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For educational purposes only; do not review, quote or abstract:--

A Public Service on the basics of Insect Identification

 

 

Key to the Chalcidoidea of New Zealand

 

(Derived from Noyes & Valentine, 1989 & Valentine, 1971 by E. F. Legner)

 

(Email Contacts)

 

[This key is in a form commonly used in North America.  If the statement is true, proceed to

the designated couplet, whereas if it is false, go to "b" portion of the couplet.  Numbers in

parentheses refer to previous couplet read].

 

              [Please refer to <Guide> for more illustrations]

 

 (Note:  Not all illustrations are New Zealand species):

 

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1a.    Abdominal petiole long, with 2 segments; fore wing (when present) pedunculate, varying in shape but commonly spatulate with a long marginal fringe disc reticulately alveolate , and venation reduced and indistinct; pronotum reaches tegulae, without an intervening prepectus; minute. <0.75 mm.long............ Mymarommatidae  [Noyes & Valentine (1989) placed this family in the Mymarommatoidea (or Serphitoidea)]

 

2

1b.    Abdominal petiole with 1 segment, often indistinct or somewhat completely invisible; fore wing not as previous, if pedunculate then not reticulate; pronotum does not reach tegulae, separated from them by a prepectus ; normally longer than 0.75 mm., but sometimes much shorter ........ (Chalcidoidea)   <Overview>; <General References>

 

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2a (1).    Tarsi with 34 segments; antennae short, the funicle with no more than 2 segments; minute to very small insects, not more than 1.2 mm. long ....... Trichogrammatidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniiles>

 

3

2b.    Tarsi with 4-5 segments; minute to moderate-sized insects varying from 0.2 mm. to more than 10 mm. long, mostly exceeding 1.2 mm.

 

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3a (2).    Antennal toruli situated much closer to eyes than to each other; frons with a straight, transverse suture a little above toruli which connects with vertical sutures adjacent to each orbit, thus forming an H ; the winged species almost always with membrane of hind wing not extending to base, thus giving hind wing a stalked appearance  [exception = Anagroidea spp. ] ..........  Mymaridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

4

3b.    Antennal toruli situated as close to or closer to each other than to eyes or very nearly so; frons sometimes with a transverse suture, which may be straight or V-shaped, but never with vertical sutures running adjacent to inner orbits; the winged species with membrane of hind wing always extending to base

 

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4a (3).    Either winged, with stigmal vein of fore wing long and forming an angle of ca. 90 deg. with marginal vein , or completely apterous (males only), with eyes minute, less than 1/2 as long as distance between them .  Males with fore and hind femora very stout, contrasting with relatively slender middle femora   [associated with fig fruit] .......... Agaonidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

5

4b.    Without previous combination of characters

 

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5a (4).    Hind leg with femur swollen and tibia curved; body black, without metallic hue ................ Chalcididae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

6

5b.    Either hind leg with femur not swollen and tibia straight, or head and thorax metallic green.

 

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6a (5).  Hind coxa elongated, at least ca. 2X as long as fore coxa ; fore wings fully developed, with stigmal vein short and uncus hardly separated from the well developed postmarginal vein ; ovipositor often well exserted ............ Torymidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

7

6b.    Hind coxa not so enlarged, not or hardly longer than fore coxa; fore wing, if fully developed, usually with stigmal vein longer and uncus well separated from postmarginal vein, or postmarginal vein absent; ovipositor normally hardly exserted

 

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7a (6).    Antennae with very long, unsegmented clava and funicle composed of 2-4 indistinct, strongly transverse segments ; body shining black or yellow; gaster sessile; axillae not distinctly marked off from scutellum, the two together forming a strongly transverse band ca. 3X as broad as long; propodeum with a large, shiny, central triangular area  ........ Encyrtidae   <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2>; & <Juveniles>

 

8

7b.    Antennae not as previous; occasionally clava long and unsegmented, but then funicle composed of only 2 strongly transverse segments, and body metallic green; scutellum shield-shaped, almost as long as broad or slightly transverse, usually with axillae distinctly marked off; propodeum without a distinct triangular central area

 

9

8a (7).    All tarsi with 4 segments

 

13

8b.    At least hind tarsi have 5 segments

 

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9a (8).  Fore wing marginal vein indistinct, somewhat punctiform  ...... Encyrtidae   <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2>; & <Juveniles>

 

10

9b.    Fore wing marginal vein distinct, several times longer than broad

 

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10a (9).  Antennae with 14 segments; funicle and clava each composed of 6 segments  ..............     Rotoitidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

11

10b.    Antennae with not more than 12 segments; funicle composed of not more than 5 segments, and clava never with more than 3 segments

 

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11a (10).    Hind leg with coxa strongly expanded, disc-shaped  and tibia on outer surface with coarse, dark bristles arranged in longitudinal rows or diamond-shaped patterns; gaster in cross-section somewhat triangular  .......... Elasmidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

12

11b.    Hind leg with coxa subcylindrical, not compressed, and hind tibia without darker bristles arranged in a conspicuous pattern; gaster not triangular in cross-section

 

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12a (11).    Gaster distinctly constricted at junction with propodeum; fore wing in winged forms with postmarginal and stigmal veins often long and distinct; body almost always at least partly metallic; notaular lines, if complete, almost always curved ............ Eulophidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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12b.    Gaster at base about as broad as propodeum, not distinctly constricted; fore wing in macropterous forms with postmarginal vein absent, or almost so, and stigmal vein very short ; body not metallic, usually brown or black; notaular lines complete, straight .......... Aphelinidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

14

13a (8).    Either mesopleuron undivided, relatively large and shield-shaped or gaster broadly sessile; middle tibia usually with a strong apical spur

 

16

13b.    Mesopleuron divided into mesepisternum and mesepimeron , the 2 parts often with distinctly different sculpture; gaster never broadly sessile, at least with a distinct constriction at junction with propodeum, often petiolate; middle tibia with spur of normal proportions

 

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14a (13).    Thorax in profile with middle coxa inserted about level with middle of mesopleural shield  or even slightly anterior to this; fore wing, if fully developed, with marginal vein short, usually not more than 3-4X as long as broad  ........ Encyrtidae  Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2>; & <Juveniles>

 

15

14b.    Thorax in profile with middle coxa inserted about level with posterior margin of mesopleural shield ; fore wing, if fully developed, with marginal vein always at least 6-7X as long as broad.

 

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15a (14).    Antennae with flagellum having not more than 7 segments; gaster sessile, broadly attached to propodeum; mesoscutum at least slightly convex, with notauli always present and straight; length not more than 1.5 mm  ........ Aphelinidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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15b.    Antennae with flagellum having 8-9 segments; gaster distinctly constricted at junction with propodeum, or petiolate ; mesoscutum either impressed or convex, with notauli very inconspicuous; length almost always >1.5 mm ......... Eupelmidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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16a (13).    Pronotal collar large, subrectangular, at least about 2/3rds as long as mesoscutum ; antennae with not more than 6 funicle segments; head and dorsum of thorax with numerous conspicuous, hairy punctures which often give rise to very coarse sculpture; gena sharply margined posteriorly. .......... Eurytomidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

17

16b.    Pronotal collar not large and subrectangular, shorter than 1/2 length of mesoscutum, or if longer then antennae with 7 funicle segments, or sculpture of head and thorax shallow, or gena not with a sharp edge

 

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17a (16).    Fore wing with apex of stigmal vein much enlarged, deeper than long, and apex of uncus very close to postmarginal vein ; pronotum elongated, subconical; female with ovipositor strongly exserted ........ Torymidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

18

17b.    Fore wing with apex of stigmal vein not or hardly enlarged, or if as above then pronotum transverse and not well developed; female rarely with ovipositor strongly exserted

 

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18a (17).    Wings fully developed; fore wing marginal vein at least 3.5X as long as stigmal vein ; gastral petiole at least 1.5X as long as broad; antennae inserted above lowest eye margins, without a crest or tubercle between them ............ Perilampidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

19

18b.    If wings fully developed, then fore wing marginal vein less than 3.5X as long as stigmal vein, or if relatively longer then either gastral petiole not longer than broad, or antenna inserted well below lowest margin of eye, or a sharp crest or tubercle present between antennal toruli

 

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19a (18).    Mesopleuron divided by a very weak, inconspicuous depression; notaular grooves complete; fore wing marginal vein always more than 2X as long as stigmal vein; antenna with 7 funicle segments and a single small anellus; scutellum conspicuously hairy; males only  .........  Eupelmidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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19b.    Mesopleuron distinctly divided into episternum and epimeron; notaular grooves sometimes incomplete; marginal vein mostly less than 2X as long as stigmal vein; antennae usually with 6 or fewer funicle segments, often with as many as 3 anelli; scutellum usually not conspicuously hairy; males and females  .......... Pteromalidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>   Pteromalidae Subfamiliea

 

REFERENCES:

 

Noyes, J. S. & E. W. Valentine.  1989.  Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera)-- Introduction, and Review

     of Genera in Smaller Families.  Fauna of New Zealand No. 18.  DSIR Publ., Wellington, New Zealand.  58 p.

 

Valentine, E. W.  1971.  Entomology of the Aucklands and other islands south of New Zealand.  Hymenoptera

     Mymaridae.  Pacific Inwects Monolog. 17:  327-33.