 

 

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Bai, G. M. & T. Sankaran.  1977.  Parasites, predators and other arthropods associated with Musca domestica and other flies breeding in bovine manure.  Entomophaga 22:  163-67.

 

Bailey, N. S.  1947.  Trichopria tabanivora Fouts in Massachusetts (Hymenoptera, Diapriidae).  Psyche 54:  1-142.  [Rev. Appl. Ent. B-37:  146].

 

Bakker, K., S. N. Bagchee, W. R. van Swet & E. Meelis.  1967.  Host discrimination in Pseudeucoila bochei.  Ent. Exp. Appl. 10:  295-311.

 

Bakker, K., H.J.P. Eijsackers, J.C. van Lenteren & E. Meelis.  1972.  Some models describing the distribution of eggs of the parasite Pseudeucoila bochei (Hym.,Cynip.) over its hosts, larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. Oecologia (Berl.) 10: 29‑57.

 

Baltazar, C. R.  1966.  A catalogue of Philippine Hymenoptera (with a bibliography, 1758-1963).  Pacific Inst. Monog. 8.  488 p.

 

Barash, D. P. & C. A. Ryder.  1972.  Ethology laboratory:  reproductive behaviour of Mormoniella vitripennis.  Amer. Biology Teacher 34:  14-18.

 

Barlin, M. R. & S. B. Vinson.  1981.  Multiporous sensilla in antennae of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera).  Int. J. Insect Morphol. & Embryol. 10:  29-42.

 

Barrass, R.  1960a.  The courtship behaviour of Mormoniella vitripennis Walk. (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae).  Behaviour, Leiden 15(3-4):  185-209 (?206).

 

Barrass, R.  1960b.  The effect of age on the performance of an innate behaviour pattern in Mormoniella vitripennis Walk. (Hymenoptera< pteromalidae).  Behaviour, Leiden 15(3-4):  210-18.

 

Barrass, R.  1961.  A quantitative study of the behaviour of the male Mormoniella vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) towards two constant stimulus-situations.  Behaviour, Leiden 18(4):  288-312.

 

Barrass, R.  1962.  Contacts between males in Mormoniella vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Anim. Behaviour, London 10:  p. 385.

 

Barrass, R.  1965.  Variations in the receptivity of the female Mormoniella vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae).  Proc. 12th Internatl. Congr. Ent., London 1964.  p. 299.

 

Barrass, R.  1969.  Preening and abdomen dipping by the male Mormoniella vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) after courtship.  Behaviour, Leiden 35(3-4):  304-12.

 

Barrass, R.  1976a.  Inhibitory effects of courtship in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis and a new interpretation of the biological significance of courtship in insects.  Physiol. Ent. 1:  229-34.

 

Barrass, R.  1976b.  Rearing jewel wasps Mormoniella vitripennis (Walker) and their use in teaching biology.  J. Biol. Educ., Dorchester 10(3):  119-26.

 

Bathon, H. & K. Fabritius.  1985.  Der Fliegenpuppenparasit Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) ein Neufund für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland.  Z. angew. Zool., Jahrg. 72(3):  343-7.  [English summary].

 

Beard, R. L.  1964a.  Parasites of muscoid flies.  Bull. World Hlth. Org. 31:  491-93.

 

Beard, R. L.  1964b.  Pathogenic stinging of housefly pupae by Nasonia vitripennis (Walker).  J. Insect Path. 6:  1-7.

 

Beard, R. L.  1972.  Effectiveness of paralyzing venom and its relation to host discrimination by braconid wasps.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 65:  90-3.

 

Beard, R. L.  1964.  Parasites of muscoid flies.  Bull. World Health Org. 31:  491-93.

 

Belizin, V. I.  1963.  Cynipids; parasites of synanthropic flies in Uzbekistan [Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea].  Zool. ð. 42(11):  1652-8.  [in Russian].

 

Berry, P. A. & B. R. Speicher.  1972.  Gene and chromosomal behavior in a parasitic wasp.  Abstract Paper Presented Summer Mtg. Amer. Soc. Zoologists.  Amer. Zool. 12(3):  26.

 

Berti-Filho, E., V. A. Costa & T. L. Aageesen.  1989.  Occurrence of natural enemies of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) in poultry areas of Bastos, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.  Rev. Agr. (Piracicaba) 64:  98.

 

Best, R. L.  1978.  Behavior in the jewel wasp.  Carolina Tips 41:  1-2.

 

Blanchot, P.  1988.  Note préliminaire sur la biologie de Phygadeuon fumator Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), parasite de Musca domestica L. (Dipt.: Muscidae).  Bull. Soc. Ent. Mulhouse Avril-juin:  26-30.

 

Blanchot, P.  1991a.  Contribution à l'étude des insectes ennemis de la mouche domestique (Musca domestica Linné, 1758).  Répertoire bibliographique général.  Parasites et prédateurs rencontrés en France.  Nouvelles données biologiques.  Thèse, E.P.H.E., Biologie et Evolution des Insectes.  244 p.

 

Blanchot, P.  1991b.  Ichneumonides parasites inédits de Musca domestica Linné (Hym. Ichneumonidae/Dipt. Muscidae).  EPHE, Trvx Lab. Biol. Evol. Ins. 4:  93-105.

 

Blanchot, P.  1992a.  Coptera merceti (Kieffer) (Hym.: Diapriidae) parasite inédit de Musca domestica L. (Dipt.: Muscidae).  Bull. Soc. Ent. Mulhouse, Avr.-Juin 1992:  26-28.

 

Blanchot, P.  1992b.  Nouveau répertoire bibliographique et nouvelles données biologiques sur les parasites de Musca domestica L.  EPHE, Biol. Evol. Insectes 5:  1-54.

 

Bloomcamp, C. L.  1985.  Development of resistance to cyromazine in the house fly and its affect on the hymenopteran pupal parasite, Spalangia endius.  M.S. Thesis, Univ. Florida, Gainesville.  75 p.

 

Boheman.  1956.  Ofvers. Svensk. Vetensk-Akad., Forh. 15:  58, 59.   

 

Borror, D. J., D. M. De Long & C. A. Triplehorn.  1981.  An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 5th Ed.  Saunders Coll. Publ., Philadelphia.  827 p.

 

Bouek, Z.  1954.  Chalcidologické poznámky I, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Eurytomidae, Chalcididae (Hymenoptera).  Sb. Ent. Odd. Nadr. Mus. Praze 29(426):  49-80.  [in Czech with English descriptions].

 

Boucek, Z.  1956.  A contribution to the knowledge of the Chalcididae, Leucospididae and Eucharitidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) of the Near East.  Bull. Res. Counc. of Israel 5B:  227-59.

 

Boucek, Z.  1963.  A taxonomic study in Spalangia Latr. (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea).  Acta Ent. Mus. Natl. Pragae 35:  429-512.

 

Boucek, Z.  1965.  Descriptions of new species of Spalangia Latr. (Hym., Chalc.) from Africa and South America, with notes on some known species.  Acta Ent. Mus. Natl. Pragae 36:  593-602.

 

Boucek, Z.  1988.  Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species.  C.A.B. Internatl. Inst. Ent., London.  832 p.

 

Boucek, Z. & T. C. Narendran.  1981.  Indian chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera) of the genus Dirhinus parasitic on synanthropic and other Diptera.  Syst. Ent. 6:  229-51.

 

Bouché, P. F.  1834.  Naturgeschichte der Insecten.  Publ. Berlin.  216 p.

 

Bradley, S. W., D. C. Booth & D. C. Sheppard.  1984.  Parasitism of the black soldier fly by Trichopria sp. (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) in poultry houses.  Environ. Ent. 13:  451-4.

 

Brèthes, J.  1913.  Platymesopus macellariae.  Ann. Buenos Aires Mus. Nat. Hist 24:  92.

 

Brèthes, J.  1915.  Sur la Prospalangia platensis (n. Gen. n. sp.) (Hymen.) et sa Biologie.  Ann. Soc. Cien. Argentina No. 5-6:  314-20.

 

Bridwell, J. C.  1919.  Descriptions of new species of hymenopterous parasites of muscoid Diptera with notes on their habits.  Proc. Hawaii. Ent. Soc. 4:  166-79.

 

Broadbent, A. B.  1972.  A study of the sex ratios of Muscidifurax zaraptor and Muscidifurax uniraptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as affected by changes in some environmental conditions.  B. Sc. Hon. Project, Victoria Univ. of Wellington, New Zealand.

 

Bromley, S. W.  1945.  Insect enemies of the house fly, Musca domestica L.  J. New York. Ent. Soc. 53:  145-52.

 

Bull, A. L.  1982.  Stages of living embryos in the jewel wasp Mormoniella vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Int. J. Insect Morphol. & Embryol. 11:  1-23.

 

Burgess, L. P., Jr. & C. W. Wingo.  1968.  The host and present status of Alysia ridibunda Say in Missouri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 70:  204-08.

 

Burks, B. D.  1952.  Other controls, insects, enemies of insects.  In:  Yearbk. Agr., Wash., D.C.  780 p.

 

Burks, B. D.  1969.  Species of Spalangia in the United States National Museum Collection (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. 2:  1-7.

 

Burks, B. D.  1979.  Family Pteromalidae, p. 768-835.  In:  K. V. Krombein, P. D. Hurd, Jr., D. R. Smith & B. D. Burks (eds.), Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico, Vol. 1.  Symphyta and Apocrita (Parasitica).  Smithsonian Inst. Press, Wash., D.C.  1198 p.

 

Burton, R. P. & E. C. Turner, Jr.  1968.  Laboratory propagation of Muscidifurax raptor on face fly pupae.  J. Econ. Ent. 61:  1380-83.

 

Butler, J. F. & R. L. Escher.  1981.  Life cycle: development times of various pupal parasites of house flies and horn flies in Florida, p. 80-89.  In:  Status of Biological Control of Filth Flies, USDA Sci. Educ. Adm. Publ. A106. 2: F64, 212 p.

 

Butler, J. R., R. Escher & J. A. Hogsette.  1981.  Natural parasite levels in house flies, stable flies, and horn flies in Florida, p. 61-79.  In:  Status of Biological Control of Filth Flies, USDA Sci. Educ. Adm. Publ. A106. 2: F64, 212 p.

 

 

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Cabrales, G., R. Figueroa, F. Uribe & C. I. Trochez.  1985.  Evaluación del efecto del parasitismo por Spalangia endius W. (Hym. Pteromalidae) sobre la dinámica de población de Musca domestica L. en galpones para aves (La Florida-Risaralda).  Acta Agronómica, Palmira 35:  93-105.

 

Cameron, P.  1881.  Notes on Hymenoptera with descriptions of new species.  Trans. Ent. Soc. London 1881:  555-77.

 

Cameron, P.  1906.  On the Tenthredinidae and parasitic Hymenoptera collected in Baluchistan by Major C. G. Nurse.  J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 17:  89-107.

 

Campbell, T. G.  1938.  Recent investigations on the buffalo fly (Lyperosia exigua de Meijere) and its parasites in North Australia.  J. Australian Counc. Sci. & Ind. Res. 11:  77-82.

 

Capehart, J. S., R. L. Harris & D. E. Bay.  1981.  The effect of host species on developmental time of Muscidifurax raptor and Spalangia drosophilae.  Southwestern Ent. 6:  136-29.

 

Cassida, J. D.  1975.  The parasitoid wasps, Habrobracon and Mormoniella, p. 173-203.  In:  R. C. King (ed.), Handbook of Genetics. Vol. 3.  Plenum Press, NY.

 

Caudri, L. W. D.  1941.  The braconid, Alysia manducator Panzer, in its relation to the blow-fly, Calliphora erythrocephala Meig.  P.D. Thesis, Univ. of Leiden, The Netherlands.

 

Ceballos, G.  1941-1943.  Las tribus de los Himenópteros de España.  Inst. Esp. Ent. Madrid.  420 p.

 

Chabora, P. C.  1967.  Hereditary behavior variation in oviposition patterns in the parasite Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Canad. Ent. 99:  763-5.

 

Chabora, P. C.  1970a.  Studies of parasite-host interaction using geographical strains of the blow fly Phaenicia sericata and its parasite Nasonia vitripennis.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 63:  495-501.

 

Chabora, P. C.  1970b.  Studies of parasite-host interactions. II. Reproductive and developmental response of the parasite Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to strains of the house fly host, Musca domestica.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 63:  1632-6. (?1642)

 

Chabora, P. C.  1970c.  Studies in parasite-host interaction. III. Host race effect on the life table and population growth statistics of the parasite Nasonia vitripennis.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 63:  1637-42. (?1643)

 

Chabora, P. C.  1972.  Studies in parasite-host interaction. IV. Modifications of parasite, Nasonia vitripennis, responses to control and selected host, Musca domestica, populations.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 65:  323-8.

 

Chabora, P. C.  1980.  House fly population variation by parasite bioassay and behavioral measures.  Abstr. 16th Intern. Ent. Congr., Kyoto 1980.  p. 125.

 

Chabora, P. C. & A. J. Chabora.  1971.  Effects of an interpopulation hybrid host on parasite population dynamics.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 64:  558-62.

 

Chabora, P. C. & D. Pimentel.  1966.  Effect of host (Musca domestica Linnaeus) age on the pteromalid parasite Nasonia vitripennis (Walker).  Canad. Ent. 98:  1226-31.

 

Chabora, P. C. & D. Pimentel.  1970.  Patterns of evolution in parasite-host systems.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 63:  479-86.

 

Chabora, P. C. & S. J. Smolin.  1979.  Observations on the life history of Pseudeucoila spp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).  J. New York Ent. Soc. 86:  274-330.

 

Chabora, P. C., S. J. Smolin & A. H. Kopelman.  1979.  The life history of Pseudeucoila sp., a protelean parasite of Drosophila.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 72:  495-99.

 

Chernoguz, D. G.  1984.  On ontogenic aspect of parasitism of the parasitoids of the subfamily Alysiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). I.  Relation of Alysia manducator Panz. and Calliphora vicina R.-D. (Diptera, Calliphoridae).  Entomol. Obozrenie 63(4):  658-71.  [in Russian].

 

Chernoguz, D. G.  1986.  Die Wirkung der Metamorphoseblokierung der Fliegen infolge Parasitierung durch Alysia manducator Panz. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).  Ent. Obozrenie, Leningrad 68:  114-19.  [in Russian].

 

Chernoguz, D. G. & S. Y. Reznik.  1987.  Ethological and physiological components of host specificity of the braconid Alysia manducator Panz. (Hymenoptera< Braconidae).  Ent. Obozrenie, Leningrad 66:  499-510.  [in Russian].

 

Chernoguz, D. G. & N. P. Vaghina.  1987.  An experimental detection of the developmental stage of parasitoid, Alysia manducator, causing pupation of its host.  Zool. Zhurnal, Moskva 66:  1209-13. [in Russian].

 

Chernoguz, D. G., S. Y. Reznik & K. B. Zinovjeva.  1987.  The role of age and physiological conditions of Calliphora vicina for parasitizing by a braconid, Alysia manducator.  Zool. Zhurnal, Moskva 66:  533-42.  [in Russian].

 

Chu, F. Y.  1984.  Discovery of Spalangia sp.-- a pupal parasite of Musca domestica vicina Macquart (M. domestica domestica).  Natural Enemies of Insects, Kunchong Tiandi 6:  149 p.  [in Chinese].

 

Clark, A. M. & K. W. Cole.  1967.  The effect of ionizing radiation on the longevity of ploidy types in the wasp Mormoniella vitripennis.  Exptal. Gerontol. 2:  89-95.

 

Clark, A. M. & R. N. Kidwell.  1967.  Effects of developmental temperature on the adult life span of Mormoniella vitripennis females.  Exptal. Gerontol. 2:  79-84.

 

Clausen, C. P., J. L. King & C. Teranishi.  1927.  The parasites of Popilia japonica in Japan and Chosen [Korea] and their introduction into the United States.  Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. 1429:  1-55.

 

Clausen, C. P., D. W. Clancy & Q. C. Chock.  1965.  Biological control of the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and other fruit flies in Hawaii.  TEch. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. 1322.

 

Coats, S. A.  1976.  Life cycle and behavior of Muscidifurax zaraptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 60:  772-80.

 

Coch, F.  1981.  Zum jahreszeitlichen Auftreten des Musca domestica-- Parasitoiden Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in einer Schweinezuchtanlage.  Angew. Parasitol. 22(4):  217-21.

 

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King, P. E.  1962a.  Structure of the micropyle in eggs of Nasonia vitripennis.  Nature, London 195:  829-30.

 

King, P. E.  1962b.  The structure and action of the spermatheca in Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera; Pteromalidae).  Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc., Ser. A., London 37:  73-5.

 

King, P. E.  1962c.  The muscular structure of the ovipositor and its mode of function in Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc., Ser. A., London 37:  121-28.

 

King, P. E.  1962d.  The effect of resorbing eggs upon the sex ratio of the offspring in Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae).  J. Expt. Biol., Cambridge 39:  161-65.

 

King, P. E.  1963.  The rate of resorption in Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera:  Pteromalidae) deprived of hosts.  Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc., Ser. A., London 38:  98-100.

 

King, P. E. & C. R. Hopkins.  1963.  Length of life of the sexes in Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera; Pteromalidae) under conditions of starvation.  J. Expt. Biol., Cambridge 40:  751-61.

 

King, P. E. & J. Rafai.  1970.  Host discrimination in a gregarious parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  J. Expt. Biol., Cambridge 53:  245-54.

 

King, P. E. & N. A. Ratcliffe.  1969.  The structure and possible mode of functioning of the female reproductive system in Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  J. Zool., London 157:  319-44.

 

King, P. E. & J. G. Richards.  1968.  Oosorption in Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  J. Zool. London 154:  495-516.

 

King, P. E., J. G. Richards & M. J. W. Copland.  1968.  The structure of the chorion and its possible significance during oviposition in Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), and other chalcids.  Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London (A) 43(1-3):  13-20.

 

King, P. E., R. R. Askew & C. Sanger.  1969.  The detection of parasitised hosts by males of Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and some possible implications.  Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc., Ser. A., London 44(7-9):  85-90.

 

Kirknel, E.  1978.  The influence of diazinon, trichlorate, carbofuran, and chlorfenvinphos on the parasitization capacity of the rove-beetle Aleochara bilineata (Gyll.).  Tidsskr. Planteavl., Kobenhavn 82:  117-29.

 

Klimaszewski, J.  1984.  A revision of the genus Aleochara Gravenhorst of America north of Mexico (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae).  Mem. Ent. Soc. Canada. 129.  211 p.

 

Klimaszewski, J. & R. R. Blume.  1986.  New host records for Aleochara verna Say and Aleochara notula Erichson (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Aleocharini).  Coleop. Bull. 40:  32.

 

Klimaszewski, J. & V. J. Cervenka.  1986.  A revision of the genus Aleochara (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) of America north of Mexico.  Suppl. 3.  New distribution data.  Ent. News 97:  119-20.

 

Klunker, R.  1981.  Untersuchungen zur Biologie und Zucht des Puparien-Parasitoiden Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Wirtseignung von kältekonservierten Puparien der Stubenfliege (Musca domestica L.) für eine Massenzucht.  Abschlussarb. postgrad. Stud., Humboldt Univ., Bln., Berlin.  57 p.

 

Klunker, R.  1982.  Die Wirtseignung kältekonservierter Musca domestica- Puparien für die Massenzucht der Schlupfwespe Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Angew. Parasitol., Jena 23:  32-42.

 

Klunker, R. & K. Fabritius.  1991.  Ergebnisse und Erfahrungen mit der Stammhaltung und Massenzucht einiger Pupariumparasitoide von Fliegen auf kältenkonservierten Wirtspuparien.  Entomologentagung Wien, Kurzfassungen.

 

Klunker, R. & K. Fabritius.  1992.  Bibliographie über Pupariumparasitoide synanthroper Fliegen.  Beitr. Ent. 42(2):  331-429.

 

Klunker, R. & I. Kiesow.  1980.  Die Zucht der Stubenfliege Musca domestica (L.) in Kleinkäfigen.  Angew. Parasitol. 21(2):  100-14.

 

Kemner, N. A.  1926.  Die Lebensweise und die parasitische Entwicklung der echten Aleochariden.  Entomol. Tidskrift 47:  133-70.

Kogan, M. & E. F. Legner.  1970.  A biosystematic revision of the genus Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with descriptions of four new species.  Canad. Ent. 102:  1268-90.

 

Kotschetova, N. I. & N. Azizov.  1972.  The peculiarities of the biology of S. nigroaenea-- the parasite of synanthropic flies in Samarkand district.  Zool. J. (Moscow) 51(5):  665-70.  [in Russian with English summary].

 

Kotschetova, N. I. & N. A. Tjutjunkova.  1973.  Some peculiarities of parasitism of Muscidifurax raptor.  Zool. J. (Moscow) 52(3):  384-90.  [in Russian with English summary].

 

Krombein, K. V., P. D. Hurd, Jr., D. R. Smith & B. D. Burks (eds.).  1979.  Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Vol. 1. Symphyta and Apocrita (Parasitica).  Smithsonian Inst. Press, Wash., D.C.  1198 p.

 

 

<L—REF>

 

FILE:  <FLY-PAR.L>

 

Laing, J.  1937.  Host finding by insect parasites. I. Observations on the finding of hosts by Alysia manducator, Mormoniella vitripennis and Trichogramma evanescens.  J. Anim. Ecol. 6:  298-317.

 

Lange, R.  1964.  Der Einfluss der Nahrung von Musca domestica L. auf die Mortalität des Endoparasiten Aphaereta pallipes (Say) (Hym., Braconidae).  Z. angew. Ent. 54:  213-18.

 

Lange, R. & J. F. Bronskill.  1964.  Reactions of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) to parasitism by Aphaereta pallipes (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with special reference to host diet and parasitoid toxin.  Z. Parasitenkde, Berlin 25:  193-210.

 

Lancaster, J. L., Jr.  1979.  Rearing parasitoids of housefly pupae.  Arkansas Farm Res., Fayetteville 28:  4.

 

Latreille, P.  1805.  Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière des Crustacées et des Insectes, XIII.  Publ., Paris.  432 p.

 

Latreille, P.  1809.  Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum secundum ordinem naturalem in familias disposita, iconibus exemplisque plurimis explicata. IV.  Parisiis et Argentorat.

 

Lazarus, W. F., D. A. Rutz, R. W. Miller & D. A. Brown.  1989.  Costs of existing and recommended manure management practices for house fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) control on dairy farms.  J. Econ. Ent. 82:  1145-51.

 

Legner, E. F. [Please see legner.pub for details of publications for E. F. Legner]

 

Legner, E. F.  1965a.  Un complejo de los artrópodos que influyen en los estadios juveniles de Musca domestica L. en Puerto Rico.  Carib. J. Sci. 5(3-4):  109-15.

 

Legner, E. F.  1965b.  Natural and induced control of houseflies with parasites in southern California.  The Calif. Golden Egg 4(6):  18.

 

Legner, E. F.  1966.  Parasites of the house fly and other filth breeding Diptera in southern California.  J. Econ. Ent. 59:  999-1001.

 

Legner, E. F.  1967a.  Two exotic strains of Spalangia drosophilae merit consideration in biological control of Hippelates collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae).  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 60(2):  458-462.

 

Legner, E. F.  1967b.  Behavior changes the reproduction of Spalangia cameroni, S. endius, Muscidifurax raptor, and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at increasing fly host densities.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 60:  819-26.

 

Legner, E. F.  1967c.  The status of Nasonia vitripennis as a natural parasite of the house fly, Musca domestica.  Canad. Ent. 99:  308-09.

 

Legner, E. F.  1968.  Parasite activity related to ovipositional responses in Hippelates collusor.  J. Econ. Entomol. 61(5):  1160-1163.

 

Legner, E. F.  1969a.  Adult emergence interval and reproduction in parasitic Hymenoptera influenced by host size and density.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 62:  220-26.

 

Legner, E. F.  1969b.  Reproductive isolation and size variation in the Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders complex.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 62:  382-85.

 

Legner, E. F.  1969c.  Distribution pattern of hosts and parasitization by Spalangia drosophilae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Canad. Ent. 101:  551-57.

 

Legner, E. F.  1970a.  Contemporary considerations on the biological suppression of noxious brachycerous Diptera that breed in accumulated animal wastes.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 38:  88-89.

 

Legner, E. F.  1970b.  Advances in the ecology of Hippelates eye gnats in California indicate means for effective integrated control.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 38:  89-90.

 

Legner, E. F.  1971.  Some effects of the ambient arthropod complex on the density and potential parasitization of muscoid Diptera in poultry wastes.  J. Econ. Ent. 64:  111-15.

 

Legner, E. F.  1972.  Observations on hybridization and heterosis in parasitoids of synanthropic flies.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 65:  254-63.

 

Legner, E. F. 1975.  Ethology of Host Selection by Entomophagous Insects:  Effect on successful importation of entomophagous insects.  Proc. Workshop Ethology of Host Selection by Entomophagous Insects, Tifton, Georgia, March 1975.  pp. 14-18.

 

Legner, E. F.  1976a.  Low storage temperature effects on the reproductive potential of three parasites of Musca domestica.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 69:  435-41.

 

Legner, E. F.  1976b.  The Musca sorbens Wiedemann complex in Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands.  Entomol. News 87(1-2):  39-48.

 

Legner, E. F.  1977.  Temperature, humidity and depth of habitat influencing host destruction and fecundity of muscoid fly parasites.  Entomophaga 22:  199-206.

 

Legner, E. F.  1978a.  Natural enemies imported in California for the biological control of face fly, Musca autumnalis DeGeer, and horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.).  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 46:  77-79.

 

Legner, E. F.  1978b.  Part I:  Parasites and predators introduced against arthropod pests.  Diptera.  In:  Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds:  a World Review (C. P. Clausen, ed.), pp. 335-39;  346-55.  Agr. Handbk. No. 480, ARS, USDA, U. S. Govt. Printing Off., Wash., D. C.  545 pp.

 

Legner, E. F.  1979a.  Prolonged culture and inbreeding effects on reproductive rates of two pteromalid parasites of muscoid flies.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 72:  114-18.

 

Legner, E. F.  1979b.  Reproduction of Spalangia endius, Muscidifurax raptor and M. zaraptor on fresh vs. refrigerated fly hosts.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 72:  155-57.

 

Legner, E. F.  1979c.  The relationship between host destruction and parasite reproductive potential in Muscidifurax raptor, M. zaraptor, and Spalangia endius (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae).  Entomophaga 24:  145-52.

 

Legner, E. F.  1981.  Improving commercial biological control of filth flies with parasites.  pp. 5-10.  In:  U. S. Dept. Agr. Publ. A-106.2F64, "Status of Biological Control of Filth Flies."  212 pp.

 

Legner, E. F.  1983a.  Broadened view of Muscidifurax parasites associated with endophilous synanthropic flies and sibling species in the Spalangia endius complex.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 51:  47-48.

 

Legner, E. F.  1983b.  Requirements for appraisal of the true role of parasitic insects in the natural control of synanthropic Diptera.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 51:  97-98.

 

Legner, E. F.  1985a.  Effects of scheduled high temperature on male production in thelytokous Muscidifurax uniraptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Canad. Entomol. 117(3):  383-389.

 

Legner, E. F.  1985b.  Natural and induced sex ratio changes in populations of thelytokous Muscidifurax uniraptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 78(3):  398-402.

 

Legner, E. F.  1986a.  Importation of exotic natural enemies.  pp. 19-30.  In: Franz, J. M., "Biological Control of Plant Pests and of Vectors of Human and Animal Diseases."  Fort. der Zool. Bd. 32:  341 p.

 

Legner, E. F.  1986b.  Risk categories of biological control organisms.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 53:  79-82.

 

Legner, E. F.  1986c.  Breeding superior parasitoids of Diptera using a novel extranuclear inheritance mechanism.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 44:  156-159.

 

Legner, E. F.  1987a.  Transfer of thelytoky to arrhenotokous Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Canad. Entomol. 119(3):  265-271.

 

Legner, E. F.  1987b.  Inheritance of gregarious and solitary oviposition in Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Canad. Ent. 119:  791-808.

 

Legner, E. F.  1987c.  Further insights into extranuclear influences on behavior elicited by males in the genus Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 55:  127-130.

 

Legner, E. F.  1987d.  Pattern of thelytoky acquisition in Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Bull. Soc. Vect. Ecol. 12(2):  1-11.

 

Legner, E. F.  1987e.  Some quantitative aspects of inheritance in breeding synanthropic fly parasitoids.  Bull. Soc. Vect. Ecol. 12(2);  528-533.

 

Legner, E. F.  1988a.  Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) females exhibit post mating oviposition behavior typical of the male genome.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 81:  524-27.

 

Legner, E. F.  1988b.  Quantitation of heterotic behavior in parasitic Hymenoptera.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 81:  567-681.

 

Legner, E. F.  1988c.  Hybridization in principal parasitoids of synanthropic Diptera: the genus Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Hilgardia 56(4):  1-36.

 

Legner, E. F.  1988d.  Studies of four thelytokous Puerto Rican isolates of Muscidifurax uniraptor [Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae].  Entomophaga 33(3);  269-280.

 

Legner, E. F.  1989a.  Wary genes and accretive inheritance in Hymenoptera.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 82:  245-49.

 

Legner, E. F.  1989b.  Phenotypic expressions of polygenes in Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hym.: Pteromalidae), a synanthropic fly parasitoid.  Entomophaga 34:  37-44.

 

Legner, E. F.  1989c.  Paternal influences in males of Muscidifurax raptorellus  [Hymenoptera:  Pteromalidae].  Entomophaga 34(3):  307-320.

 

Legner, E. F.  1989d.  Fly parasitic wasp, Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) invigorated through insemination by males of different races.  Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 14(2):  291-300.

 

Legner, E. F.  1990.  Estimations of gene number, heritability and dominance in quantitative inheritance, with special reference to Hymenoptera.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 57:  95-105.

 

Legner, E. F.  1991a.  Estimations of number of active loci, dominance and heritability in polygenic inheritance of gregarious behavior in Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Entomophaga 36:  1-18.

 

Legner, E. F.  1991b.  Recombinant males in the parasitic wasp Muscidifurax raptorellus  [Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae].  Entomophaga 36(2):  173-81.

 

Legner, E. F.  1993.  Theory for quantitative inheritance of behavior in a protelean parasitoid, Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Eur. J. Ent. 90:  11-21.

 

Legner, E. F. & M. E. Badgley.  1982.  Improved parasites for filth fly control.  Calif. Agr. 36(9 & 10):  27.

 

Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1964a.  La primera exploración para buscar enemigos naturales de Hippelates en Puerto Rico (Insecta: Chloropidae).  Carib. J. Sci. 4(4):  467-471.

 

Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1964b.  Natural exposure of Hippelates eye gnats to field parasitization and the discovery of one pupal and two larval parasites.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 57:  767-69.

 

Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1965a.  Ooencyrtus submetallicus Howard in an extraordinary host-relationship with Hippelates pusio Loew.  Canad. Ent. 97:  556-57.

 

Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1965b.  Predatory and parasitic agents attacking the Hippelates pusio complex in Puerto Rico.  J. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico 49(3):  377-385.

 

Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1965c.  Culture of Hippelates pusio (Diptera: Chloropidae) in the West Indies for natural enemy exploration and some notes on behavior and distribution.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 58(4):  436-440.

 

Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1970a.  The introduction of natural enemies in California for the biological control of noxious flies and gnats.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 37:  126-129.

 

Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1970b.  Dynamics of Hippelates eye gnat breeding in the Southwest.  Calif. Agr. 24(5):  1, 4-6.

 

Legner, E. F. & W. R. Bowen.  1973.  Influence of available poultry manure breeding habitat on emergence density of synanthropic flies (Diptera).  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 66(3):  533-538.

 

Legner, E. F. & H. W. Brydon.  1966.  Suppression of dung-inhabiting fly populations by pupal parasites.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 54:  638-51.

 

Legner, E. F. & E. I. Dietrick.  1972.  Inundation and parasitic insects to control filth breeding flies in California.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 40:  129-30.

 

Legner, E. F. & E. J. Dietrick.  1974.  Effectiveness of supervised control practices in lowering population densities of synanthropic flies on poultry ranches.  Entomophaga 19(4):  467-478.

 

Legner, E. F. & D. Gerling.  1967.  Host-feeding and oviposition on Musca domestica by Spalangia cameroni, Nasonia vitripennis, and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) influences their longevity and fecundity.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 60:  678-91.

 

Legner, E. F. & D. J. Greathead.  1969.  Parasitism of pupae in East African populations of Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 62:  128-33.

 

Legner, E. F. & C. W. McCoy.  1966.  The housefly Musca domestica Linnaeus, as an exotic species in the Western Hemisphere incites biological control studies.  Canad. Ent. 98:  243-48.

 

Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1968a.  The biological method and integrated control of house and stable flies in California.  Calif. Agr. 22(6):  1-4.

 

Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1968b.  Activity of parasites from Diptera:  Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, and species of Fannia, Muscina, and Ophyra II. at sites in the Eastern Hemisphere and Pacific area.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 61:  1306-14.

 

Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1969.  Migrations of Hippelates collusor larvae from moisture and trophic stimuli and their encounter by Trybliographa parasites.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 62(1):  136-141.

 

Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1971.  Distribution and relative abundance of dipterous pupae and their parasitoids in accumulations of domestic animal manure in the southwestern United States.  Hilgardia 40(14):  505-35.

 

Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1975.  Filth fly sources in decaying melon fields in southern California's low deserts.  Calif. Agr. 29(1):  10-11.

 

Legner, E. F. & J. H. Poorbaugh, Jr.  1972.  Biological control of vector and noxious synanthropic flies: a review.  Calif. St. Dept. Publ. Hlth. Vector Views 19(11):  81-100.

 

Legner, E. F. & R. W. Warkentin.  1985.  Genetic improvement and inbreeding effects in culture of beneficial arthropods.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 52:  156-161.

 

Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay & C. W. McCoy.  1965.  Parasitic natural regulatory agents attacking Musca domestica L. in Puerto Rico.  J. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico 49(3):  368-76.

 

Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay & T. H. Farr. 1966a. Parasitic and predacious agents affecting the Hippelates pusio complex in Jamaica and Trinidad.  Canad. Entomol. 98(1):  28-33.

 

Legner, E. F., G. S. Olton & F. M. Eskafi.  1966b.  Influence of physical factors on the developmental stages of Hippelates collusor in relation to the activities of its natural parasites.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 59(4):  851-861.

 

Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay & R. A. Medved.  1966c.  Behavior of three native pupal parasites of Hippelates collusor in controlled systems.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 59(5):  977-984.

 

Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay, H. W. Brydon & C. W. McCoy.  1966d.  Research with parasites for biological control of house flies in southern California.  Calif. Agr. 20(4):  10-12.

 

Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay & E. B. White.  1967.  Activity of parasites from Diptera:  Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Fannia canicularis, and F. femoralis at sites in the Western Hemisphere.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 60:  462-68.

 

Legner, E. F., R. D. Sjogren & I. M. Hall.  1974a.  The biological control of medically important arthropods.  Crit. Rev. Environ. Contr. 4(1):  85-113.

 

Legner, E. F., B. B. Sugerman, H.-S. Yu and H. Lum.  1974b.  Biological and integrated control of the bush fly, Musca sorbens Wiedemann and other filth breeding Diptera in Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands.  Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 1:  1-14.

 

Legner, E. F., W. R. Bowen, W. F. Rooney, W. D. McKeen & G. W. Johnston.  1975.  Integrated fly control on poultry ranches.  Calif. Agr. 29(5):  8-10.

 

Legner, E. F., I. Moore & G. S. Olton.  1976.  Tabular keys and biological notes to common parasitoids of synanthropic Diptera breeding in accumulated animal wastes.  Ent. News 87(3 & 4):  113-44.

 

Legner, E. F., E. J. Dietrick & D. J. Blehm.  1982.  New parasitic insects for biological control of synanthropic flies.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 50:  45-47.

 

Legner, E. F., W. D. McKeen & R. W. Warkentin.  1990a.  Inoculation and spread of parasitic wasps to control filth flies in poultry houses.  Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 57:  146-150.

 

Legner, E. F., W. D. McKeen & R. W. Warkentin.  1990b.  Inoculation of three pteromalid wasp species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) increases parasitism and mortality of Musca domestica L. pupae in poultry manure.  Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 15(2):  149-55

 

Lesne, P. & L. Mercier.  1922.  Un Staphylinidae des muscides fusicoles Aleochara (Polystoma algarum Fauvel.) characteres adaptatifs de la larva a la vie parasitaire.  Ann. Ent. Soc. France 91:  351-58.

 

Lever, R. J. A. W.  1938.  Division of Entomology-- Annual Report for 1937.  Annu. Bull. Div. Repts. of Dept. Agr., Fiji, 1937:  25-27.

 

Liang, G. & R. D. Xue.  1990.  Research methods for fly pupal parasites.  Chin. J. Pest Contr. 6:  32-34.  [in Chinese].

 

Likovský, Z.  1965.  Tschechoslowakische Arten der Gattung Aleochara Gravenhorst (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).  Acta Res. Natur. Mus. Nat. Slov., Bratislava 11:  29-53.

 

Likovský, Z.  1973.  Gattung Aleochara Grav., p. 293-304.  In:  H. Freude, K. W. Harde & G. A. Lohse (eds.), Die Käfer Mitteleuropas. 5. Staphylinidae II (Hypocyptinae und Aleocharinae), Pselaphidae.  Verl. Krefel.  p. 293-304.

 

Lima, A. da Costa.  1960.  Insectos do Brasil. Himenópteros. 1. a Parte. 11, Rio de Janeiro (Escola Nat. Agron.).  p. 7-368.

 

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Moore, I. & E. F. Legner.  1971.  Host records of parasitic staphylinids of the genus Aleochara in America (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 64(5):  1184-1185.

 

Moore, I. & E. F. Legner.  1973.  A new host record for the parasitic rove beetle Aleochara bipustulata L. (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).  Entomol. News 84(7):  250.

 

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Moore, I. & E. F. Legner.  1974b.  A catalogue of the taxonomy, biology and ecology of the developmental stages of the Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) of America north of Mexico.  J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 47(4):  469-478.

 

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Morgan, P. B.  1980a.  Sustained releases of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for the control of Musca domestica L. and Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae).  J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 53:  367-72.

 

Morgan, P. B.  1980b.  Mass culturing three species of microhymenopteran pupal parasites, Spalangia endius Walker, Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, and Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Proceedings VIII National Meeting on Biological Control, Tecoman, Colima, Mexico, April 22‑25, 1980.

 

Morgan, P. B.  1981a.  The potential use of parasites to control Musca domestica L. and other filth breeding flies at agricultural installations in the southern United States, p. 11-25.  In:  Patterson, R. S., P. G. Koehler, P. B. Morgan & R. L. Harris (eds.), Status of Biological Control of Filth Flies.  Proc. Workshop, Feb. 4-5, 1981, Gainesville, Florida.  Sci. Educ. Admin., USDA, Washington, D.C.  212 p.

 

Morgan, P. B.  1981b.  Mass production of Spalangia endius Walker for augmentative and/or inoculative field releases, p. 185-88.  In:  Patterson, R. S., P. G. Koehler, P. B. Morgan & R. L. Harris (eds.), Status of Biological Control of Filth Flies.  Proc. Workshop, Feb. 4-5, 1981, Gainesville, Florida.  Sci. Educ. Admin., USDA, Washington, D.C.  212 p.

 

Morgan, P. B.  1985.  Mass culturing microhymenopteran pupal parasites (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) of filth breeding flies, p. 77-87.  In:  R. S. Patterson & D. A. Rutz (eds.), Biological Control of Muscoid Flies.  Misc. Publ. Ent. Soc. Amer. 61:  77-87.

 

Morgan, P. B. & R. S. Patterson.  1975a.  Field parasitization of house flies by natural populations of Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani), Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, and Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis.  Florida Ent. 58:  202.

 

Morgan, P. B. & R. S. Patterson.  1975b.  Possibilities of controlling stable flies and house flies with protelean parasitoids.  Proc. 46th Ann. Mtg. Florida Anti-Mosquito Contr. Assoc., Ft. Meyers.  p. 29-35.

 

Morgan, P. B. & R. S. Patterson.  1977.  Sustained release of Spalangia endius to parasitize field populations of three species of filth breeding flies.  J. Econ. Ent. 70:  450-52.

 

Morgan, P. B. & R. S. Patterson.  1978.  Facilities for culturing microhymenopteran pupal parasitoids, p. 32-3.  In:  N. C. Leppla & T. R. Ashley (eds.), Facilities for Insect Research and Production.  Tech. Bull., U. S. Dept. Agr. No. 1576.

 

Morgan, P. B. & R. S. Patterson.  1986.  The interrelationship between non-sting parasitoid wasps (Pteromalidae: Hymenoptera) and dung inhabiting flies (Muscidae: Diptera), p. 165.  In: Abstracts of the First International Congress of Dipterology, Budapest, Hungary. 

 

Morgan, P. B. & R. S. Patterson.  1989.  Efficiency of target formulations of pesticides plus augmentative releases of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to suppress populations of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) at poultry installations in the southeastern United States.  In: R. S. Patterson & D. A. Rutz (eds.), Biocontrol of Arthropods Affecting Livestock and Poultry.  Ent. Soc. of Amer. Misc. Pub.  (Accepted by R. S. Patterson, February 13, 1989).

 

Morgan, P. B., R. S. Patterson, G. C. LaBrecque, D. E. Weidhaas & A. Benton.  1975a.  Suppression of a field population of houseflies with Spalangia endius.  Science 189:  388-89.

 

Morgan, P. B., R. S. Patterson, G. C. LaBrecque, D. E. Weidhaas, A. Benton & T. Whitefield.  1975b.  Rearing and release of the house fly pupal parasite Spalangia endius Walker.  Environ. Ent. 4:  609-11.

 

Morgan, P. B., R. S. Patterson & G. C. LaBrecque.  1976a.  Controlling house flies at a dairy installation by releasing a protelean parasitoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  J. Georgia Ent. Soc. 11:  39-43.

 

Morgan, P. B., R. S. Patterson & G. C. LaBrecque.  1976b.  Host-parasitoid relationship of the house fly, Musca domestica L. and the protelean parasitoid, Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae and Diptera: Muscidae).  J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 49:  483-88.

 

Morgan, P. B., A. Benton & R. S. Patterson.  1976c.  The potential use of parasites to control flies in the Caribbean area.  Virgin Islands Agr. Fd. Fair.  p. 43.

 

Morgan, P. B., R. S. Patterson & G. C. LaBrecque.  1977.  Controlling houseflies at a dairy installation by releasing a protelean parasitoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  J. Georgia Ent. Soc. 11:  39-43.

 

Morgan, P. B., G. C. LaBrecque & R. S. Patterson.  1978a.  Mass culturing the microhymenopteran parasite Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  J. Med. Ent. 14:  671-73.

 

Morgan, P. B., D. E. Weidhaas & G. C. LaBrecque.  1978b.  Host-parasite relationship of the house fly, Musca domestica L., and the microhymenopteran parasite, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani).  Southw. Ent. 3:  176-81.

 

Morgan, P. B., C. C. LaBrecque, D. E. Weidhaas & R. S. Patterson.  1979a.  Interrelationship between two species of muscoid flies and the pupal parasite Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  J. Med. Ent. 16:  331-34.

 

Morgan, P. B., D. E. Weidhaas & G. C. LaBrecque.  1979b.  Host-parasite relationship of the house fly, Musca domestica L., and the microhymenopteran pupal parasite, Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders (Diptera: Muscidae and Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 52:  276-81.

 

Morgan, P. B., D. E. Weidhaas & R. S. Patterson.  1981a.  Programmed releases of Spalangia endius and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) against estimated populations of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).  J. Med. Ent. 18:  158-66.

 

Morgan, P. B., D. E. Weidhaas & R. S. Patterson.  1981b.  Host-parasite relationship: augmentative releases of Spalangia endius Walker used in conjunction with population modeling to suppress field populations of Musca domestica L. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae and Diptera: Muscidae).  J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 54:  496-504.

 

Morgan, P. B., B. J. Smittle & R. S. Patterson.  1986.  Use of irradiated pupae to mass culture the microhymenopterous pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). I. Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).  J. Ent. Sci. 21:  222-27.

 

Morgan, P. B., C. J. Jones, R. S. Patterson & D. Milne.  1988.  Use of electrophoresis for monitoring purity of laboratory colonies of exotic parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), pp. 525-31.  In: V. K. Gupta (ed.), Advances in Parasitic Hymenoptera Research.

 

Morgan, P. B., H. Hoyer & R. S. Patterson.  1989.  Life History of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a microhymenopteran pupal parasite of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae).  J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 62: 381-386

 

Morgan, P. B., J. A. Hogsette, & R. S. Patterson.  1990. Life history of Trichopria stomoxydis (Hymenoptera: Proctotorupoidea: Diapriidae) a gregarious endoparasite of Stomoxys calcitrans from Zimbabwe, Africa. Fla. Ent. 73: 497-502.

 

Morgan, P. B., E. Berti-Filho & V. A. Costa.  1991.  Life history of Spalangia gemina Bouek (hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) a fast-breeding microhymenopteran pupal parasitoid of muscoid flies.  Med. and Vet. Ent. 5: 277-281.

 

Morgan, W. L.  1929.  Alysia manducator Pz., an introduced parasite of the sheep blowfly maggot.  Agric. Gaz. N.S.W., Australia 16:  818-29.

 

Mortimer, R. K. & R. C. von Borstel.  1963.  Radiation-induced dominant lethality in haploid and diploid sperm of the wasp Mormoniella.  Genetics, Austin 48:  1545-9.

 

Mourier, H.  1971a.  Survey of the importance of natural enemies of houseflies in Denmark.  Dan. Pest Infest. Lab., Annu. Rept. 1970:  51-52.

 

Mourier, H.  1971b.  Seasonal occurrence of pupal parasitoids from the housefly Musca domestica (Diptera) in Denmark.  Vidensk. Medd. Dan. Naturhist. Foren. Kbh. 134:  109-18.

 

Mourier, H.  1972.  Release of native pupal parasitoids of house flies on Danish farms.  Vidensk. Meddr. Dansk Naturh. Foren. 135:  129-37.

 

Mourier, H. & S. Ben Hannine.  1969.  Activity of pupal parasites from Musca domestica (Diptera) in Denmark.  Vidensk. Meddr. dansk Naturh. Foren. 132:  211-16.

 

Moursi, A. A.  1946.  The effect of temperature on development and reproduction of Mormoniella vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea-Pteromalidae).  Bull. Soc. Fouad I Ent. 30:  39-61.  [Rev. Appl. Ent. B-36:  202].

 

Muesebeck, C. F. W.  1961.  A new Japanese Trichopria parasitic on the house fly (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae).  Mushi 35:  1-2.

 

Muesebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein & H. K. Townes et al.  1951.  Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico synoptic catalog.  Agr. Monogr. 2, U. S. Dept. Agr.  1420 p.

 

Mulla, M. S.  1962.  Recovery of a cynipid parasite from Hippelates pupae.  Mosq. News 22:  301-02.

 

Mullens, B. A., J. A. Meyer & J. D. Mandeville.  1986.  Seasonal and diel activity of filth fly parasites (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in caged-layer poultry manure in southern California.  Environ. Ent. 15:  56-60.

 

Müller, H. P.  1971.  Zur Biologie der Schlupfwespe Phygadeuon fumator Grav. (Recte Trichops Ths.) (Hymenopt: Ichneum.), eines Parasiten der kleinen Kohlfliege (Phorbia brassicae Bouché).  Entomophaga 16:  45-9.

 

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Murphy, S. T.  1980.  Foraging behaviour of some pupal parasitoids of Musca domestica L.  ?Thesis, London Univ., London.  277 p.

 

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Myers, J. G.  1929.  Further notes on Alysia manducator and other parasites (Hym.) of muscoid flies.  Bull. Ent. Res. 19:  357-60.

 

Myers, J. G.  1938.  Report on the natural enemies in Haiti of the horn fly (Lyperosia irritans) and the green tomato bug (Nezara viridula).  J. Coun. Sci. & Ind. Res. 11:  35-46.

 

 

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<S—REF>

 

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