FILE: <austra-1.key.htm> Bibliography Bibliography #2 Terminology [Navigate to MAIN MENU]


For educational purposes only; do not review, quote or abstract:--

A Public Service on the basics of Insect Identification



Keys to Families of Chalcidoidea of The Australasian Area


(Derived from Bouček, 1988 & Grandi, 1952 by E. F. Legner)


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[Please refer to <Guide> for additional illustrations]




Bouček (1988) discussing the characteristics of a chalcid stated that "All chalcids have the wing venation greatly reduced, generally to one linear vein, without any closed cells, but such reduction is found also in some other groups. Another important feature is found on the anterior part of the thorax; the prepectus. It is a subtriangular sclerite between the lateral panel of the pronotum and the tegula. The prepectus is absent in the proctotrupoid families which otherwise in venation resemble chalcids. In chalcids the prepectus is reduced very rarely (in Rotoita; and in some Macromesus, but then the mesothoracic spiracle can be found at the dorso-lateral margin of the mesoscutum In the proctotrupoid groups this spiracle is always situated much lower. The chalcidoid antennae are almost always elbowed between the scapus and the rest (indistinctly so in some Eucharitidae)."


"Other chalcidoid characters may be difficult to see. They include longitudinal placoid sensilla on at least some segments of the flagellum, the second abdominal segment, i.e. the one immediately after the propodeum, transformed into the petiole and always differentiated from the rest of the abdomen, which is here called the gaster (= abdomen). The gaster bears one pair of spiracles, on the sixth tergite (eighth abdominal tergite). Another feature is the form of the ovipositor and its components."




Navigate directly to Subfamilies: Chalcididae Eurytomidae Torymidae


(Note: Not all drawings are Australasian species):


Pteromalidae Eulophidae



1a. Fore wing with at least one cell enclosed by veins (rarely in Cynipoidea the cell is open on wing front margin which it touches) ........ non-chalcidoid Hymenoptera



1b. Fore wings without any enclosed cell, mostly with one longitudinal vein with a distal branch or wings shortened or absent



2a. Dorso-lateral corner of pronotum extended to base of fore wing, or to place where fore wing would be (ants); flagellum at its base (beyond 2nd antennal segment) usually without very much shortened segment(s); 1st abdominal segment behind propodeum frequently not transformed into a petiole ... non-chalcidoid Hymenoptera



2b. Dorso-lateral corner of pronotum separated from wing base by a gap filled by a subtriangular sclerite, prepectus pct; this sometimes small: one or more proximal segments of flagellum frequently reduced to ring-like segments; abdominal segment just behind propodeum always differentiated as a petiole, although not easily visible in some forms ......... Chalcidoidea <Overview>; <General References>



3a. Tarsi with 3 segments, all segments elongated and almost of same length; body minute, rarely exceeding 1 mm length, never metallic, never quite smooth, mostly fully winged; postmarginal vein absent; prescutal sutures complete; antennae short, with 5-9 segments; egg parasitoids ........... Trichogrammatidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniiles>



3b. Tarsi with 4-5 segments of if rarely with fewer segments (aberrant males of some fig wasps) then some segments very short, body yellowish and smooth, wingless, without complete prescutal sutures; in other aspects at least partly different



4a. Gastral petiole with distinct 2 segments and very slender; both fore- and hind wings basally narrowed into a linear stalk; mandibles with teeth exodont (turned outwards); antennal sockets closer to eyes than to each other; very rare .......... Mymerommatidae (= Callimomidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



4b. Petiole, if conspicuous, with 2 segment or if apparently with 2 segments, then all other characters different



5a. Antenna with 14 segments, in female with 6-segmented clava; tarsi with 4 segments; prepectus not distinct, prescutal sutures absent [only in New Zealand as of 1993] .......... Rotoitidae<Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



5b. Either antenna with fewer segments or tarsi with 5 segments; clava never with 6 segments; prepectus distinct, prescutal sutures usually at least partly present



6a. Blade of hind wing (short-winged forms rare) not reaching base, but reduced to a linear stalk formed by submarginal vein; frons with H-shaped impressed lines: adorbital vertical lines connected not far above antennae by a straight cross-line; antennal toruli much closer to eyes than to each other; fore wing almost always without postmarginal vein, stigmal vein reduced to a short stub and mostly situated far before middle of anterior margin; [in females with conspicuous long-oval clava, antenna without ring-like segments after pedicel; appendages mostly very long and slender; body usually below 2 mm length; egg parasitoids] .......... Mymaridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



6b. Hind wing not stalked; head without H-shaped lines; if wings reduced then sockets closer to each other than to eyes and antenna different; forewing with different venation



7a. Mesothoracic pleuron much enlarged, convex, transformed into a large, undivided shield; prepectus with its posterior margin often loose and thin; spur of mid tibia often large and minutely hairy



7b. Mesopleuron not transformed into a regular shield, distinctly subdivided at least by an oblique impression or a line from mid coxa towards fore wing; prepectus embedded posteriorly between and mostly tightly connected with, surrounding sclerites; spur of mid tibia usually thin



8a. Prepectus swollen, in dorsal view protruding forwards as conspicuous shoulders; mesoscutum short and with distinct groove-like prescutal sutures meeting near to angulate anterior end of scutellum; if thorax in contracted position then transscutal line opened as a membranous belt; pronotum very short; always fully winged, stigmal vein fairly long but shorter than the marginal; antenna always with 12 segments; tropical phytophagous group .......... Tanaostigmatidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



8b. Prepectus not bulging; mesoscutum mostly with prescutal sutures arranged differently; if thorax contracted the transscutal line not showing a membranous gap; also otherwise different from previous (6a)



9a. Mesoscutum with complete groove-like prescutal sutures reaching axillae wide apart; axillae broadly separated; marginal vein usually very long and then postmarginal vein absent; funicle at most with 5 segments .......... [rare forms of Aphelinidae] <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



9b. Either prescutal sutures not groove-like or not wide apart posteriorly; axillae often medially close to each other or meeting; if marginal vein relatively long then funicle with more than 5 segments



10a. Flagellum with at most 9 segments (plus occasionally one very small ring-like segment); mid coxae much nearer to fore coxae than to hind ones; mesoscutum convex and short, prescutal sutures absent or indicated by superficial lines converging to meet at the pointed front end of scutellum; axillae transverse, often meeting in midline; marginal vein often shorter than the stigmal ........ Encyrtidae <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2>; & <Juveniles>



10b. Flagellum with 7-8 segmented funicle plus clava (except Neanastatus, with ring-like segment plus 5-segmented funicle); mid coxae much nearer to hind coxae than to fore ones; mesoscutum often with prescutal suture depressions; axillae not decidedly transverse (= at right angle with longitudinal axis) and mostly wide apart so that scutellum is only rarely pointed anteriorly; marginal vein always much longer than stigmal vein ......... Eupelmidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



11a. Hind femur much enlarged and with teeth on ventral edge; abdomen convex, not collapsed



11b. Hind femur not much enlarged and toothed; in doubtful case abdomen not convex, dorsally collapsed



12a. Posterior gena with distinct ridge; prepectus very small and tegula only slightly longer than broad; body often large and not metallic, yet if with slight metallic tinge then without pale color pattern ............ Chalcididae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



12b. Posterior gena rounded; often different in other respects



13a. Body large, wasp-like, with fore wing longitudinally folding as in vespids, frequently with black and yellow pattern; ovipositor turned upwards over abdomen; male abdomen covered by punctate carapace of fused tergites; tegula long spoon-like .......... Leucospidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



13b. Body very different, with unfolded wings, normal ovipositor, in male no carapace; tegula broad and rather short (aberrant forms of Agaonidae, Eulophidae and Pteromalidae)



14a. Thorax smooth, scutellum fused with axillae and forming a narrow cross-belt, also metanotum belt-like but propodeum with triangular median area; antenna with long undivided clava preceded by 2-4 ring-like segments; body small, hardly ever >1mm long, usually black and dorsally depressed, always winged, abdomen broadly sessile ........... Signiphoridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>




14b. Thorax different, especially sciutellum never of such form; propodeum never with flat smooth triangular area; antenna quite different from alternative; body often larger



15a. Hind coxa very large, almost round, like a disk, its flat outer surface in same plane as, and larger than, the flat thoracic pleuron; also hind and mid femora flat and enlarged but not the fore femur; funicle only with 3 segments; occipital margin ridged, large frons regularly convex; dorsellum in form of a flat triangle; winged forms



15b. Hind coxa always much smaller than in previous (13a), not nearly round and flattened; in other aspects also mostly different



16a. Prescutal sutures indistinct; tarsi with 4 segments; fore wing very narrow, wedge-shaped and almost completely hairy, without outstanding bristles; male antenna with 3 branches .......... Elasmidae



16b. Prescutal sutures complete but fine, linear; tarsi with 5 segments; fore wing not especially narrow, basal 1/3rd bare but with several very robust bristles; antennae of male simple [Euryischia Riley] ........... Aphelinidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



17a. Wingless or short-winged males only, found in or close to fig syconia; eyes very small or vestigial, ocelli mostly absent; wing stumps often as short filaments, rarely with narrow sing blade; body yellowish to dark brown or black, with shortened spiny tibiae, tarsal segments often considerably reduced ............ Agaonidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



17b. Short-winged or long-winged (males and females), different also in most other respects from previous (15a); if rarely short winged males then not associated with fig fruits and tibiae normal, not spiny (Melittobia)



18a. Females only associated with fig fruits; mandibles underneath the head with distinct flat appendages bearing transverse laminae or rows of fine teeth; head somewhat prognathous, medially with a broad channel or depression, this rarely reduced to a fine groove above antennae; scape always distinctly widened but of irregular shape, 3rd antennal segment not ring-like but produced meso-dorsally into a stout spine; [Agaoninae] .......... Agaonidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



18b. Males and females in the area always without mandibular appendages, also head and antennae different



19a. All tarsi with 4 segments



19b. Tarsi, at least fore and hind ones, with 5 segments



20a. Males only; antenna with 6 conspicuous segments between pedicel and clava, exceptionally 5; marginal vein at least 4 times as long as stigmal vein, fore wing mostly very densely hairy, including basal 1/3rd ........... Tetracampidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



20b. Both sexes; flagellum with fewer segments or marginal vein short and at least basal 1/3rd of fore wing somewhat less bare



21a. Stigmal vein rather long and at very nearly a right angle with the rather short marginal vein, whereas the postmarginal is very much reduced; body yellowish and almost smooth, with few setae on thorax; basitarsus 2X as long as next segment; associated with fig fruits....(Epichrysomalinae part) ......... Agaonidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



21b. Stigmal vein never at a right angle or body not yellow and smooth; basitarsus mostly shorter than previous (19a)



22a. Body <1 mm long; mesoscutum with straight prescutal sutures which even posteriorly are further apart than the scutellum is long .......... Aphelinidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



22b. Body from minute to medium size (length up to 6 mm), different from previous (20a); if prescutal sutures straight and complete then distance between them posteriorly much less than length of scutellum ............ Eulophidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



23a. Prescutal sutures usually far apart, complete and abdomen broadly sessile; fore wing often with linea clava, postmarginal vein mostly absent (except in Eriaporinae); body usually less than 1 mm long, rarely up to 1.7 mm, always without metallic gloss .......... Aphelinidae (most) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



23b. Prescutal sutures, if complete, much less removed from each other; abdomen often more distinctly separated from thorax; fore wing without linea clava, postmarginal vein mostly developed; body often larger than previous (21a), often with metallic color



24a. Pronotum subrectangular, large; abdomen convex, not collapsed, ovipositor hardly exserted (if apex narrowed in a cauda then covered by extended epipygium; body (regional spp.) not metallic, usually black or marked with yellow or reddish; lower mesepimeron not separated; [prescutal sutures complete though posteriorly sometimes shallow; thorax mostly with coarse hairy punctuation] ........... Eurytomidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



24b. Pronotum mostly different from previous (22a), but if subrectangular then either abdomen collapsed or body with some metallic gloss or without coarse punctuation; lower mesepimeron often delimited by a groove



25a. Occipital carina present, horseshoe-shaped and marginal vein at least 5X as long as narrow pedunculate part of stigmal vein; antenna always with 13 segments; hind coxa either greatly enlarged or fore wing with distinctly knobbed stigma ; ovipositor mostly distinctly exserted, often long; prescutal sutures always complete, posteriorly subparallel; [both sexes fully winged]



25b. Occipital carina often absent or, if present then either marginal vein not so much longer than the pedunculate part of stigmal vein before uncus or knob, or antenna with fewer than 13 segments; if ovipositor exserted then prescutal sutures incomplete or antenna with 12 segments



26a. Cerci 4-sided or elongated, in female placed in membrane between short 7th tergite and flap-like 8th tergite; ovipositor at least shortly exserted, often long; male abdomen collapsed or convex, in latter case at least as high as broad, without lateral edge; pronotum mostly long, often subconical ....... Torymidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



26b. Cerci reduced to low plates and placed on undivided sclerotized epipygium which is subconical in female, or in form of transverse plate in male; abdomen always heavily sclerotized and often with coarse sculpture, sometimes sculpture reduced to small longitudinal ridges bearing a bristle at apex; ovipositor not exserted; male abdomen broader than high, with at least a blunt edge on sides; pronotum relatively short .......... Ormyridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



27a. Scutellum separated from scutum by axillae, which broadly to narrowly meet medially; pronotum so reduced that it is not visible dorsally (except Akapata and Echthrodape, but on sides often fused with prepectus; prescutal sutures usually complete and scutellar apex often produced; abdomen mostly petiolate; marginal vein very long (except Echthrodape) but sometimes poorly defined; sculpture on thorax often coarse .......... Eucharitidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



27b. Scutellum bordering on scutum or, if only touching it at midpoint then pronotum is visible dorsally; other characters also mostly different from previous (25a)



28a. Females only; antenna with 6 distinct funicular segments and sometimes with 1 ring-like segment ; fore wing mostly with dense pubescence reaching the base and very long marginal vein and short stigmal vein with uncus; prescutal sutures deep, complete; propodeum often very hairy ........... Tetracampidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



28b. Both sexes; antenna mostly different but, if similar to previous (26a) then hariness of fore wing reduced in basal 1/3rd and venation different; prescutal sutures often incomplete and propodeum almost always not hairy mesad of spiracles



29a. Prepectus often fused with side panel of pronotum; if prepectus clearly separated then face with discernible supraclypeal area and strong mandibles only 2-toothed; prescutal sutures always complete; body of metallic color to black, thorax mostly with coarse hairy punctuation .......... Perilampidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



29b. Prepectus clearly separated from pronotum (sometimes indistinct in Macromesus) and if supraclypeal area is discernible then mandibles are different; prescutal sutures often incomplete and thorax usually also different in other ways; [large group with diverse forms]



30a. Females only; abdomen with protruding narrow tail which is formed either by ovipositor alone (with sheaths) or by ovipositor covered by narrowly extended terminal tergite(s)



30b. Both sexes; abdomen without previously described (28a) tail



31a. Apex of tail curved downwards; prescutal sutures complete and antenna with 12 segments, and 1-3 are ring-like; associated with fig fruits ....... Agaonidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



31b. Tail not curved downward; either prescutal sutures incomplete or antenna with 13 segments or with 12 segments and tail shaped like a dart (Cameronella, or with <12 segments ......... Pteromalidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> Pteromalidae Subfamiliea



32a. Mandibles sickle-shaped, narrow; lower face either with well-defined supraclypeal area or with very deep tentorial pits; marginal vein unusually long but apex of venation often poorly defined, with stigmal vein always very short, almost perpendicular ......... Eucharitidae (= Eucharidae) (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



32b. Mandibles broader than previous (30a), not sickle-shaped; if supraclypeal area is distinct or pit-like depressions on head deep, then venation with a much shorter marginal vein and an oblique stigmal vein longer than previously described (30a)



33a. Females only; metapleuron short but broadly reaches base of hind wing, hind coxa jointed very high above mid coxa; apex of abdomen usually curved downward; thorax dorsally either with unusually fine dense punctuation or mainly smooth; base of stigmal vein often very nearly in right angle with postmarginal vein (latter at times very short or absent); associated with fig fruits .......... Agaonidae (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



33b. Both sexes; different from previous (31a); if rarely metapleuron rather broadly reaching base of hind wing then thoracic dorsum differently sculptured (often net-like); female abdomen never curved downward at apex; if stigmal vein branching off nearly at a right angle then metapleuron triangular; hardly ever associated with figs fruits .......... Pteromalidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>


Subfamilies of Chalcididae


<Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



34a. Apex of hind tibia tapering into a strong spine extended far beyond insertion of tarsus, between tip of spine and tarsus usually only one spur and even this often inconspicuous



34b. Apex of hind tibia almost perpendicularly truncate and with two spurs, only rarely ventral corner forming a short spine .......... Chalcididae (Haltichellinae)



35a. Antennae minute, flagellum much shorter than length of eye and with less than 11 distinguishable segments; abdomen unusually narrow, tail-like and attached at upper margin of propodeum, far above hind coxae; marginal and stigmal veins nearly equal in length; ocelli often very large ....... Chalcididae (Smicromorphinae)



35b. Antennae normal, much longer, with at least 11 distinguishable segments; abdomen attached at coxae, broad, never tail-like



36a. Head between antennal sockets and eyes produced into strong edged horns; abdomen on petiole, this not long but with distinct dorsal carinae; large 1st tergite anteriorly usually with a striate area; ventral edge of hind femur with smoothly arched comb of minute teeth ............ Chalcididae (Dirhininae)



36b. Head without such horns; if frons bulging at sides then hind femur different; also abdomen different



37a. Abdomen on slender striate petiole which is longer than 1/2 of abdomen, body of the latter bulging ventrally; antennae inserted very low, on a shield protruding over mouth, sockets virtually absent; marginal vein very long, stigmal rudimentary, postmarginal absent ......... Chalcididae (Epitraninae)



37b. Abdomen quite different, petiole either concealed or at least much shorter and then not longitudinally striate; other characters also different ........... Chalcididae (Chalcidinae)


Subfamilies of Eurytomidae


<Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



38a. Antennae with 13 segments, the segments after pedicel either not differentiated or proximal 3 segments of flagellum shortened and then somewhat anelliform .......... Eurytomidae (Rileyinae)



38b. Antennae at most with 12 segments, with only 1 anellus and this often almost fused with first funicular segment, and apical segments mostly fused into clava ........... Eurytomidae (Eurytominae)


Subfamilies of Torymidae


<Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



39a. Occiput with horseshoe-shaped carina; stigmal vein either very short and then usually not longer than breadth of costal cell , or (if longer) with stigma conspicuously enlarged but on short petiole; thorax never flattened dorsally; epipygium dorsally extremely short, with its apical part forming a short flap which is partly membranous at cerci; antennae always with 13 segments, tarsi with 5 segments; always fully winged; true Torymidae



39b. Occiput without horseshoe-shaped carina, although sometimes separated from vertex by a cross-ridge; stigmal vein slender and at least slightly longer than breadth of costal cell, usually at wide angle approaching 90; thorax often dorsally flattened, either almost smooth or with almost granulate reticulation; epipygium never of the form as previously described; antennae and tarsi sometimes with less segments than above; males often with rudimentary wings or wingless ........... non-Torymidae, Agaonidae



40a. Groove between mesopleuron and metapleuron strongly sinuate, so that metapleuron forms a distinct lobe; in Australian species antennae always with 1 anellus and 7 funicular segments ......... Torymidae (Toryminae)



40b. Groove between mesopleuron and metapleuron almost straight or slightly curved; antennae with 1-2 anelli (Australian species)



41a. Knob of stigmal vein unusually enlarged, which makes the vein distinctly longer than breadth of costal cell; body often somewhat yellow (rarely metallic), thorax with rather sparse and usually outstanding conspicuous hairs, always without short normal pilosity .......... Torymidae (Megastigminae)



41b. Stigmal vein much shorter than previously described, stigma not, or slightly knobbed; head and thorax always metallic of submetallic (Australian species), only gaster rarely somewhat yellowish or red; pilosity on thorax usually dense and short, not outstanding ........... Torymidae (Monodontomerinae)


Subfamilies of Pteromalidae



42a. Stigmal vein arising at almost right angel and longer than postmarginal vein (dwarfed sometimes brachypterous); body not metallic, usually yellowish or blackish, thorax along median line almost smooth and bare except for paired setae (rarely more setae sublaterally), including rare shortwinged forms; oral fossa on back of head strongly constricted or separated from foramen magnum by postgenal bridge; [tarsi sometimes with 4 segments; antenna sometimes with one anellus, number of segments variable] .......... non-Pteromalidae, Agaonidae (Epichrysomallinae). <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



42b. Stigmal vein at acute angle or, if rarely approaching right angle (e.g., some Ormocerinae), then stigmal vein shorter than postmarginal and thorax dorsally with distinct sculpture and extensive pilosity present even in median line; back of head usually broadly open between oral fossa and foramen magnum; mostly quite different from that previously described; winged or wingless



43a. Antennal radicula about 4X as long as broad, sockets wide apart but close to mouth, antennal formula 1125(3); face collapsing so that eyes come close together; body and appendages very slender, ovipositor long; marginal vein at least 8X as long as the very short stigmal vein, but postmarginal vein long ............ Pteromalidae (Louriciinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



43b. Radicula hardly ever longer than broad (exceptionally 2X so in Storeya), antennae different, also body and venation different



44a. Antennal toruli situated on lower margin of head, overhanging the mouth; antenna 1171, (= with 7 funicular segments but no anellus); head prognathous or subprognathous; abdomen on distinct petiole; marginal vein very long, stigmal and postmarginal veins short



44b. Toruli located at least slightly above mouth margin; antennal formula usually different or venation different



45a. Body mainly yellowish; head and thorax almost smooth; scutellum with fine out-curving sublateral lines; disc of fore wing convex and almost bare, at parastigma a group or tuft of black scales; frons without median groove .......... Pteromalidae (Storeyinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



45b. Body black or slightly metallic; at least thorax with some distinct punctures or rugosity, often also head; scutellum without sublateral lines but often with punctate frenal line; fore wing disc flat, pubescent, without a tuft of scales; (frons with median punctured groove) .......... Pteromalidae (Spalangiinae)



46a. Head subprognathous or globose, with large ridge or tooth between antennae, and with strong occipital carina; body and antennae shiny, latter without anelli (onexception); wings, if not reduced, without conspicuous pilosity but with fine long marginal fringe, sometimes with a tuft at parastigma, marginal vein fairly long but postmarginal and stigmal veins short; [body yellowish to blackish, rarely with metallic gloss] ............ Pteromalidae (Cerocephalinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



46b. Head either quite different, most orthognathous, (= with mouth directed ventrad), or antennae and wings different from previous



47a. Antennae with not more than one anellus and at least 12 segments, clava counted as 3); sometimes proximal flagellar segments gradually, even strongly shortened, almost ring-like, but otherwise not different from distal ones



47b. Antennae either with at least 2 true anelli (anelli clearly different from larger following segments which bear sensilla), or with fewer than 12 segments (clava sometimes undivided but counted as 3 segments)



48a. Head subcubical and with toothed parascrobal crests; pronotum in dorsal view about 2X as long as broad, also petiole, legs and wings unusually long and slender; ovipositor protruding, long; antennae with 13 segments, without anellus .......... Pteromalidae (Leptofoeninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



48b. Head transverse and mostly without toothed parascrobal crests, or other characters at least partly different than previous



49a. Pronotum large and subconical, collar not delimited by an edge or, if only moderately large then with distinct median line on sloping collum and inner eye margins strongly diverging in lower half ; thorax dorsally densely punctured and pilose; scutellum regularly densely pilose but without outstanding longer bristles; [fore or hind femora, or both, often distinctly thickened]



49b. Pronotum short or, if large (rarely), then with collar anteriorly delimited by transverse edge, always without median line, inner orbits not unusually diverging in lower half; thorax mostly with different sculpture; scutellum often posteriorly with 2 frenal bristles, sometimes with additional pairs of conspicuous setae anteriorly



50a. Scutellum with distinct, though sometimes fine, sublateral grooves; inner orbits often parallel; antennal formula mostly 11173; ovipositor protruding ........... Pteromalidae (Colotrechininae) (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



50b. Scutellum without sublateral grooves; otherwise also partly different



51a. Propodeum medially short, with deep petiolar emargination in form of an inverted V or a gothic arch; petiole long-subconical to pear-shaped, round in cross section, with some thin long hairs but without carinae or coarse sculpture; body with unusually long but not thick pilosity; femora slender; ovipositor protruding .......... Pteromalidae (Nefoeninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



51b. Propodeum without deep petiolar emargination; petiole, if rarely evident, of quite different form and bare; body without long sparse hairs; femora often thickened; ovipositor protruding or not



52a. Males only: Head with distinct occipital carina; (back of head with hypostomal areas meeting below foramen); hind coxa fairly large; forewing with marginal vein very long but the stigmal short or unusually knobbed ........... non-Pteromalidae, (Torymidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



52b. Males & Females: Occipital carina indistinct



53a. Scutellum with frenal groove and this bearing on either side a conspicuous long bristle ........ Pteromalidae (Coelocybinae) Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



53b. Scutellum without distinct frenal line, without frenal bristles



54a. Pronotum dorsally rounded or at least without transverse edge, medially often with smooth strip or raised longitudinal line; hind margin only moderately emarginate; thorax usually punctured .......... Pteromalidae (Cleonyminae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



54b. Pronotum with collar dorsally separated by an edge, sloping collum medially without any line, hind margin rather deeply emarginate; thorax sculpture irregularly rugulose but with rather dense pilosity ............ Pteromalidae (Ditropinotellinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



55a. Notauli incomplete and wide apart; marginal vein widened in basal part; dorsum of thorax reticulate, almost bare, without bristles; female antennae 11173 ......... Pteromalidae (Pteromalinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



55b. Notauli mostly clearly complete, if incomplete (some Diparinae and Coelocybinae, also Eunotopsia) then marginal vein not widened in basal half, etc.



56a. Second tergite of petiolate abdomen very large, covering most of dorsum, dorsally somewhat fused with the 1st tergite; head with no temple, gena posteriorly produced into a lamina; antenna strongly clavate, all preclaval segments of flagellum very transverse; scutellum anteriorly with 2 deep pits...... Pteromalidae (Asaphinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



56b. Second tergite never covering most of gaster; gaster often sessile; temple and antenna different; scutellum without double deep pit at base



57a. First tergite greatly enlarged, convex, non-collapsing, covering more than 1/3rd (often much more, but only 1/4th in male Austrosystasis) of abdomen; antennal sockets usually close to each other; often not metallic



57b. First tergite never bell-shaped, not so convex and large; if covering over 1/3rd of abdomen then either itself collapsing from base or whole abdomen dorsally caving in; antennal sockets usually rather wide apart



58a. Antennae with 13 segments; hind coxa inserted unusually high, its outer face often with transverse sculpture; brachypterous or wingless && common; either vertex and/or thorax dorsally with paired dark bristles and gena posteriorly rounded, or bristles absent and then gena carinate in lower part, in latter case antenna long, 11173 .......... Pteromalidae (Diparinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



58b. Antennae with 12 segments, with 1 anellus and 6 funicular segments; gena posteriorly mostly carinate



59a. Thorax with coarse and deep piliferous punctuation, hairs not placed on papillae; abdomen subsessile, somewhat compressed laterally, high, eurytomid-like, 1st tergite reduced on sides; hind coxa long, inserted high ............ Pteromalidae (Austrosystasinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



59b. Thorax mostly with much finer or sparse sculpture or, if densely pilose then hairs arising from elevated papillae (in Herbertia); hind coxae not inserted very high



60a. Petiole long, with longitudinal ribs; pronotum fairly large, transverse; clypeal margin arcuately produced, mandibles long and curved, teeth 2:3 ......... East Asiatic Pteromalidae (Elatoidinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



60b. Petiole transverse, often concealed; pronotum short; clypeal margin not produced; mandibles short, different



61a. First tergite with longitudinal striae; head and thorax dorsally often with paired bristles; postmarginal vein shorter than stigmal, or even absent ......... Pteromalidae (Erotolepsiinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



61b. First tergite without distinct longitudinal striae; head including large eyes, thorax dorsally and wings regularly densely pilose, never with paired bristles; postmarginal vein much longer than stigmal .......... Pteromalidae (Herbertiinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



62a. Scapula produced backwards outside the rectangular outer corner of axilla, axilla fully 2X as long as broad; mid tarsus with 4 segments, unusually long, first segment as long as rest; prepectus unusually small ........... Pteromalidae (Macromesinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



62b. Scapula not produced backwards outside of axilla, latter mostly much shorter; all tarsi with 5 segments, shorter; prepectus usually larger, different



63a. Scutellum with conspicuous paired bristles, at least 2 frenal ones present in posterior corners, often with additional pairs on scutellum or even posteriorly on scutum; antennae inserted low on face, sockets rather far apart; body most not metallic



63b. Scutellum without any pairs of conspicuous bristles, thorax generally either with rather regular pilosity or almost bare; in other respects also partly different



64a. Fore wing densely pubescent, even basally; marginal vein very long, about 5X as long as the stigmal, latter with long uncus; propodeum with long hairs which medially converge towards median line; antennae with 6 subequal funicular segments and one (often indistinct) anellus; hind margin of 1st tergite usually bent down; abdomen sometimes petiolate; hind tibial spur very small ......... non-Pteromalidae, Tetracampidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



64b. Fore wing somewhat bare in basal 1/3rd (in regional species); marginal vein relatively much shorter, mostly much less than 4X as long as the stigmal, stigmal uncus short; propodeum extensively bare; antennae different, often clavate with basal or all flagellar segments shortened; hind margin of 1st tergite flat; abdomen sessile; hind tibial spurs often strong ........... Pteromalidae (Coelocybinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



65a. Occipital carina distinctly developed



65b. Occipital carina absent



66a. Axillae strongly advanced; gaster subsessile; base of short stigmal vein thickened, postmarginal vein hardly as long as stigmal; gena posteriorly finely carinate ........... Pteromalidae (Parasaphodinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



66b. Axillae not or only slightly advanced; abdomen usually different, also venation different



67a. Abdomen almost sessile; pronotum long, cubical, with edged collar, fully as long as mesoscutum, dull with transverse rugose punctuation; gena broadly rounded; mesopleuron with reticulate depression similar to that of Pteromalinae ........... Pteromalidae (Keiraninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



67b. Abdomen petiolate, petiole with longitudinal ribs; pronotum transverse, anteriorly rounded; gena posteriorly usually carinate; mesopleuron with large peculiar pits ......... Pteromalidae (Asaphinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



68a. Pronotum broad, subrectangular, shiny, even if densely punctured, often anteriorly carinate; clypeus very broad, lower margin somewhat produced but antennae at center of face; mandibles long, crescentric, 2-toothed; mouth corners angular, with malar depression, mouth margin in corners carinate; antennae 11173, clava symmetric; abdomen short, often on sculptured petiole; [thorax often shiny, axillae close to each other medially] ............ non-Pteromalidae, (Chrysolampinae)



68b. Pronotum mostly different, or, if subrectangular then dull with dense sculpture (Ditropinotella); clypeus not broad, not produced; mouth corners emarginate, not angular, not conspicuously carinate; at least right mandible with 3 teeth; abdomen almost always sessile



69a. Pronotum with collar edge or carina, hind margin deeply emarginate, sides rather long; thorax densely punctured and pilose, interstices densely rugulose-reticulate; propodeum with median carina and extensive pilosity; [in hypopygium ending near apex and often sheaths protruding and upturned] ............ Pteromalidae (Ditropinotellinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



69b. Pronotum rounded dorsally, different; if thorax sometimes similar to previously described, then propodeum not extensively pilose



70a. Males only: Antennae with tiny indistinct anellus, 7 funicular and 2 claval segments; mandibles with 4 teeth; notauli complete and deep, thorax rather shiny .......... Pteromalidae (Pireninae) (rare forms) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



70b. Females or if Males then clava 3-segmented or undivided, mandibles different, in other respects also partly different



71a. Males only: Head and thorax usually dull metallic, densely hairy and with regular punctured-rugulose sculpture; antennae mostly 11173, or clava undivided, rarely funicle shortened (some Anastatus); propodeum mostly with fine median carina; axillae distinctly separated by short but truncate base of scutellum; mid tibial spur usually enlarged, longer than spur of hind tibia .......... non-Pteromalidae, Eupelmidae (Eupelminae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



71b. Males & Females: Thorax usually not metallic, sculpture either transversely rugulose or rather fine, pilosity rather sparse, often very sparse; propodeum often without median carina; axillae usually close to each other; mid tibial spur not enlarged ........... Pteromalidae (Ormocerinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



72a. Antennae with 12-13 segments including at least 2 anelli (sometimes 3-4); notauli complete orincomplete



72b. Antennae with fewer than 12 segments and often with only 1 anellus; notauli always complete



73a. Scutellum in dorsal view with distinct sublateral grooves or lines which posteriorly mostly curve outwards; if grooves are placed more towards sides, then antennae with 4 short anelli; [axillae often advanced; notauli complete or incomplete] .......... Pteromalidae (Colotrechninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



73b. Scutellum mostly without sublateral lines of, if such lines are visible on sloping sides then they are straight and/or incomplete; antennae with 2-3 short anelli, or segments after 2nd anellus short but gradually increasing in size



74a. Scutellum posteriorly with a pair of conspicuous bristles, at lateral ends of frenal line, its sculpture never raised-reticulate; body mostly without metallic tinge; [antennae with 13 segments, often clavate and short, with several or most segments after pedicel transverse, clava often asymmetric .......... Pteromalidae (Coelocybinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



74b. Scutellum without frenal bristles, or if with 2 stronger hairs posteriorly then whole scutellum has raised-reticulate sculpture and/or metallic hue



75a. Antennae inserted in lower 1/3rd of face, very rarely with 13 segments, usually 11-12 segments, with 1-2, mostly very small, anelli; mandibles with 4 teeth; clypeus conspicuous, convex, its sides converging, lower margin produced, even in forms with 13-segmented antennae ........... Pteromalidae (Pireninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



75b. Antennae mostly inserted near to or even above center of face, but if below center than with 13 segments, with 2-3 anelli (very rarely more segments anelliform); clypeus always different from previously described



76a. Axillar grooves anteriorly somewhat meeting so that scutellum does not reach or only narrowly reaches mesoscutum; body without regular reticulation, mostly regulose, without metallic hue; abdomen sessile; propodeal spiracles mostly unusually large; antennae with 12-13 segments .......... Pteromalidae (Ormocerinae) (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



76b. Axillar grooves wide apart so that scutellum broadly borders on mesoscutum; most other aspects also different



77a. Antennae with 12 segments, with 2 distinct anelli and 5 funicular segments; clypeus subrectangular, flat, not produced, dorsally with deep tentorial pits; notauli very deep, complete; abdomen sessile .......... Pteromalidae (Ormocerinae) (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



77b. Antennae different, with 13 segments, mostly with 2-3 anelli; clypeus mostly different from previous; notauli often incomplete; thorax usually with raised reticulation; abdomen often petiolate



78a. Clypeal margin with deep median incision and asymmetric teeth; antennae inserted below ocular line; notauli (in regional species) complete but posteriorly often very shallow; propodeum convex in median 1/3rd, mostly with indicated carina; marginal vein slender ......... Pteromalidae (Miscogasterinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



78b. Clypeal margin symmetric, with or without teeth; antennae only rarely inserted below ocular line; mostly some of other characters also different .......... Pteromalidae (Pteromalinae and some Miscogasterinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



79a. Gena posteriorly carinate (exceptionally only with angulate edge, in Scutellista); between pedicel and clava only 4 (mainly %%) or 5 segments (most) first of which may be shortened, anelliform; thorax pilosity mostly replaced by distinct and sparse bristles, rarely uniformly pilose (Scutellista); clypeal margin not produced ........ Pteromalidae (Eunotinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



79b. Gena without carina or edge; antennae different; either 2 or more rounded, segments anelliform or with at least 6 segments between pedicel and clava; thorax always without strong bristles; clypeal margin mostly produced



80a. Pronotum large, subrectangular, with subparallel sides, anteriorly carinate or rounded; antennae always with 6 segments between pedicel and clava, 1st segment sometimes anelliform; clava asymmetric owing to a collapsing area of micropilosity; face shiny; [abdomen hardly ever collapsing, mostly strongly convex, often with produced ovipositor] ........... Pteromalidae (Chromeurytominae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



80b. Pronotum at least medio-dorsally very short and usually rounded, rarely collar separated by blunt edge or carina, but then it is less than 1/6th the length of mesoscutum; antenna with 1 small anellus and often 5 (&&) of 6 funicular segments, or funicular segments reduced in number and size, in extremes only 2 short segments between pedicel and clava, latter mostly symmetric ............ Pteromalidae (Pireninae)


Subfamilies of Eulophidae


<Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



81a. Mesoscutum with notauli incomplete, in posterior 1/2 or 1/3rd not present or hardly distinct, or transformed to broad depressions



81b. Notauli clearly visible, complete, virtually reaching the trans-scutal suture (rarely with shallow interruption before middle



82a. Scutellum with at least 2 pairs of setae, in some species with additional pilosity; submarginal vein with at least 4 dorsal bristles and distally not strongly tapering, mostly continuous with the parastigma; stigmal vein usually moderately long and in most forms postmarginal vein distinct, often longer than stigmal ............ Eulophidae (Eulophinae) (part)



82b. Scutellum with 1 pair of setae only (in Australasian forms except Parahorismenus and no other pilosity; submarginal vein with only 2 dorsal bristles, rarely with only one [some Neotropical genera have more than 2 bristles on submarginal vein], the vein strongly tapering at apex, not smoothly joining the parastigma; stigmal vein always very short, the postmarginal usually still shorter (rarely longer) than the stigmal ............ Eulophidae (Entedoninae)



83a. Axillae strongly angulately advanced along hind portion of the straight, groove-like notauli or, if axillae only moderately advanced, then anterior pair of 4 setae on scutellum near to middle or behind middle of sclerite, scutum and scutellum with delicate sculpture, shiny; scutellum mostly with almost parallel submedian grooves; submarginal vein usually not smoothly continuous with parastigma, postmarginal vein mostlyrudimentary ............. Eulophidae (Tetrastichinae)



83b. Axillae not angulately advanced or, if approaching that condition (some Cirrospilus and related forms) then scutum and scutellum mostly with dense deep reticulation and anterior setae of scutellum situated in anterior 1/3rd; submarginal vein often continuous with parastigma and postmarginal vein distinct



84a. Submarginal vein dorsally with 2 bristles (rarely only 1) and scutellum with only 1 pair of setae; upper face usually with linear grooves of slightly modified X-shape; notaular grooves anteriorly abruptly directed sideways and before the bend at least shortly interrupted; fully winged .......... Eulophidae (Entedoninae) (few aberrant forms)



84b. Submarginal vein usually with more dorsal bristles, but if with only 1-2, then scutellum with 2 pairs of setae; upper face different; rarely brachypterous



85a. Submarginal vein at distal end smoothly curving into parastigma; notauli either almost straight posteriorly and then axillae not or only moderately advanced, or notauli curving out to meet the advanced axillae; postmarginal vein mostly longer than, rarely only as long as, the stigmal; scutellum often with sublateral grooves which anteriorly join axillar grooves; tergites 7 & 8 not separated dorsally ........... Eulophidae (Eulophinae) (part).



85b. Submarginal vein tapering to apex, not continuous with parastigma, or if condition similar to that described previously, then notauli posteriorly straight and deep but scutellum without sublateral grooves and & abdomen with tergite 7 dorsally separated from tergite 8



86a. Scutellum in dorsal view entire, without longitudinal grooves, axillulae on its sides separated by a depression which is not visible dorsally; female gaster with 2 tergites after the (spiracle-bearing) 6th, these loose or only partly fused; postmarginal vein distinct although sometimes short; male scape without a plaque ............. Eulophidae (Euderinae)



86b. Scutellum with 2-4 longitudinal grooves, lateral ones, separating axillulae, mostly delimited by an outside carina visible in dorsal view, even if submedian grooves are absent; female abdomen with last 2 tergites fused (epipygium; postmarginal vein usually rudimentary; male scape often with longitudinal plaque on ventral edge ......... Eulophidae (Tetrastichinae)




Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). A Biosystematic Revision of Genera of Fourteen Families, with a Reclassification of Species. C.A.B. International, Wallingford, England. 832 p.


Grandi, G. 1952. Insetti dei fichi messicani, malesi ed australiani. Boll. Ist. Ent. Univ. Bologna 19: 47-67.