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For educational purposes only; do not review, quote or abstract:--

A Public Service on the basics of Insect Identification

 

 

DIPTERA

 

(From Schlinger & Doutt, 1964)

 

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       There are about 40 our of 126 families of flies that contain entomophagous species and are listed

 in the following key form.  Several other families contain entomophagous species but in comparatively low numbers.  Three general types of dipterous wing venation are noted in Fig. 34 of Schlinger & Doutt (1964), which are used in the key to following families; Curran (1934) and above mentioned references were also consulted:

 

Keys to Adults of Important Families of Entomophagous Diptera

<General Characteristics>;  <Juveniles>

 

[Please refer to <Guide> for illustrations & <Diptera> for order details]

 

 

2

1a.  Antennae usually longer than thorax; flagellum consisting of 6-39 similar free segments in addition to the 2 basal segments;    anal cell usually open; palpi elongate and usually comprising 4-5 segments; body usually aseptate ......... (Suborder Nematocera)

 

9

1b.  Antennae shorter than thorax, usually with 3 segments, but terminal segment may be distinctly ring-like, or bearing a distinct style or arista; anal cell distinctly narrowed or closed, or absent; palpi short, usually with 1-2 segments, body often with setae, bristles or spines ............ (Suborder Brachycera)

 

3

2a.  Wings without network of fine folds or creases

 

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2b.  Wings with network of fine folds or creases ............ Blephariceridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

4

3a.  Costa extends around entire wing, occasionally weakened behind

 

6

3b.  Costa extends to or nearly to wing tip

 

5

4a.  Mesonotal suture transverse (= at right angles to longitudinal axis), not V-shaped

 

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4b.  Mesonotum with an entire, V-shaped suture .............. Tipulidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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5a.  Ocelli present and/or wing venation quite reduced ............. Cecidomyiidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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5b.  Ocelli absent; wing venation strong ............. Culicidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

7

6a.  Ocelli present

 

8

6b.  Ocelli absent

 

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7a.  Antennae inserted below compound eyes close to oral margin .......... Bibionidae

 

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7b.  Antennae inserted at middle of head, well above oral margin ........... Mycetophagidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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8a.  Mesonotum short, without longitudinal groove ............. Ceratopogonidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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8b.  Mesonotum long, with median longitudinal groove ........... Chironomidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

10

9a.  Empodium pulvilliform, the three pads nearly equal

 

14

9b.  Empodium hair-like or absent

 

11

10a.  3rd antennal segment compound, ring-like

 

12

10b.  3rd antennal segment simple, often bearing an elongated style or arista

 

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11a.  Squamae large and conspicuous ............ Tabanidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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11b.  Squamae small or vestigial .......... Stratiomyiidae    <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

13

12a.  Squamae small or vestigial

 

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12b.  Squamae very large, covering halters ............. Acroceridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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13a.  Tibiae without spurs; wing venation intricate ............ Nemestrinidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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13b.  Middle tibiae with spurs; wing venation normal ............ Rhagionidae   (Leptidae) <Habits>;  <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

15

14a.  Wing with 2 or more submarginal cells; anal cell distinctly longer than second basal cell

 

21

14b.  Wing with 1 or no submarginal cells; anal cell shorter

 

16

15a.  Front hollowed between eyes

 

17

15b.  Front not hollowed between eyes

 

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16a.  Three ocelli; palpi usually prominent; proboscis adapted for piercing ........... Asilidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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16b.  One ocellus; palpi vestigial; proboscis with fleshy tip ........... Mydaidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

18

17a.  Costa continuing around the wing

 

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17b.  Costa reaching only to apex of wing ........... Scenopinidae   <Habits>; Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

19

18a.  Wing with 5 posterior cells

 

20

18b.  Wing with at most 4 posterior cells

 

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19a.  4th vein ending beyond apex of wing .......... Therevidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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19b.  4th vein ending before apex of wing .......... Apioceridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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20a.  6th vein does not reach wing margin; body usually rather apilose ........... Empididae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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20b.  6th vein reaching wing margin; body often extremely pilose .......... Bombyliidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

22

21a.  Wing normal, not rounded apically; wing venation normal

 

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21b.  Wing rounded apically; veins strong anteriorly ........... Phoridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

23

22a.  Spurious vein absent; anal cell short, ends much before margin of wing

 

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22b.  Spurious vein present, anal cell closed close to wing margin ......... Syrphidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

24

23a.  Frontal lunule entirely absent

 

25

23b.  Frontal lunule present

 

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24a.  Head very large, hemispherical; front and face very narrow .......... Pipunculidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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24b.  Head not unusually large; front and face usually wide ............ Dolichopodidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

26

25a.  Coxae close together at base

 

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25b.  Coxae widely separated at base ........... Braulidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

27

26a.  2nd antennal segment with a longitudinal seam along upper outer edge which extends to the base (Calyptratae)

 

31

26b.  2nd antennal segment without such a seam (Acalyptratae)

 

28

27a.  Hypopleurae and pteropleurae with 1 or more vertical rows of hairs or bristles

 

30

27b.  Hypopleurae without a vertical series of strong bristles below spiracle, or if present then there is no row of bristles on pteropleura

 

29

28a.  Postscutellum little developed, not convexly prominent

 

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28b.  Postscutellum strongly developed in the form of a transverse rounded ridge often projecting as far as apex of scutellum. .......... Tachinidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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29a.  Propleura and prosternum usually hairy; generally 2 notopleural bristles; arista usually long-plumose .......... Calliphoridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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29b.  Propleura and prosternum bare; generally with 4 notopleural bristles; arista bare or hairy on basal half .......... Sarcophagidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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30a.  Scutellar suture complete; 4th vein often bending forward to narrow the apical cell at wing margin .......... Anthomyiidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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30b.  Scutellar suture interrupted in middle; fourth vein formed so that apical cell is not narrowed at wing margin ......... (Scatophagidae) Cordyluridae   <Habits>;  <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

32

31a.  Costa entire, no indication of a break near end of subcosta

 

35

31b.  Costa fractured just before end of subcosta

 

33

32a.  First posterior cell not strongly narrowed, or the abdomen short and broad

 

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32b.  First posterior cell strongly narrowed or closed; abdomen usually cylindrical ........... Conopidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

34

33a.  Ocelli present

 

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33b.  Ocelli absent ........... Pyrogotidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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34a.  Postocellar bristles convergent or absent ........... Chamaemyidae  (= Octhipilidae)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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34b.  Postocellar bristles divergent or parallel. ............ Otitidae   (= Ortalidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

36

35a.  Costa broken only at end of subcosta

 

37

35b.  Costa broken near humeral crossvein in addition to the subcostal break

 

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36a.  Anal cell absent; ocellar triangle large ........... Chloropidae   (= Oscinidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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36b.  Anal cell present; ocellar triangle small ............ Lonchaeidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

38

37a.  Arista present; scutellum with rounded edge

 

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37b.  Arista lacking; scutellum triangular with sharp margin  ........... (Agromyzidae, partly)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>  Cryptochaetidae  

 

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38a.  Inflexed lower fronto-orbital bristles absent ........... Drosophilidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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38b.  Inflexed lower fronto-orbitals present ............. Milichiidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>