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Entomology / Biological Pest Control

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Raatikainen, M.  1962.  Hymenoptera species occurring in stems of spring wheat and the damage caused by them to wheat crops in Finland.  Ann. Agr. Fenn. 1:  217-25.

 

Raatikainen, M.  1967a (1966?).  The effect of different sexes of the parasite Elenchus tenuicornis (Kirby) on the morphology of the adult Javesella pellucida (F.) [Hom., Delphacidae].  Ann. Ent. Fenn. 32:  138-46.

 

Raatikainen, M.  1967b.  Bionomics, enemies and population dynamics of Javesella pellucida L. (Homoptera: Delphacidae).  Ann. Agr. Fenn. 6, Suppl. 2:  1-149.

 

Rabasse, J. M. & C. A. Dedryver.  1982.  Factors affecting the natural control of Aphis fabae populations in Brittany.  Entomophaga 27:  39-54.  [in French].

 

Rabasse, J. M. & Y. Robert.  1975.  Facteurs de limitation des populations d'Aphis fabae dans l'Ouest de la France. II. Incidence des mycoses à Entomophthora sur les populations des hôtes primaires et de la fèverole de printemps.  Entomophaga 20:  49-64.

 

Rabasse, J. M. & I. J. Wyatt.  1985.  Biology of aphids and their parasites in greenhouses, p. 66-73.  In:  N. W. Hussey & N. E. A. Scopes (eds.), Biological Pest Control - The Glasshouse Experience.  Blandford, Poole, Dorset.

 

Rabasse, J. M., J. P. Lafont, I. Delpuech & P. Silvie.  1983.  Progress in aphid control in protected crops.  Bull. OILB/SROP  1983/VI/3:  151-62.

 

Rabasse, J. M., I. Tardieux & L. Lapchin.  1989.  Caractérisation des relations trophiques héterotypiques antagonistes.  Entomophaga 34:  147-52.

 

Rabaud, E.  1922.  Note sur la comportement de Rielia manticida Kieff., Proctotrupide parasite des ootheques de mantes.  Soc. Zool. de France Bul. 47:  10-15.

 

Rabaud, E.  1927a.  Etude biologique des larves de quelques plannipenes.  Bul. Biol. de la France et Belg. 61:  433-99.

 

Rabaud, E.  1927b.  Sur les guiepes (Polistes gallicus) infestées par les Stylops.  Compt. rend. Soc. Biol. Paris 96(13);  944-46.

 

Rabaud, E. & J. Millot.  1929.  Etude sur Polistes gallicus (Fr.) infeste par Xenos vesparum (Rossi).  Arch. Anat. Micr. Paris 25:  280-93.

 

Rabaud, E. & M. L. Verrier.  1940.  Notes sur le comportement et l'adaptation des triongulins.  Bull. Biol., Paris 74:  185-94.

 

Rabb, R. L.  1960.  Biological studies of Polistes in North Carolina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 53:  111-21.

 

Rabb, R. L.  1966.  Diapause in Protoparce sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 59:  160-65.

 

Rabb, R. L.  1969.  Environmental manipulations as influencing populations of tobacco hornworms.  Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. Habitat Managem. 1:  175-91.

 

Rabb, R. L.  1971.  Naturally-occurring biological control in the eastern United States, with particular reference to tobacco insects, p. 294-311.  In:  C. B. Huffaker, "Biological Control."  Plenum Press, N.Y.

 

Rabb, R. L.  1978.  A sharp focus on insect populations and pest management from a wide-area view.  Bull. Ent. Soc. Amer. 24:  55-61.

 

Rabb, R. L. & J. R. Bradley.  1968.  The influence of host plants on parasitism of eggs of the tobacco hornworm.  J. Econ. Ent. 61:  1249-52.

 

Rabb, R. L. & J. R. Bradley.  1970.  Marking host eggs by Telonomus sphingis.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 63:  1053-56.

 

Rabb, R. L., & G. G. Kennedy (eds.).  1979.  Movement of Highly Mobile Insects:  Concepts and methodology in research.  Dept. Ent., North Carolina St. Univ., Raleigh, N. C.  456 p.

 

Rabb, R. L. & F. R. Lawson.  1957.  Some factors influencing predation of Polistes wasps on the tobacco hornworm.  J. Econ. Ent. 50:  778-84.

 

Rabb, R. L. & R. Thurston.  1969.  Diapause in apanteles congregatus.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 62:  125-28.

 

Rabb, R. L., H. H. Neunzig & H. V. Marshall, Jr.  1964.  Effect of certain cultural practices on the abundance of tobacco hornworms, tobacco budworms, and corn earworms on tobacco after harvest.  J. Econ. Ent. 57:  791-92.

 

Rabb, R. L., R. E. Stinner & G. A. Carlson.  1974a.  Ecological principles as a basis for pest management in the agroecosystem, p. 19-45.  In:  F. G. Maxwell & F. A. Harris (eds.), Proc. of the Summer Inst. on Biol. Contr. of Plant Insects and Diseases.  Univ. Mississippi, Jackson.

 

Rabb, R. L., F. A. Todd & H. C. Ellis.  1974b.  Pest management:  an interdisciplinary approach to crop protection.  Tobacco Pest Management.  AAAS Symp. Feb., 1974, San Francisco, Calif.

 

Rabb, R. L., R. E. Stinner & R. van den Bosch.  1976.  Conservation and augmentation of natural enemies, p. 233-54.  In:  C. B. Huffaker & P. S. Messenger (eds.), Theory and Practice of Biological Control.  Academic Press, New York.  788 p.

 

Rabbinge, R. & M. A. Hoy.  1980.  A population model for two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and its predator Metaseiulus occidentalis.  Ent. Expt. Appl. 28:  64-81.

 

Rabbinge, R., G. W. Ankersmit & G. A. Pak.  1979.  Epidemiology and simulation of population development of Sitobion avenae in winter wheat.  Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 85:  197-220.

 

Rabinovich, J. E.  1969.  The applicability of some population growth models to a single-species laboratory population.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 62:  437-42.

 

Rabinovich, J. E.  1970a.  Population dynamics of Telenomus fariai (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), a parasite of Chagas' disease vectors.  II.  Effect of host-egg age.  J. Med. Ent. 7:  477-81.

 

Rabinovich, J. E.  1970b.  Population dynamics of Telenomus fariai (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), a parasite of Chagas' disease vectors.  IV.  Effect of female age on progeny.  J. Med. Ent. 7:  561-67.

 

Rabinovich, J. E.  1971a.  Population dynamics of Telenomus fariai (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), a parasite of Chagas' disease vectors.  III.  Preferences for and progeny from different age classes of host eggs.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 64:  29-32.

 

Rabinovich, J. E.  1971b.  Population dynamics of Telenomus fariai (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), a parasite of Chagas' disease vectors. V.  Parasite size and vital space.  Rev. Biol. Trop. 19(1,2):  109-20.

 

Rabinovich, J. E., G. Escalante & A. Rodriguez.  1969.  Dinámica poblacional de Telenomus fariai (Hymenoptera; Scelionidae).  I.  Efecto de la carencia de huéspedes (Triatoma phyllosoma pallidipennis) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) sobre la producción de progenie.  Acta Biol. Venez. 7:  5-21.

 

Raccah, B., V. Melamed-Madjar & S. Cohen.  1975.  A granulosis virus from Sesamia nonagrioides.  J. Invert. Path. 26:  145-46.

 

Radcliff, L.  1915.  Fishes destructive to the eggs and larvae of mosquitoes.  U. S. Dept. Commerce, Bur. Fisheries, Econ. Cir. 17.  19 p.

 

Rademacher, B.  1967.  Untersuchungen über die tatsächlichen Ertragsschäden bei Befall von Winterweizen und Sommergerste durch die beiden Getreidehähnchen (Lema cyanella L. und L. melanopus L.) sowie durch die Getreidehalmwespe (Cephus pygmaeus L.).  Ztschr. Pfl.krankh. 74:  311-6.

 

Radetsky, A. F.  1911.  Parasite method of controlling the codling moth (Carpocapsa pomonella L.).  Tashkentn.  p. 19.  [in Russian].

 

Radetzky, A. F.  1912.  Oophthora semblidis Aur. (Pentarthron carpocapsae Ashm.); description, biology and utilization of it in the struggle with Carpocapsa pomonella L.  Turkestan Ent. Sta. [Tashkent].  28 p.

 

Radha, K., K. K. Nurula & K. P. V. Menon.  1956.  The green muscardine disease of Oryctes rhinoceros L.  II.  The causal organism.  Indian Coconut J. 9:  83-9.

 

Radke, M. G., L. S. Ritchie & F. F. Ferguson.  1961.  Demonstrated control of Australorbis glabratus by Marisa cornuarietis under field conditions in Puerto Rico.  Amer. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 10:  370-73.

 

Radovanovic, R.  1954.  Razvice i ekologija bubamare Exochomus quadripustulatus L. (Col. Coccinellidae).  Zasht. Bilja 26:  31-42.

 

Radzievskaya, S. B.  1939.  Concerning the hibernation of the ladybird and the struggle with Aphis.  Probl. Ecol. Biocenol. 4:  268-75.  [in Russian w/ English summary].

 

Radziloskaya, S.  1931.  Stethorus punctillum-- a destroyer of the red spider.  Za. khlopkov. Nezavisim. 6-7:  75-81.  [in Russian].

 

Raff, J. W.  1934.  Observations on sawflies of the genus Perga, with notes on some reared parasites of the families Trigonalidae, Ichneumonidae, and TAchinidae.  Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria 47:  53-77.

 

Raffa, K F;  Dahlsten, D L.  1993.  Differential Responses Among Natural Enemies and Prey To Bark Beetle Pheromones. Bull. of the Ecological Soc. of America, v.74, n.2 SUPPL., (1993): 402.

 

Raffa, K F; Dahlsten, D H.  1995.  Differential responses among natural enemies and prey to bark beetle pheromones.  Oecologia (Berlin), v.102, n.1, (1995): 17-23.

 

Rageau, J.  1951.  An cas de parasitisme accidental pae une larve primaire de strepsiptere chez un phlebotome.  Ann. de Parasitol. Hum. et Comp. 26:  473-74.

 

Raghuvir, N. N. & R. C. Axtell.  1970.  Comparative insecticide resistance of house flies from a North Carolina poultry farm.  J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 86(4): 175.

 

Raghuvir, N. N. & D. W. Davis.  1962.  Biological studies on the rose stem girdler Agrilus rubicola Abeille.  Utah Acad. Sci. 39:  196.

 

Ragsdale, D. W., A. D. Larson & L. D. Newson.  1981.  Quantitative assessment of the predators of Nezara viridula eggs and nymphs within a soybean agroecosystem using an ELISA.  Environ. Ent. 10:  402-05.

 

Ragsdale, N. N. & R. J. Kuhr (eds.).  1987.  Pesticides:  Minimizing the Risks.  ACS Symp. Ser. 336.  Amer. Chem. Soc., Wash. D.C.

 

Ragusa, S.  1974.  Influence of temperature on the oviposition rate and longevity of Opius concolor siculus [Hymenoptera: Braconidae].  Entomophaga 19:  61-6.

 

Ragusa, S. & E. Swirski.  1977.  Feeding habits, post-embryonic and adult survival, mating, virility and fecundity of the predacious mite, Amblyseius swirskii [Acarina: Phytoseiidae] on some coccids and mealy bugs.  Entomophaga 22:  383-92.

 

Ragusa, S. & E. Swirski.  1978.  Description of three new species of Typhlodromus Scheuten from Italy with redescription of Typhlodromus baccettii Lombardini (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  Int. J. Acar. 4:  211-20.

 

Rahalkar, G. W., M. R. Harwalkar, H. D. Rananavare, A. J. Tamhankar & K. Shanthram.  1985.  Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, pp. 279-286.  In:  P. Singh & R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. I.  Elsevier, New York.

 

Raheja, A. K. & M. A. Brooks.  1971.  Inability of the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria, to acquire resistance to viral infection.  J. Invertebr. Path. 17:  136-37.

 

Rahman, M.  1970.  Mutilation of the imported cabbageworm by the parasite Apanteles rubecula.  J. Econ. Ent. 63:  1114-16.

 

Rai, K. S., K. K. Grover & S. G. Suguna.  1973.  Genetic manipulation of Aedes aegypti:  Incorporation and maintenance of a genetic marker and a chromosomal translocation in natural populations.  Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 48:  49-56.

 

Rai, K. S. & P. T. McDonald.  1971.  Chromosomal translocations and control of Aedes aegypti, p. 437-52.  In:  Sterility Principle for Insect Control or Eradication.  Intern. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.

 

Raimo, B., R. C. Reardon & J. D. Podgwaite.  1977.  Vectoring gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus by Apanteles melanoscelus [Hym.: Braconidae].  Entomophaga 22:  207-16.

 

Rainio, M.  1966.  Abundance and phenology of some coprophagous beetles in different kinds of dung.  Ann. Zool. Fennici 3:  88-98.

 

Rainwater, C. F.  1970.  Prospects for the eradication of the boll weevil.  J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 60:  48-53.

 

Raj, J. S.  1943.  A note on the egg-laying habits of the Indian glowworm, Lamprophorus tenebrosus Wlk.  J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 43:  675-78.

 

Raj, J. S.  1943.  On the food and feeding habits of the Indian glow-worm (Lamprophorus tenebrosus Walker).  Indian Forester 69:  232-39.

 

Rajagopalan, C.  1967.  An Enterobryus [Trichomycetes, Eccrinales] in a milliped.  Curr. Sci., Bangalore 36(1):  20-2.

 

Rajapaksa, N.  1964.  Survey for Coelomomyces infections in mosquito larvae in the south-west coastal belt of Ceylon.  Bull. Org. Mond. Santé 30:  149-51.

 

Rajendram, G. F.  1978a.  Oviposition behavior of Trichogramma californicum on artificial substrates.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 71:  92-4.

 

Rajendram, G. F.  1978b.  Some factors affecting oviposition of Trichogramma californicum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in artificial media.  Canad. Ent. 110:  345-52.

 

Rajendram, G. F. & K. S. Hagen.  1974.  Trichogramma oviposition into artificial substrates.  Environ. Ent. 3:  399-401.

 

Ram, A. & A. K. Sharma.  1977.  Selective breeding for improving the fecundity and sex ratio of Trichogramma fasciatum (Perkins) (Trichogrammatidae: Hymenoptera) an egg parasite of lepidopterous hosts.  Entomology 2:  133-37.

 

Ramachandra-Rao, R. S. Y.  1920.  Lantana insects in India.  India Dept. Agr. Mem., Ent. Ser. 5:  239-314.

 

Ramachandra-Rao, Y & M. C. Cherian.  1927.  Notes on the life-history and habits of Elasmus nephantidis Rohw.  Madras Agr. Dept. Yearbk. 1926:  39-50.

 

Ramachandra-Rao, Y & M. C. Cherian.  1928.  Notes on the life-history and habits of Parasierola sp.-- the bethylid parasite of Nephantis serinopa.  Madras Agr. Dept. Yearbk. 1927:  11-22.

 

Ramachandra-Rao, R. S. Y. & M. C. Cherian.  1944.  The fluted scale, Icerya purchasi Mask., as a pest of wattle in south India, and its control by the biological method.  Madras Agr. J. 32:  20.

 

Ramachandran, S.  1950.  Cyphorcera varia Fabr., a tachinid parasite on Spodoptera mauritia Bolsd. in South India.  Indian J. Ent. 12:  107-12.

 

Ramachandran-Nair, K. & V. P. Rao.  1967.  Introduction of Copidosoma koehleri Blanchard for the control of the potato tuber moth, Gnorimoschema operculella (Zeller) in India and its supply to Tanzania and Mauritius.  Techn. Bull. Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. 8:  139-47.

 

Ramadan, M. M, T. T. Y. Wong & J. W. Beardsley.  1989a.  Survivorship potential and realized fecundity of Biosteres tryoni [Hym.: Braconidae], a larval parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata [Dipt.: Tephritidae].  Entomophaga 34:  291-98.

 

Ramadan, M.M.,T.T.Y. Wong, and J.W. Beardsley Jr. 1989.  Insectary production of Biosteres tr...  (Cameron) (Hymenoptera:Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).  Proc. of the Hawaii. Entomol. Soc., 29: 41-48.

 

Ramakers, P. M. J.  1980b.  Biological control of Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with Amblyseius spp. (Acari:  Phytoseiidae).  Bull. OILB/SROP  1980/III/3:  203-07.

 

Ramakers, P. M. J.  1983.  Mass production and introduction of Amblyseius mckenziei and A. cucumeris.  Bull. OILB/SROP  1983/VI/3:  203-06.

 

Ramakers, P.M. J. and R.A.Samson. 1984.  Ascheisonia aleurodis, a fungal pathogen of whitefly, II.  Application as a biological insecticide in glasshouses.  Zeitschrift flir Angewandte Entomologie, 97: 1-8.

 

Ramakers, P. M. J. & M. J. van Lieburg.  1982.  Start of commercial production and introduction of Amblyseius mckenziei Sch. & Pr. (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) for the control of Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in glasshouses.  Med. Fac. Landbouww. Rijksuniv. Gent 47:  541-45.

 

Ramakers, P. M. J.  1980a.  Biological control in Dutch glasshouses; practical application and progress in research.  Symp. Integr. Crop Protec., Valence, June 1980.

 

Ramakers, P. M. J.  1980a.  Biological control in Dutch glasshouses; practical application and progress in research.  Symp. Integr. Crop Protec., Valence, June 1980.

 

Ramakrishna-Ayyar, T. V.  1919.  Some south Indian coccids of economic importance.  J. Bombay Natl. Hist. Soc. 26:  621-28.

 

Ramaseshiah, G.  1967.  The fungus Entomophthora coronata parasitic on three species of aphids infsting crucifers in India.  J. Invertebr. Path. 9:  128-30.

 

Ramaseshiah, G., K. V. Bhat & P. R. Dharmadhikari.  1969.  Influence of host aphid, host plant and temperature on the laboratory breeding of Lysiphlebus testaceipes.  Indian J. Ent. 30:  281-85.

 

Ramke, D. J., P. A. Gillies & C. H. Schaefer.  1969.  Aedes nigromaculis control crisis in the southern San Joaquin Valley.  Calif. Vect. Views 16:  19-20.

 

Ramos, P. & A. Panis.  1975.  Les chalcidiens parasites de Prays oleae [Lep.: Plutellidae] en Andalousie.  Entomophaga 20:  225-8.

 

Ramsay, G. W.  1964.  Two species of shield bugs that destroy caterpillars.  New Zeal. J. Agr. 109(1):  17.

 

Ramsay, M. J.  1973.  Beneficial insect or plant pest?  The regulatory Agency's dilemma.  Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Biol. Contr. Weeds, 4-7 Oct 1971, Rome, Italy.  P. H. Dunn (ed.).  Misc. Pub. No. 6, Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr.  p. 40-46.

 

Ramsy, A. H. & E. M. El-Banhawy.  1974a.  Behaviour and bionomics of the predatory mite, Phytoseius plumifer [Acarina: Phytoseiidae] as affected by physical surface features of host plants.  Entomophaga 19:  255-8.

 

Ramsy, A. H. & E. M. El-Banhawy.  1974b.  The phytoseiid mite Phytoseius plumifer as a predator of the eriophyid mite Aceria ficus [Acarina].  Entomophaga 19:  427-30.

 

Rang, C; Bes, M; Lullien-Pellerin, V; Wu, D; Federici, B A; Frutos, R.  1996.  Influence of the 20-kDa protein from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis on the rate of production of truncated Cryl C proteins.  FEMS Microbiology Letters, v.141, n.2-3, (1996): 261-264.

 

Rangnow, H.  1914.  Über das Massenhafte Auftreten von Coccinella quinquepunctata L.  Zeitschr. f. wiss. Insektenb. 10:  33-43.

 

Rao, A. B. & P. K. Rao.  1965.  Observations on the natural parasitization in the egg masses of Tryporyza (Schoenobius incertula Walker) at Maruteru.  Andhra Agr. J. 12:  178-82.

 

Rao, B. R. S.  1957.  Some new species of Indian Hymenoptera.  Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 46:  385-90.

 

Rao, B. R. S., B. Parshad, A. Ram, R. P. Singh & M. L. Srivastava.  1965a.  Studies on the parasites and predators of Empoasca devastans Distant [Homoptera: Jassidae].  Ind. J. Ent. 27:  104-6.

 

Rao, B. R. S., H. S. Sangwan, Q. A. Abrasi, Y. Singh & A. M. Ksheersagar.  1965.  New records of hymenopterous parasites of Nipaecoccus vastator Maskell (Homoptera: Coccidae), a serious pest of Citrus spp. from India.  Ind. J. Ent. 27:  109-10.

 

Rao, B. S.  1964.  The use of light traps to control the cockchafer Lachnosterna bidentata Burm. in Malayan rubber plantations.  J. Rubber Res. Inst. Malaya 18:  243-52.

 

Rao, B. S. & Hoh Choo Huan.  1965.  Pests of Hevea plantations in Malaya.  Kuala Lumpur-- Rubber Res. Inst.  p. 1-98.

 

Rao, B. S. N. & I. J. Chandra.  1984.  Brinckochrysa scelestes [Neur.: Chrysopidae] as predator of Myzus persicae [Hom.: Aphididae] on tobacco.  Entomophaga 29:  283-86. 

 

Rao, S. V.  1962.  The status of Coccinella septempunctata L. and its varieties divaricata Oliv. and confusa Wied.  Canad. Ent. 94(12):  1341-43.

 

Rao, S. V. & P. DeBach.  1969a.  Experimental studies on hybridization and sexual isolation between some Aphytis species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).  I.  Experimental hybridization and an interpretation of evolutionary relationships among the species.  Hilgardia 39:  515-53.

 

Rao, S. V. & P. DeBach.  1969b.  Experimental studies on hybridization and sexual isolation between some Aphytis species (Hymenoptera: Aphehlinidae).  II.  Experiments on sexual isolation.  Hilgardia 39:  555-67.

 

Rao, S. V. & P. DeBach.  1969c.  Experimental studies on hybridization and sexual isolation between some Aphytis species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).  III.  The significance of reproductive isolation between interspecific hybrids and parental species.  Evolution 23:  525-33.

 

Rao, S. V. & V. P. Rao.  1960.  Introduction of Prospaltella perniciosi for control of San Jose scale in India and Pakistan.  Food & agric. Organ. Plant Protect. Bull. 8:  120-23.

 

Rao, V. P.  1964.  REcord of three insect pathogens from the far east.  Tech. Bull. Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. 4:  63-4.

 

Rao, V. P.  1965a.  Shipment of Dusmetia sangwani Subba Rao, a parasite of the Rhodes grass scale to U.S.A.  Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Control, Tech. Bull. 5:  145-48.

 

Rao, V. P.  1965b.  Natural enemies of rice stem-borers and allied species in various parts of the world and possibilities of their use in biological control of rice stem-borers in Asia.  Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Control, Tech. Bull. 6:  1-68.

 

Rao, V. P.  1967.  Biological control projects of the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Indian Station, Bangalore 6, India.  Internatl. Adv. Commonwealth Biol. Control, Biol. Control Inform. Bull. 2:  16.

 

Rao, V. P.  1969.  Survey for natural enemies of aphids in India.  Final Tech. Rept. U.S. PL-480 Proj. Indian Sta. Commonw. Inst. Biol. Control, Bangalore, India.

 

Rao, V. P.  1970.  Aims, objectives, and future of biological control of rice stem borers.  Mushi 44:  11-14.

 

Rao, V. P.  1971.  Biological control of pests in Fiji.  Connonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. Misc. Pub. 2.

 

Rao, V. P.  1972.  Rice stem borers and their natural enemies in India, Pakistan, Ceylon and Malaysia.  Mushi (Suppl.) 45:  7-23.

 

Rao, V. P. & A. M. Mahadeva.  1964.  A new record of a tachinid parasitizing spotted bollworms in India.  Tech. Bull. Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. 4:  62.

 

Rao, V. P. & T. M. Manjunath.  1964.  A new record of the carabid beetle Pheropsophus sobrinus (Desj.) var. desbordesi (Maindr.) as a predator of the rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) in India.  Tech. Bull. Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. 4:  40-2.

 

Rao, V. P. & T. M. Manjunath.  1966.  DD 136 nematode that can kill many insect pests.  Ind. Farming 16(2):  43-4.

 

Rao, V. P. & V. Sudha Rao.  1964a.  Two new records of predacious mites form India.  Tech. Bull. Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. 4:  38-9.

 

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<RB.REF>

 

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<RD.REF>

 

<RE.REF>

 

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<RJ.REF>

 

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Rosen, D.  1966.  Notes on the parasites of Acaudaleyrodes citri (Priesner and Hosni) (Hem.: Aleyrodidae) in Israel.  Ent. Ber. 26:  55-9.

 

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Rosen, D.  1967b.  Effects of commercial pesticides on the fecundity and survival of Aphytis holoxanthus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).  Israel J. Agr. Res. 17:  47-52.

 

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Rosen, D.  1981b.  A new species of Pseudophycus [Hym.: Encyrtidae] with notes on the angelicus group.  Entomophaga 26:  251-63.

 

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Rosen, D.  1986.  The role of taxonomy in effective biological control programs.  Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 15:  121-9.

 

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Rosen, D. & A. Eliraz.  1978.  Biological and systematic studies of developmental stages in Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). I. Developmental history of Aphytis chilensis Howard.  Hilgardia 46:  96-101.

 

Rosen, D. & U. Gerson.  1965.  Field studies of Chilocorus bipustulatus (L.) on citrus in Israel.  Ann. Epiphyt. 16:  71-6.

 

Rosen, D. & C. B. Huffaker.  1983.  An overview of desired attributes of effective biological control agents, with particular emphasis on mites, p. 2-11.  In:  M. A. Hoy, G. L. Cunningham & L. Kuntson (eds.), Biological Control of Pests by Mites.  Div. Agr. Sci., Univ. Calif. Publ. 3304.

 

Rosen, D. & R. Kfir.  1983.  A hyperparasite of coccids develops as a primary parasite of fly puparia.  Entomophaga 28:  83-88.

 

Rosen, D. & Y. Rössler.  1966.  Studies on an Israel strain of Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).  I.  Morphology of the adults and developmental stages.  Entomophaga 11:  269-77.

 

Rosen, D. E. & R. M. Bailey.  1963.  The poeciliid fishes (Cyprinodon tiformes), their structure, zoogeography and systematics.  Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 126:  1-176.

 

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Rosenberg, H. T.  1934.  The biology and distribution in France of the larval parasites of Cydia pomonella L.  Bull. Ent. Res. 25:  201-56.

 

Rosenberg, H. T.  1934.  The biology and distribution in France of the larval parasites of Cydia pomonella.  Bull. Ent. Res. 25:  201-56.

 

Rosenheim, J. A. & M. A. Hoy.  1986.  Intraspecific variation in levels of pesticide resistance in field populations of a parasitoid, Aphytis melinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae):  The role of past selection pressures.  J. Econ. Ent. 79: 1161-73.

 

Rosenheim, J. A. & M. A. Hoy.  1988.  Genetic improvement of a parasitoid biological control agent:  artificial selection for insecticide resistance in Aphytis melinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).  J. Econ. Ent. 81:  1539-50.

 

Rosenheim, J. A. & M. A. Hoy.  1986.  Intraspecific variation in levels of pesticide resistance in field populations of a parasitoid, Aphytis melinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae):  the role of past selection pressures.  J. Econ. Ent. 79:  1161-73.

 

Rosenheim, J. A. & M. A. Hoy.  1988a.  Sublethal effects of pesticides on the parasitoid, Aphytis melinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).  J. Econ. Ent. 81:  476-83.

 

Rosenheim, J. A. & M. A. Hoy.  1988b.  Selection for resistance in aphytis melinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): genetic improvement of a parasitoid biological control agent.  J. Econ. Ent. 81:  1539-50.

 

Rosenheim, J. A. & M. A. Hoy.  1989.  Confidence intervals for the Abbott's formula correction of bioassay data for control response.  J. Econ. Ent. 82:  331-35.

 

Roosenheim, J.A. and D. Rosen. 1991.  Foraging and oviposition decisions in the parasitoid Aphytis lingnanensis,. Distinguishing the influences of egg load and experience.  Journal of Animal Ecology, 60: 873-893.

 

Rosenheim, J. A., M. A. Hoy, J. Gorden & J. R. Stewart.  1989.  Selecting for insecticide resistance in a California red scale parasitoid.  Calif. Agr. 43(1):  17-8.

 

Rosenheim, J A; Kaya, H K; Ehler, L E; Marois, J J; Jaffee, B A.  1995.  Intraguild predation among biological-control agents: Theory and evidence. Biological Control, v.5, n.3, (1995): 303-335.

 

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Russo, G.  1938.  Contributo alla conoscenza dei coleotteri scolitidi Fleotribo:  Phloestribus scarabaeoides (Bern.).  Fauv. Bol. Lab. Ent. Agr. Portici 2:  3-419.

 

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Rutz, D. A. & R. C. Axtell.  1978.  Factors affecting production of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (=fatigans) from anaerobic animal waste lagoons.  North Carolina Agric. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. 256.  32 p.

 

Rutz, D. A. & R. C. Axtell.  1979.  Sustained releases of Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for house fly (Musca domestica) control in two types of caged layer poultry houses.  Environ. Ent. 8:  1105-1110.

 

Rutz, D. A. & R. C. Axtell.  1981.  House fly (Musca domestica) control in broiler-breeder poultry houses by pupal parasites (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae): Indigenous parasite species and releases of Muscidifurax raptor.  Environ. Ent. 10:  343-45.

 

Rutz, D. A. & R. C. Axtell.  1980a.  Invasion and establishment of house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), parasites (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in new caged-layer poultry houses.  J. Med. Ent. 17:  151-55.

 

Rutz, D. A. & R. C. Axtell.  1980b.  House fly (Musca domestica) parasites (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) associated with poultry manure in North Carolina.  Environ. Ent. 9:  175-80.

 

Rutz, D. A. & R. C. Axtell.  1981.  House fly Musca domestica control in broiler-breeder poultry houses by pupal parasites (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae):   indigenous parasite species and releases of Muscidifurax raptor.  Environ. Ent. 10:  343-45.

 

Rutz, D. A. & R. S. Patterson (eds.).  1990.  Biocontrol of Arthropods Affecting Livestock and Poultry.  Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.  316 p.

 

Rutz, D. A. & G. A. Scoles.  1989.  Occurrence and seasonsl abundance of parasitoids attacking muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in caged-layer poultry facilities in New York.  Environ. Ent. 18:  51-5.

 

Rutz, D. A., R. C. Axtell & T. D. Edwards.  1980.  Effects of organic pollution levels on aquatic insect abundance in field pilot-scale anaerobic animal waste lagoons.  Mosquito News 40(3): 403-409.

 

Rutz, D. A., C. J. Geden, D. C. Steinkraus, L. Smith & C. Henderson.  1988.  Biocontrol research for livestock and poultry at Cornell University.  Livestock Biocontrol Newsletter No. 4.  p. 1-5.

 

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<RX.REF>

 

<RY.REF>

 

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Ryakhovskii, V. V.  1974.  Host-parasite and habitational relationships of oophages of stinkbugs and other shieldbugs in various zones of the RSFSR, p. 75-89.  In:  Physiological & Biological Bases of Plant Protection, Voronezh.  [in Russian].

 

Ryan, J., M.F. Ryan, and F. McNaeidhe. 1980.  The effect of interrow plant cover on populations of the cabbage root fly Delia bmssicae (Wied.). J. Applied Ecology, 17: 31-40.

 

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Ryan, R. B.  1969.  Termination of diapause in the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), as an aid to continuous laboratory rearing.  Canad. Ent. 92:  520-25.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1961.  A biological and developmental study of Coelorides brunneri Vier., a parasite of the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopk.  Ph.D. Thesis, Oregon State Univ. 171 p.

 

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Ryan, R. B.  1962c.  A device for measuring the oviposition potential of a bark beetle parasite.  Canad. Ent. 94:  737-8.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1965.  Maternal influence on diapause in a parasitic insect, Coeloides brunneri Vier. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).  J. Insect Physiol. 11:  1331-36.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1968.  Electric barrier confinement and cocooning trays in rearing the greater wax moth to facilitate recovery of decooned pupae.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 61:  1341-2.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1971.  Interaction between the parasites Apecthis ontario and Itoplectis quadricingulatus. 1. Survival in singly attacked and super- and multiparasitized wax moth pupae.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 64:  205-8.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1974a.  Laboratory reactivation of diapausing larch casebearer larvae following different lengths of winter exposure.  U. S. Dept. Agr., For. Serv. Res Note PNW-218.  4 p.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1974b.  Attainment of the overwintering instar and the casebearing habit by larch casebearer larvae at different elevations in the Blue Mountains.  U. S. Dept. Agr., For. Serv. Res. Note PNW-228.  6 p.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1974c.  Reduced oviposition by Ephialtes ontario and Itoplectis quadricingulatus in a humid environment.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 67:  928-30.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1975.  Photoperiod effects on development of the larch casebearer, Coleophors laricella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae).  Canad. Ent. 107:  1305-10.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1979a.  The larch casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) and its parasites. I. Maintaining year-round availability of larch foliage and the casebearer for parasite rearing.  Canad. Ent. 111:  471-75.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1979b.  The larch casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) and its parasites. II. The influence of different growth stages of Larix occidentalis foliage on casebearer development and survival.  Canad. Ent. 111:  477-80.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1979c.  Biological control with natural enemies, p. 173-94.  In:  J. A. Rudinsky (ed.), Forest Insect Survey and Control.  Oregon St. Univ. Book Stores, Inc., Corvallis.  472 p.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1979d.  Illustrated key to introduced and common native parasites of larch casebearer.  U. S. Dept. Agr., For. Serv. Res. Paper PNW-262.  12 p.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1980.  Rearing methods and biological notes for seven species of European and Japanese parasites of the larch casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae).  Canad. Ent. 112:  1239-48.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1981.  Recent (1979-1980) releases of imported larch casebearer parasites for biological control.  U. S. Dept. Agr., For. Serv. Res. Note PNW-377.  6 p.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1983.  Population density and dynamics of larch casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington before the build-up of exotic parasites.  Canad. Ent. 115:  1095-1102.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1985a.  Relationship between parasitism of larch casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) and dead hosts in the Blue Mountains, 1973-1983.  Canad. Ent. 117:  935-9.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1985b.  Mortality of eggs of the larch casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) in Oregon.  Canad. Ent. 117:  991-94.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1985c.  A hypothesis for decreasing parasitization of larch casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) on larch foliage by Agathis pumila.  Canad. Ent. 117:  1573-74.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1986.  Analysis of life tables for the larch casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoreidae) in Oregon.  Canad. Ent. 118:  1255-63.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1987.  Classical biological control:  an overview.  J. Forestry 85:  29-31.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1988.  Evidence for mortality in addition to successful parasitism of needlemining larch casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) larvae by Agathis pumila (Ratz.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  Canad. Ent. 120:  1035-6.

 

Ryan, R. B.  1990.  Evaluation of biological control: introduced parasites of larch casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) in Oregon.  Environ. Ent. 19:  1873-81.

 

Ryan, R. B. & R. D. Medley.  1970.  Test release of Itoplectis quadricingulatus against European pine shoot moth in an isolated infestation.  J. Econ. Ent. 63:  1390-92.

 

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Ryan, R. B. & R. D. Medley.  1972.  Interaction between the parasites Apechthis ontario and Itoplectis quadricingulatus. 2. F-1 progeny production in light-stratified population cages.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 64:  172-77.

 

Ryan, R. B. & R. E. Denton.  1973.  Initial releases of Chrysocharis laricinellae and Dicladocerus westwoodi for biological control of the larch casebearer in the western United States.  U. S. Dept. Agr., For. Serv. Res. Note PNW-200.  4 p.

 

Ryan, R. B. & J. A. Rudinsky.  1962.  Biology and habits of the douglas-fir beetle parasite, Coeloides brunneri Viereck in western Oregon.  Canad. Ent. 94:  748-63.

 

Ryan, R. B. & L. J. Theroux.  1981.  Establishment and 1977 distribution of Chrysocharis laricinellae (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasite of the larch casebearer in western forests.  Canad. Ent. 113:  1129-30.

 

Ryan, R. B. & C. M. Yoshimoto.  1975.  Laboratory crossings with different sources of the larch casebearer parasite, Chrysocharis laricinellae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  Canad. Ent. 107:  1301-04.

 

Ryan, R. B., W. E. Rousfield, G. E. Miller & T. Finlayson.  1974.  Presence of Chrysocharis laricinellae, a parasite of the larch casebearer, in the Pacific Northwest.  J. Econ. Ent. 67:  805.

 

Ryan, R. B., W. E. Bousfield, R. E. Denton, R. L. Johnsey, L. F. Pettinger & R. F. Schmitz.  1975.  Additional releases of larch casebearer parasites for biological control in the western United States.  U. S. Dept. Agr. Forest Serv. Res. Note PNW-242.  7 p.

 

Ryan, R. B., W. E. Bousfield, C. W. Johanningmeier, G. B. Parsons, R. F. Schmitz, & L. J. Theroux.  1977.  Releases of recently imported larch casebearer parasites for biological control in the western United States including relocations of Agathis pumila.  U. S. Dept. Agr., For. Serv. Res. Note PNW-290.  8 p.

 

Ryan, R. B., R. W. Mortensen & T. R. Torgersen.  1981.  Reproductive biology of Telenomus californicus Ashmead, an egg parasite of the Douglas-fir tussock moth:  laboratory studies.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 74:  213-6.

 

Ryan, R. B., S. Tunnock & F. W. Ebel.  1987.  Biologial control:  the larch casebearer in North America.  J. Forestry 85:  33-39.

 

Ryan, R. B., R. E. Denton, S. Tunnock & F. W. Ebel.  1989.  Maintaining productivity of western larch through biological control of an immigrant insect, p. 244.  In:  D. A. Perry, R. Meurisse, B. Thomas, R. Miller, J. Boyle, J. Means, C. R. Perry & R. F. Powers (eds.), Maintaining the Long-term Productivity of Pacific Northwest Forest Ecosystems.  Timber Press, Portland, OR.  256 p.

 

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