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THIS SECTION UNDER REVISION 2014

 

                                                         ACULEATE APOCRITA

 

                                                 Keys to families of Apoidea, Bethyloidea, Formicoidea

                                          Pampiloidea, Sphecoidea, Sphecoidea, Tiphioidea, & Vespoidea

                                                                                 (Email Contacts)

 

             

              [Please refer to <Guide> for illustrations (Powerful connections use <Guide-2>)]

 

 

1a.  Have fully developed functional wings.................................................................................................................2

 

1b.  Apterous or brachypterous..................................................................................................................................15

 

2a.  Pronotum posterodorsally usually separated from mesonotal anterior margin by a somewhat well developed

sulcus; pronotum posterolaterally remote from the tegulae, and lower down the side with a pronounced

posterior lobe which covers the mesothoracic spiracle; posteroventrally the pronotum closely coadapted to

the anterior mesopleural margin and reflexed mesally below, behind the fore coxae...................................3

 

2b.  Pronotum posterodorsally contiguous with the mesonotal anterior margin, lacking a sulcus; pronotum

posterolaterally almost reaching the tegulae with or without a distinct posterior lobe which covers the

mesothoracic spiracle; if pronotum posteroventrally closed coadapted to the anterior mesopleural margin

then it is not reflexed below...........................................................................................................................4

 

3a.  Forewing with a fold traversing 1m-cu between 1st and 2nd discal (= discoidal) cells, usually via a fenestra, this

fold discrete from the radial fold in the submarginal (= cubital) cells.  Basitarsi enlarged, those of hind legs

expanded and flattened in anterior view, usually only slightly narrower than hind tibiae.  Pilosity plumose,

or partly so...........................................................................................................................................Apidae

 

3b.  Forewing with a fold traversing the 2nd abiscissa of M, between the second discal (discoidal) and 2nd or 3rd

submarginal (cubital) cells, usually via a fenestra, this fold linking with the radial fold in the submarginal

(cubital) cells.  Basitarsi not enlarged, those of hind legs slender, not flattened in anterior view, usually

much narrower than the hind tibiae.  Pilosity simple all over.........................................................Sphecidae

 

4a.  Antennae distinctly geniculate, elbowed between scape and funiculus.  Body with 1-2 reduced separated node

like or scale like segments between alitrunk and gaster.....................................................Formicidae (part)

 

4b.  Antennae not geniculate, not elbowed between scape and funiculus.  Body without separated node like or scale

like segments between alitrunk and gaster....................................................................................................5

 

5a.  Forewing usually with a complete closed marginal (= radial) cell which is bounded by tubular veins, and with at

least one complete submarginal (cubital) cell; hind wing with 2-3 complete cells.......................................6



5b.  Forewing with marginal (radial) cells open, often with only a stub of tubular vein arising from the stigma;

without any complete submarginal (cubital) cells; hind wing with much reduced venation, at most with an

open costal cell but without complete cells posterior to this although up to 3 tubular veins may be

present.........................................................................................................................................................12

 

6a.  Distal quarter or more of wing membranes longitudinally striolate, with a densely corrugated appearance

.........................................................................................................................................................Scoliidae

 

6b.  Distal quarter or more of wing membranes plain, without a densely corrugated appearance..............................7

 

7a.  Mesopleuron with a straight diagonal sulcus which traverses the mesopleural scrobe........................Pompilidae

 

7b.  Mesopleuron lacking a straight diagonal sulcus which transverses the mesopleural scobe.................................8

 

8a.  Forewing with an elongate and very obvious discal (discoidal) cell, the wing plicate from base to apex and

folded longitudinally in repose.  Glossa and paraglossa terminating in small sclerotized pads....................9

 

8b.  Forewing lacking an elongate discal (discoidal) cell, the wing not plicate from base to apex, not folded

longitudinally in repose.  Glossa and paraglossa without apical sclerotized pads......................................10

 

9a.  Tibiae of middle legs with a single spur.  Pretarsal claws bifid.  mandibles elongate and crossing over at full

closure, not merely overlapping...................................................................................................Eumenidae

 

9b.  Tibiae of middle legs with two spurs.  Pretarsal claws simple.  Mandibles short, transverse at full closure, but

not crossing over..............................................................................................................................Vespidae

 

10a.  Hind wing with a well developed claval indentation marking the limits of the claval lobe, and with a very large

jugal lobe which is at least 1/2 the length of the claval.  Male subgenital plate terminating in an upcurved

spine.  Females with widely separated middle coxae and bifid pretarsal claws....................Tiphiidae (part)

 

10b.  Hind wing without lobes or without a claval indentation marking the limits of the claval lobe; in the latter the

jugal lobe small and less than 1/2 the length of the claval area.  Subgenital plate of males lacking an

upcurved spine.  Females with contiguous middle coxae and simple or dentate pretarsal claws...............11

 

11a.  Distal antennal segments thicker than proximal so that the antenna appears clubbed.  Gaster with yellow

maculate and body weakly hairy.  Pretarsal claws dentate............................................................Sapygidae

 

11b.  Distal antennal segments narrower than proximal so that the antenna tapers apically.  Gaster without yellow

maculae and body densely hairy.  Pretarsal claws edentate or bifid.................................Mutillidae (males)

 

12a.  Antenna with 10 segments...............................................................................................................................13

 

12b.  Antenna with 12-13 segments.........................................................................................................................14

 

13a.  Antennae arising from a high anteriorly projecting prominence on the head, the antennal insertions widely

separated from the clypeus which is situated ventral to them....................................Embolemidae (males)

 

13b.  Antennae not arising from a high anteriorly projecting prominence on the head, the antennal insertions located

close to the posterior clypeal margin...................................................................................Dryinidae (part)

 

14a.  Gaster with 3-5 segments visible.  Body heavily sculptured and brightly metallic........................Chrysididae

 

14b.  Gaster with more than 5 segments visible.  Body not strongly sculptured nor brightly metallic

............................................................................................................................................Bethylidae (part)

 

15a.  Antennae distinctly geniculate, elbowed between scape and funiculus.  Body with 1-2 conspicuously separated

node like or scale like reduced segments between alitrunk and gaster; alitrunk posterolaterally usually with

metapleural gland bulla present.........................................................................................Formicidae (part)

 

15b.  Antennae not geniculate, not elbowed between scape and funiculus.  Body without separated node like or scale

like segments between alitrunk and gaster; alitrunk posterolaterally without metapleural gland bulla.....16

 

16a.  Antennae with 10 segments.............................................................................................................................17

 

16b.  Antennae with 12-13 segments.......................................................................................................................18

 

17a.  Antennal insertions widely separated from clypeus and the antennae arising from a high anteriorly projecting

prominence on the head.  Fore tarsus terminating in a pair of small pretarsal claws, not chelate (females

only)........................................................................................................................Embolemidae (females)

 

17b.  Antennal insertions close to posterior margin of clypeus and the antennae not arising from a high anteriorly

projecting prominence on the head.  Fore tarsus in brachypterous males with a pair of small pretarsal claws;

fore tarsus of females terminating in strong chelae composed of a large projecting 5th tarsal segment which

is opposed by a much enlarged single apical claw..............................................................Dryinidae (part)

 

18a.  Head prognathous and dorsoventrally flattened; clypeus with median carina extending between antennae

............................................................................................................................................Bethylidae (part)

 

18b.  Head hypognathous and not dorsoventrally flattened; clypeus lacking a median carina extending between

antennae.....................................................................................................................................................19

 

19a.  Dorsal alitrunk shaped like a box and lacking sutures or at most the promesonotal forming the only transverse

suture on the dorsum.  Body heavily sculptured and densely hairy.  Pretarsal claws simple

.....................................................................................................................................Mutillidae (females)

 

19b.  Dorsal alitrunk elongate and not shaped like a box, with 3 deeply impressed transverse sutures in broad

depressions.  Body smooth and unsculptured, not densely hairy.  Pretarsal claws strongly bifid

............................................................................................................................................Tiphiidae (part)