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For educational purposes only; do not review, quote or abstract:--

A Public Service on the basics of Insect Identification

 

 

Key to Major Families of Adult Entomophagous Insects

 

(Developed at The University of California Riverside and Berkeley

during the years 1970 & 1980 by faculty & students in Entomology 129)

 

(Email Contacts)

 

[Please refer to <Guide> and <Taxnames> for illustrations]

 

 

2

1a.  Forewing well-developed, membranous; hind wing not membranous, knob-like "halter"; body lightly sclerotized ....... (Diptera)   <See <Diptera> for greater detail]

 

31

1b.  Forewing membranous or leathery; hind wing always membranous; body generally somewhat heavily sclerotized

 

3

2a.  Antennae moniliform, 6-39 segments, longer than thorax

 

8

2b.  Antennae with 3-4 segments, ring-like segments may be present; shorter than thorax

 

4

3a.  Costa extends completely around wing, occasionally weakened behind

 

6

3b.  Costa does not reach to or extend only slightly beyond wing tip

 

5

4a.  Mesonotal suture transverse, not V-shaped

 

---

4b.  Mesonotum with an entire V-shaped suture (larvae predators of aquatic or semiaquatic arthropods .... (Diptera) ...Tipulidae  

 

---

5a.  Ocelli present and/or venation reduced; wing not scaly (larvae predators of Homoptera & mites) .... (Diptera) ...Cecidomyiidae  

 

---

5b.  Ocelli absent; wing venation strong; wing covered with scales (larvae predators of aquatic arthropods) .............. (Diptera) ... Culicidae  

 

7

6a.  Ocelli absent

 

---

6b.  Ocelli present; tibiae with apical spurs; discal cell in wing absent (larvae spin webs & feed on entrapped arthropods) ........... (Diptera) ... Mycetophilidae  

 

---

7a.  Metanotum short, without a longitudinal groove (adults are blood-suckers; larvae are predators) ............. (Diptera) ... Ceratopogonidae  

 

---

7b.  Metanotum long, with a median longitudinal groove (most are predators, one species parasitizes mayflies) .............. (Diptera) ... Chironomidae  

 

9

8a.  Empodium developed pulvilliform, the 3 pads almost equal

 

13

8b.  Empodium hair-like or absent

 

10

9a.  Third antennal segment compound, composed of ring-like segments

 

11

9b.  Third antennal segment simple, frequently bearing an elongated style or arista

 

---

10a.  Squama (calypter) large and conspicuous (adults are blood-suckers; larvae are predators of aquatic arthropods) ........ (Diptera) ... Tabanidae  

 

---

10b.  Squama small or vestigal; tegula small (larvae are predators of arthropods in several habitats) ...... (Diptera) ... Stratiomyiidae  

 

12

11a.  Squama small or vestigal

 

---

11b.  Squama large, covering halter; head very small, composed almost entirely of compound eyes (parasitoids of spiders) ....... (Diptera) ... Acroceridae  

 

---

12a.  Tibiae without apical spurs; wing venation intricate (parasitoids of grasshoppers) ......... (Diptera) ...Nemestrinidae

 

---

12b.  At least middle tibia with apical spurs; wing venation normal, not complex (both adults and larvae are predators of other arthropods) ........ (Diptera) ... Rhagionidae  

 

14

13a.  Wing with 2 or more submarginal cells (vein R-4+5 forked); 3-4 posterior cells

 

20

13b.  Wing with only one submarginal cell or none at all (vein R-4+5 not forked)

 

15

14a.  Front strongly concave at vertex

 

16

14b.  Front not concave between eyes, vertex flat or convex

 

---

15a.  Three ocelli present; palpi normally prominent; proboscis adapted for piercing (both larvae and adults are predators) ........... (Diptera) ... Asilidae  

 

---

15b.  One ocellus present; palpi vestigal; proboscis with fleshy labellae (both larvae and adults are predators) ........ (Diptera) ... Mydidae  

 

17

16a.  Costa continuing around wing

 

---

16b.  Costa reaching only to wing apex; 4th vein (M-1) ends before wing tip (larvae predators of larvae of Coleoptera) .......... (Diptera) ... Scenopinidae  

 

18

17a.  Wing has 5 posterior cells

 

19

17b.  Wing has at most 4 posterior cells

 

---

18a.  Fourth vein (M-1) ends beyond apex of wing (larvae and adults are predators of other arthropods) ........... (Diptera) ... Therevidae  

 

---

18b.  Fourth vein (M-1) ends before apex of wing (both adults & larvae are predators of other arthropods) .......... (Diptera) ... Apioceridae  

 

---

19a.  Anal cell open or closed near wing margin; antennal style short, never longer than 3rd antennal segment; body usually hairy (parasitize a variety of immature arthropods) .......... (Diptera) ... Bombyliidae  

 

---

19b.  Anal cell closed far from wing margin; anal vein does not reach wing margin; antennal style usually longer than 3rd antennal segment; body usually bare (predators of small arthropods) ............. (Diptera) ... Empididae  

 

21

20a.  Wing normal, not obviously rounded apically; venation normal

 

---

20b.  Wing rounded apically; veins very well developed anteriorly (parasitoids of ant pupae, larvae & pupae of Lepidoptera & Hymenoptera; some species are predators) (Diptera) ... Phoridae  

 

22

21a.  Spurious vein in wing absent; anal cell usually short

 

---

21b.  Spurious vein in wing present; anal cell long, closed near wing margin (predators of Homoptera) ....... (Diptera) ... Syrphidae  

 

23

22a.  Frontal lunule completely absent

 

25

22b.  Frontal lunule present as a crescent-shaped suture above antennae

 

24

23a.  Head normal, not exceptionally large; front & face usually wide

 

---

23b.  Head large, hemispherical; front & face narrow (parasitoids of treehoppers & leafhoppers) ... (Diptera) ... Pipunculidae  

 

---

24a.  Crossvein r-m located beyond basal 1/4th of wing; anal cell pointed apically; proboscis usually rigid; body not metallic; male genitalia terminal, not folded under abdomen (refer to couplet 19) ............. (Diptera) ... Empididae  

 

---

24b.  Crossvein r-m located in basal 1/4th of wing; 2nd basal and discal cells united; anal cell when present rounded apically; body usually metallic; male genitalia frequently folded under abdomen (predators of small arthropods) ........ (Diptera) ... Dolichopodidae  

 

26

25a.  Second antennal segment with a lateral subdorsal longitudinal seam; thorax with a complete transverse suture; calypter large

 

28

25b.  Second antennal segment without a longitudinal seam; thorax without a complete transverse suture; calypter small or rudimentary

 

27

26a.  Hypopleural bristles present

 

---

26b.  Hypopleural bristles absent; 3rd (R-5) and 4th (M-1) veins almost parallel at wing tip or 4th vein bends forward (predators of dipterous larvae) ............ (Diptera) ... Anthomyiidae  

 

---

27a.  Postscutellum developed; hypopleura with strong bristles; body variously colored, but usually blackish (parasitoids of many types of insects) ..... (Diptera) ... Tachinidae  

 

28

27b.  Postscutellum not developed; hypopleura with a row of bristles

 

---

28a.  Body usually gray with three black stripes on mesonotum, not metallic; usually 4 notopleural bristles (Parasitoids of grasshoppers and other arthropods) ....... (Diptera) ... Sarcophagidae  

 

---

28b.  Body usually metallic, usually 2 (rarely 3) notopleural bristles (generally predaceous) ......... (Diptera) ... Calliphoridae

 

30

29a.  Proboscis shorter than head; head never broader than thorax; first posterior cell not quite narrowed apically

 

---

29b.  Proboscis longer than head; head wider than thorax; first posterior cell narrowed or closely apically (parasitoids of wild bees)(Diptera) ... Conopidae  

 

---

30a.  Costa broken at humeral crossvein; postocellar bristles divergent, if absent, arista is absent (parasitoids of Homoptera) .... (Diptera) ... Agromyzidae  

 

---

30b.  Costa not broken; postocellar bristles converge or are absent, if absent, arista present (predators of mties and Homoptera) . (Diptera) ... Chamaemyidae  

 

32

31a.  Fore wing entirely leathery, forming a protective covering for the hind wing (Coleoptera)   [Please See <Coleoptera> for greater detail]

 

74

31b.  Fore wing membranous or basally thickened (leathery)

 

33

32a.  Head not prolonged into a beak; gular sutures double, at least anteriorly and posteriorly

 

---

32b.  Head usually prolonged into a beak; gular sutures fused or lacking (predators of Coccidae) ....... (Coleoptera) ... Anthribidae  

 

34

33a.  First abdominal sternite divided by the hind coxal cavities (Adephaga)

 

38

33b.  First abdominal sternite not interrupted by hind coxal cavities (Polyphaga)

 

35

34a.  Abdomen with 6 or more visible sternites; antennae filiform

 

---

34b.  Abdomen with only 4 visible sternites; antennae very much thickened apically, clavate or laminate (predators of ants) ........... (Coleoptera) ... Paussidae  

 

36

35a.  Eyes entire, not divided; antennae elongated, slender (Caraboidea)

 

---

35b.  Eyes divided, appear as 2 pairs; antennae short (predators of aquatic arthropods) (Gyrinoidea) . (Coleoptera) ... Gyrinidae  

 

37

36a.  Metasternum with a distinct transverse suture demarking a triangular antecoxas suture

 

---

36b.  Metasternum without a transverse suture or antecoxal sclerite (predators of aquatic arthropods(Coleoptera) ... Dytiscidae  

 

---

37a.  Antennae inserted on front above base of mandibles; clypeus extends laterally beyond the base of antennae (general predators) ......... (Coleoptera) ... Cicindelidae  

 

---

37b.  Antennae inserted on side of head between base of mandible and eye; clypeus does not extend laterally beyond base of antennae (general predators) ...... (Coleoptera) ... Carabidae  

 

39

38a.  Antennae usually not clubbed, but if so, segments are not lamellate

 

---

38b.  Antennae with the last 3-7 segments enlarged, club-like (considered predators of grasshopper egg pods) ......... (Coleoptera) ... Scarabaeidae  

 

40

39a.  Hind tarsi with 4 segments, front and middle tarsi with 5 segments

 

46

39b.  Hind tarsi with at least as many segments as the fore and middle tarsi

 

41

40a.  Front coxal cavities closed behind

 

42

40b.  Front coxal cavities open behind

 

---

41a.  Abdominal sternites freely movable (males only, also refer to couplet 62) (predators) ......... (Coleoptera) ... Rhizophagidae  

 

---

41b.  First 2-4 abdominal sternites somewhat fused or immovable (predators) ... (Coleoptera) ...Tenebrionidae  

 

43

42a.  Head very much and abruptly constricted behind eyes

 

---

42b.  Head not much and suddenly constricted behind eyes ......... (Coleoptera) ... Pythidae 

 

44

43a.  Prothorax usually rounded on sides, without a sharp lateral margin

 

---

43b.  Prothorax with a sharp lateral margin (may be predators) ... (Coleoptera) ... Mordellidae

 

45

44a.  Base of prothorax narrower than elytra

 

---

44b.  Base of prothorax as wide as elytra (parasitoids of Hymenoptera) ........ (Coleoptera) ... Rhipiphoridae  

 

---

45a.  Hind coxae large and prominent (parasitoids of Hymenoptera) ........... (Coleoptera) ... Meloidae  

 

---

45b.  Hind coxae transverse, not prominent (general predators) ..... (Coleoptera) ... Anthicidae

 

47

46a.  Maxillary palpi much shorter than antennae

 

---

46b.  Maxillary palpi as long as, or longer than, antennae (general predators) ..... (Coleoptera) ...Hydrophilidae  

 

48

47a.  Elytra cover most of abdomen, not short

 

---

47b.  Elytra short, exposing much of abdomen (general predators and some parasitoids of Diptera) ........... (Coleoptera) ... Staphylinidae   [See  <Identification> for Families]

 

49

48a.  Tarsi with 5 segments on at least one pair of legs, usually on all legs

 

71

48b.  All tarsi with less than 5 segments

 

50

49a.  Abdomen with at least 6 sternites

 

58

49b.  Abdomen with 5 or less sternites

 

51

50a.  Front coxae conical, large and prominent

 

---

50b.  Front coxae globular, small and not prominent (general predators) (Coleoptera) ... Leptinidae  

 

52

51a.  Abdomen with 6 sternites visible

 

55

51b.  Abdomen with 7-8 sternites visible

 

 

53

52a.  Hind coxae not grooved

 

---

52b.  Hind coxae grooved for reception of femora (also see copulet 69) (parasitoids of cicadas) ............. (Coleoptera) ... Rhipiceridae  

 

54

53a.  Hind coxae prominent, at least internally

 

---

53b.  Hind coxae flat, not prominent (also see couplet 68) (general predators) ......... (Coleoptera) ... Cleridae  

 

---

54a.  Tibial spurs large (general predators) .. (Coleoptera) ... Silphidae  

 

---

54b.  Tibial spurs small, indistinct (general predators) .......... (Coleoptera) ... Malachiidae  

 

54

55a.  Middle coxae touching each other

 

---

55b.  Middle coxae separated, not touching each other (general predators) ............. (Coleoptera) ......... Lycidae  

 

57

56a.  Antennae inserted on the upper part of the front or at the base of its anterior lobe

 

---

56b.  Antennae inserted at the side of front, before eye (general predators) .... (Coleoptera) ... Drilidae  

 

---

57a.  Head somewhat completely covered by prothorax (predators of snails) .... (Coleoptera) ... Lampyridae  

 

---

57b.  Head not at all covered by prothorax (general predators) ...... (Coleoptera) ... Phenogodidae    & Cantharidae   [See <Coleoptera>]

 

59

58a.  Front coxae globular or transverse

 

69

58b.  Front coxae somewhat conical and prominent

 

60

59a.  Front coxae transverse, somewhat cylindrical

 

64

59b.  Front coxae globular

 

61

60a.  Hind coxae grooved to receive femora

 

62

60b.  Hind coxae flat, not grooved

 

---

61a.  Front coxae without a distinctly separated side piece (general predators) ....... (Coleoptera) ... Helodidae  

 

---

61b.  Front coxae with a distinct side piece (trochantin) (general predators) ............ (Coleoptera) ...Dascillidae  

 

63

62a.  Tarsi somewhat dilated, 1st segment not shortened.............

 

---

62b.  Tarsi slender, the metatarsus very short (general predators) ....... (Coleoptera) ... Ostomatidae  

 

---

63a.  Maxillae with only a single lobe (general predators) ........... (Coleoptera) ... Nitidulidae

 

---

63b.  Maxillae with both an inner and an outer lobe (also see couplet 40) ........ (Coleoptera) ...Rhizophagidae  

 

65

64a.  Prosternum without a median process

 

---

64b.  Prosternum prolonged behind into a median process that is received into the mesosternum (general predators) ....... (Coleoptera) ........ Elateridae  

 

66

65a.  Hind coxae not in contact with each other, although they may be close together in some species

 

---

65b.  Hind coxae in contact with each other (predators of aphids) ..... (Coleoptera) ... Phalacridae  

 

67

66a.  Elytra entire, covering the pygidium

 

---

66b.  Elytra short, leaving at least 2 segments of abdomen exposed (general predators) ... (Coleoptera) ... Histeridae  

 

68

67a.  Antennae with 10-11 segments

 

---

67b.  Antennae with only 2 segments (general predators) ........ (Coleoptera) ... Ectrephidae  

 

---

68a.  Maxillae covered by corneous plates (general predators) ... (Coleoptera) ... Passandridae

 

---

68b.  Maxillae exposed (general predators) . (Coleoptera) ... Cucujidae  

 

70

69a.  Hind coxae dilated into plates which are grooved to receive femora

 

---

69b.  Hind coxae not grooved (also see couplet 52) ....... (Coleoptera) ... Cleridae  

 

---

70a.  Antennae with last 3 segments much enlarged forming a strong club (general predators) .. (Coleoptera) ...Dermestidae

 

---

70b.  Antennae not club-shaped (also see couplet 51)(Coleoptera) ... Rhipiceridae  

 

72

71a.  Tarsi with 3 segments

 

73

71b.  Tarsi with 4 segments

 

---

72a.  Second segment of tarsi dilated (predators of Homoptera) ............ (Coleoptera) ... Coccinellidae  

 

73

72b.  Second segment of tarsi not dilated

 

---

73a.  Abdominal sternites all free and movable (general predators) ......... (Coleoptera) ... ..... Mycetophagidae  

 

---

73b.  Abdominal sternites #1-4 firmly united (general predators) ... (Coleoptera) ... Colydiidae

 

75

74a.  Basal portion of forewing leathery (Hemiptera/Heteroptera)   [Please see <Hemiptera>] for greater detail]

 

87

74b.  Entire forewing membranous

 

76

75a.  Antennae short, usually concealed (Hemiptera/Heteroptera: suborder Cryptocerata)

 

---

75b.  Antennae longer than previous (75a), at least as long as head, not concealed (Hemiptera/Heteroptera: suborder Gymnocerata)

 

77

76a.  Hind tarsi with claws....

 

---

76b.  Hind tarsi without claws, hind tarsi only flattened (general predators) ........... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) ........ Notonectidae  

 

78

77a.  Membrane of hemelytra without veins

 

---

77b.  Membrane of hemelytra with veins (predators of other aquatic arthropods) ..... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) ........ Belostomatidae  

 

---

78a.  Eyes strongly protruding; toad-like (general predators)  (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) ...Gelastocoridae  

 

---

78b.  Eyes flattened to form one smooth surface with head (general predators) ............ (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) ........ Naucoridae   

 

80

79a.  Fore legs relatively short and slender compared to other legs; tarsal claws anteapical (especially clear on fore legs)

 

81

79b.  Fore legs not noticeably shorter than other legs; if so, then fore legs thick and modified for grasping; tarsal claws apical

 

---

80a.  Hind femora extend well beyond apex of abdomen; middle legs arise closer to hind than to fore legs (general predators) ........... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) ........ Gerridae  

 

---

80b.  Hind femora extend little if any beyond apex of abdomen; if middle legs arise close to hind legs than fore legs, then fore tarsi have only 1 segment (general predators) .......... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) ........ Vellidae

 

82

81a.  Antennae with 4 segments

 

---

81b.  Antennae with 5 segments (mostly phytophagous, but some species are general predators) ......... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) ........ Pentatomidae  

 

83

82a.  Absence of pad-like arolium at base of each tarsal claw, or if present, fore legs are modified for grasping prey (raptorial)

 

---

82b.  Pad-like arolium present; membrane of hemielytron with only 4-5 veins (predatory and phytophagous) ............. (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) ........ Lygaeidae  

 

84

83a.  Fore legs not raptorial; without a presternal groove

 

86

83b.  Fore legs not raptorial

 

85

84a.  Proboscis with 3 segments; cuneus absent; ocelli present

 

---

84b.  Proboscis with 4 segments; cuneus present; ocelli absent (a few general predatory species) ............ (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) ........ Miridae  

 

---

85a.  Hemelytra with a cuneus; 1/2-5.0 mm. long (general predators) . (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) ........ Anthocoridae  

 

---

85b.  Hemelytra without a cuneus; length variable; membrane of hemelytra with 4-5 closed cells (general predators) ........... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) ........   Saldidae  

 

---

86a.  Prosternum with a groove to receive probosis; proboscis with 3 segments (general predators) .... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) ........ Reduviidae  

 

---

86b.  Prosternum without a groove; proboscis usually with 4 segments (general predators) (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) ........ Nabidae  

 

88

87a.  Fore and hind wings similar in size, shape and venation; crossveins along costal margin (Neuroptera & Mantoidea)

 

94

87b.  Fore and hind wings not similar, or clypeus enlarged (Hymenoptera & Mecoptera)

 

89

88a.  Prothorax elongated

 

91

88b.  Prothorax of normal length

 

90

89a.  Fore legs raptorial and arise from anterior end of prothorax

 

---

89b.  Fore legs not raptorial; arise from posterior end of prothorax; ocelli present (general predators) ......... (Neuroptera) ........ Raphidiidae   [See <Neuroptera> for greater detail]

 

---

90a.  Cerci well developed; wings folded over abdomen at rest (general predators) .............. (Neuroptera) ........ Mantidae  

 

---

90b.  Cerci absent; wings held roof-like over abdomen at rest (adults are general predators, larvae are parasitoids in spider egg sacs) ........... (Neuroptera) ........ Mantispidae  

 

92

91a.  Veins and crossveins numerous; wings without powder

 

---

91b.  Veins and crossveins reduced; wings covered with shitish powder (predators of mites) .... (Neuroptera) ........ Coniopterygidae  

 

93

92a.  Antennae not clubbed or knobbed; abdomen shorter than wings

 

---

92b.  Antennae clubbed or knobbed; abdomen long and slender (general predators) (Neuroptera) ........ Myrmeleontidae  

 

---

93a.  Fore wing with 2 or more branches of R-s; some costal veins forked (general predators) . (Neuroptera) ........ Hemerobiidae  

 

---

93b.  Forewing with all branches of R-s arising from a single sector; costal veins not forked (general predators) ......... (Neuroptera) ........ Chrysopidae  

 

95

94a.  Clypeus not elongated; wings variable, but when present, forewing distinctly larger than hind wing; first abdominal segment is fused to thorax (Hymenoptera)

 

---

94b.  Clypeus elongated, giving head a beak-like shape; wings variable, occasionally absent (predators of Diptera) ......... (Mecoptera)  

 

96

95a.  Last sternite of female abdomen divided longitudinally; ovipositor issues from anterior to tip of abdomen and hs a pair of exserted sheathes capable of covering ovipositor tip; hind wing usually without lobes

 

103

95b.  Last sternite of female abdomen not divided longitudinally; ovipositor (or sting) issues from the tip of abdomen and without a pair of exserted sheaths; hind wing often with an anal lobe

 

97

96a.  Wing venation well developed; stigma well developed; hind trochanter with 2 segments (Ichneumonoidea & Evanioidea)

 

100

96b.  Wing venation reduced; stigma absent or not well developed; trochanter with 1 segment

 

98

97a.  Costal cell absent; antennae with 16 or more segments (Ichneumonoidea)   [See <Ichneumonoidea> for details]

 

---

97b.  Costal cell present; antennae with fewer than 16 segments; abdomen short with long petiole arising on propodeum, far above bases of hind coxae (parasitoids of cockroach egg capsules) ........ (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea) ........ Evaniidae  

 

99

98a.  Wing with one or no recurrent veins; propodeum not prolonged beyond hind coxae

 

---

98b.  Wing with 2 recurrent veins or the abdomen is 3X the body length (parasitoids of numerous insect orders) ........... (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) ... Ichneumonidae  

 

---

99a.  Abdominal terga 2 & 3 not fused (parasitoids of aphids) ........... (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) ........ Aphidiidae  

 

---

99b.  Abdominal terga 2 & 3 fused or the cubitus in fore wing arises from the radial cell (parasitoids of many kinds of hosts, excluding aphids) .......... (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) ........ Braconidae  

 

101

100a.  Pronotum extends to tegula; antennae not geniculate; prepectus absent; body often compressed (Cynipoidea)   [Please see <Cynipoidea> for greater detail]

 

117

100b.  Pronotum does not reach tegula; prepectus present; antennae geniculate (Chalcidoidea)

 

102

101a.  Largest segment of abdomen (side view) tergites 2 or 3 and never more than one short tergite in front of the largest tergite

 

---

101b.  Largest segment of abdomen (side view) tergites 4, 5, or 6, with at least 2, 3, or 4 short tergites behind petiole and preceding the largest tergite; abdomen very compressed laterally; ovipositor curved under "membranous flap" (parasitoids of sawflies in family Siricidae) ......... (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea) .,,,,,.. Ibaliidae     

 

---

102a.  Tergite 2 longest and usually forming at least 1/2 the abdomen; radial cell open (except in Charips) and petiole without enlarged ring bearing longitudinal striations (gall-formers and hyperprasitoids in aphids) .  If radial cell is closed and petiole has striated ring, then tergites 2 & 3 are fused into a single saddle-shaped tergite that covers entire abdomen (Synergus inquilines in oak galls) ....... (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea) ........ Cynipidae  

 

---

102b.  Tergite 2 clearly forming less than 1/2 of abdomen; radial cell closed; petiole with slightly enlarged ring structure bearing longitudinal striations; mesopleura without aciculations (parasitoids of Diptera) ...... (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea) ........ Figitidae  

 

104

103a.  Pronotum almost reaches or does reach tegula, but lacks a rounded lobe on lateral margin

 

---

103b.  Pronotum short, does not reach tegula, with lateral rounded lobe; both hairs not branched (Sphecoidea) (general predators) ........ (Hymenoptera: Sphecoidea) ........ Sphecidae  

 

105

104a.  Venation of fore wing well developed; hind wing with veins or a basal lobe

 

114

104b.  Venation of fore wing reduced; hind wing not lobed (Proctotrupoidea)

 

106

105a.  Venation of hind wing reduced, lacking closed cells (Bethyloidea)

 

108

105b.  Venation of hind wing not reduced, with at least one closed cell

 

107

106a.  Antennae with 12-13 segments; tarsi normal

 

---

106b.  Antennae with 10 segments; fore tarsi of female often pincer-like (parasitoids of leafhoppers) ....... (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) ........ Dryinidae  

 

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107a.  Gaster with 3 or less visible tergites (4 in male Parnopes); gastral sternites concave; body metallic green or blue (parasitoids on wasps) .............. (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) ........ Chrysididae  

 

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107b.  Gaster with 6 (female) or 7 (male) tergites; sternites convex; body not metallic (parasitoids of Coleoptera & Lepidoptera) ........... (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) ........ Bethylidae  

 

109

108a.  Petiole without nodes or node-like swellings

 

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108b.  Petiole medially with nodes or node-like swellings; antennae geniculate (general predators) ...... (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea) ........ Formicidae  

 

110

109a.  First discoidal cell shorter than submedian cell; fore wings rarely folded

 

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109b.  First discoidal cell much longer than submedian cell; forewings when at rest folded longitudinally (general predators) .... (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea) ........ Vespidae  

 

111

110a.  Mesopleuron not divided by an oblique suture; hind femur does not extend to tip of gaster

 

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110b.  Mesopleuron divided by an oblique suture; hind femur extends to tip of gaster; mid tibia with 2 apical spurs (parasitoids of spiders) ......... (Hymenoptera: Pompiloidea) ........ Pompilidae  

 

112

111a.  Mesosternum & metasternum separate, not forming a single large plate; wings without wrinkles

 

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111b.  Mesosternum & metasternum form a flat plat divided by a sinuous transverse suture; forewing with find longitudinal wrinkles beyond the closed cells (parasitoids of Scarabaeidae) ..... (Hymenoptera: Scolioidea) ........ Scoliidae  

 

113

112a.  Mesosternum simple, without appendages

 

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112b.  Mesosternum with 2 laminae which overlay or project between the bases of the middle coxae, extending to midline; spur on tip of abdomen (parasitoids of Scarabaeidae) ... (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea) ........ Tiphiidae  

 

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113a.  Body bare or nearly so; hind wing with a prominent separated lobe at the anal angle (parasitoids of bees) ........... (Hymenoptera: Tiphioidea) ........ Sapygidae  

 

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113b.  Body almost always obviously hairy; hind wing of male without a lobe at the anal angle; 2 spurs on tip of abdomen (parasitoids of Hymenoptera) ............. (Hymenoptera: Tiphioidea) ........ Mutillidae  

 

115

114a.  Antennae inserted near clypeus

 

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114b.  Antennae inserted near middle of face on a shelf-like protuberance; fore wing with a stigma (parasitoids of Diptera) ........ (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea) ........ Diapriidae  

 

116

115a.  Gaster sharply margined at sides

 

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115b.  Gaster rounded laterally; marginal vein usually stigmated (parasitoids of insects in several orders) .......... (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronoidea) ........ Ceraphronidae  

 

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116a.  Fore wing with a marginal and stigmal vein (parasitoids of insect eggs) ...... (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea) ........ Scelionidae  

 

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116b.  Fore wing without marginal and stigmal veins (mostly parasitoids of Diptera & Homoptera) ...... (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea) ........ Platygasteridae  

 

 

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117a.  Please refer to <Chalcidoidea> for parasitic groups

 

 

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117b.  Please see <Lepidoptera> for details on predatory moths and butterflies

 

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118a.   Please see <Strepsiptera> for details on parasitic forms