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Entomology / Biological Pest Control





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[For Subject Matter, depress Ctrl/F]     Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library






La Berge, W. E., et al. 1967-1972. A revision of the bees in the genus Andrena of the western hemisphere. Part I (1967): Callandrena. Bull. Univ. Nebr. State Mus., 7:1- 316; 340 f., 4 tables. Part II (1969): Plastandrens, Aporandrens, Charitandrena. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc., 95(1):1-47; 38 f. Part III (by W. E. La Berge & J. K. Bousman) (1970): Tylandrena. Trans. Amer. En tom 01. Soc., 96(4):543-605; 75 f. Part IV (1971): Scraptopsis, Xiphandrena, & Rhaphandrena. Trans. Amer. En- jtomol. Soc., 97(3):441-520; 68 f. Part V (by W. E. L Berge & D. W. Ribble) (1972): Gonandrena, Geis-' : sandrena, Pa randrena , Pe/icandrena. Trans. Amer. En- ! tomol. Soc., 98(3):271-358; 76 f. :


LaBergrie, V.  1959.  Embryonic diapause in the unlaid egg of parasitic Hymenoptera.  C. R. Hebd. Seanc. Acad. Sci. Paris 249:  2115-17.


Labeyrie, V.  1957.  Remarques sur la mise au point d'un élevage semi-industriel de Macrocentrus ancylivorus Roh.  Entomophaga 2:  271-81.


Labeyrie, V.  1958.  Facteurs conditionnant la ponte de Microgaster globatus Nees.  Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 63:  62-6.


Labeyrie, V.  1959.  Technique d'élevage de Chelonus contractus Nees. parasite de Phthorimea ocellatella Boyd.  Entomophaga 4:  43-.


Labeyrie, V.  1961a.  Taxonomie, éeologie et lutte biologique.  Entomophaga 6:  125-31.


Labeyrie, V.  1961b.  Sur quelques hyménoptères intervenant dans la biocoenose de ravageurs de l'Artichaut dans le sud-est de la France.  Entomophaga 6:  249-56.


Labeyrie, V.  1961c.  Influence des parasites oophages dur la régulation des populations de Cassida deflorata Suff.  Entomophaga 6:  257-.


Labeyrie, V.  1964.  Taxonomie et écologie.  E.N.S.A.T. Bull. Trim. Ass. ing. Anciens Elev. Janvier.  p. 11-14.


Laboulbene, A.  1858.  Histoire d'un Ichneumon parasite des Araignees (Pimpla fairmairii).  Soc. Ent. de France Ann. 6:  797-817.


Laboulbene, A.  1874.  Note sur une nymphe d'insecte Coleoptere incluse dans la peau durcie et pupiforme de la larve, trouveea Cannes au mois de Mars, 1870.  Ann. Soc. Ent. France 4(5):  44-48.


LaBrecque, G. C.  1961.  Studies with three alkylating agents as house fly sterilants.  J. Econ. Ent. 54:  684-89.


LaBrecque, G. C.  1963.  Chemosterilants for the control of houseflies-- New approaches to pest control and eradication, p. 42-6.  In:  No. 41, Advances Chem. Ser., Wash., D.C.


LaBrecque, G. C.  1964/1965.  Status of research with chemosterilants.  Assoc. S. Feed Fert., Pesticide Contr. Off., off. Publ.  p. 69-71.


LaBrecque, G. C., D. W. Meifert & R. L. Fye.  1963.  A field study on the control of house flies with chemosterilant techniques.  J. Econ. Ent. 56:  150-2.


LaBrecque, G. C. & C. N. Smith (eds.).  1968.  Principles of Insect Chemosterilization.  Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York; North-Holland, Amsterdam.  354 p.


LaBrecque, G. C., D. W. Meifert & C. N. Smith.  1962.  Mating competitiveness of chemosterilized and normal male house flies.  Science 136:  388-89.


LaBrcque, G. C., P. B. Morgan, D. W. Meifert & R. L. Fye.  1966.  Effectiveness of hempa as a house fly chemosterilant.  J. Med. Ent. 3:  40-3.


Lacan.  1956.  Les gites larvaires dans les etangs de pisiculture.  2nd Symposium on African Hydrobiology & Inland Fisheries, C.S.A.  Comm. Tech. Co-op. Africa South of the Sahara, Brazzaville.  p. 259-61.


Lacatusu, M.  1968.  Date noi asupra unor specii de Braconidae (Hymenoptera) din fauna Ramaniei.  An. Univ. Bucuresti, Ser. St. Nat. Biol. 17:  97-102.


Lacewell, R. D., J. M. Sprott, G. A. Niles, J. K. Walker & J. R. Gannaway.  1976.  Cotton growing in an integrated production system.  Trans. Amer. Soc. Agr. Engr. 19:  815-18.


Lacey, L. & S. Oldacre.  1983.  The effect of temperature, larval ages, and species of mosquito on the activity of an isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis var. darmstadiensis toxic for mosquito larvae.  Mosq. News 43:  176-80.


Lacey, L. A. & A. H. Undeen.  1986.  Microbial control of blackflies and mosquitoes.  Annu. Rev. Ent. 31:  265-96.


Lacey, L. A. & T. R. Unruh.  1998.  Entomopathogenic Nematodes for Control of Codling Moth: Effect of Nematode Species, Dosage, and Temperature.  Biological Control 13: 190-197


Lacey, L A; Mesquita, A L M; Mercadier, G; Debire, R; Kazmer, D J; Leclant,  F.  1997. Acute and sublethal activity of the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) on adult Aphelinus asychis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

Environ. Entomol., v.26, n.2, (1997): 1452-1460.


LaChance, L. E.  1963.  Enhancement of radiation-induced sterility in insects by pretreatment in CO2 + air.  Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 7:  321-31.


LaChance, L. E.  1970.  Problems and programs in the application of the sterility principle for the control of Ceratitis capitata.  Bol. Asoc. Nac. Ing. Agron. 209:  493-95.


LaChance, L. E. & S. B. Bruns.  1963.  Oogenesis and radiosensitivity in Cochliomyia hominivorax [Diptera: Calliphoridae].  Biol. Bull. 124:  65-83.


LaChance, L. E. & M. M. Crystal.  1963.  The modification of reproduction in insects treated with alkylating agents. II. Differential sensitivity of oocyte meiotic stages to the induction of dominant lethals.  Biol. Bull. 125:  280-8.


LaChance, L. E. & E. F. Knipling.  1962.  Control of insect populations through genetic manipulations.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 55:  515-20.


LaChance, L. E. & J. G. Riemann.  1964.  Cytogenetic investigations on radiation and chemically induced dominant lethal mutations in oocytes and sperm of the screw-worm fly.  Mutat. Res. 1:  318-33.


LaChance, L. E., C. H. Schmidt & R. C. Bushland.  1967.  Radiation-induced sterility, p. 147-96.  In:  W. W. Kilgore & R. L. Doutt (eds.), Pest Control:  Biological, Physical and Selected Chemical Methods.  Academic Press, New York.  477 p.


LaChance, L. E., D. T. North & W. Klassen.  1968.  Cytogenetic and cellular basis of chemically-induced sterility to insects, p. 99-157.  In:  G. C. LaBrecque & C. N. Smith (eds.), Principles of Insect Chemosterilization.  Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.


LaChance, L. E., M. E. Degrugillier & A. P. Leverich.  1970.  Cytogenetics of inherited partial sterility in three generations of the large milkweed bug as related to holokinetic chromosomes.  Chromosoma 29:  20-41.


Lachaud, Jean-Paul; Perez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Heraty, John M.  1998.  Parasites associated with rhe ponerine ant Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): First host record for the genus Dilocantha (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae). Florida Entomologist, v.81, n.4, (1998. Dec.): 570-574.


Lack, D.  1944.  Ecological aspects of species formation in passerine birds.  Ibis 86:  260-86.


Lack, D.  1954.  The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers.  Clarendon Press, Oxford, England.  343 p.


Lack, D.  1955.  The mortality factors affecting adult numbers.  In:  "The Numbers of Man and Animals", Institute of Biology, Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh.


Lackey, B.A., A.E. Muldoon, and B.A. Jaffee. 1993.  Alginate pellet formulation of Hirsutella rbossiliensis for biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes.  Biological Control, 3: 155-160.


Lacy, M. L. & C. E. Horner.  1966.  Behavior of Verticillium dahliae in the rhizosphere and on roots of plants susceptible, resistant, and immune to wilt.  Phytopathology 56:  427-30.


Ladd, T. L., Jr. & P. J. McCabe.  1956.  The status of Tiphia vernalis Rohwer, in southern New Jersey and southeastern Pennsylvania in 1963.  J. Econ. Ent. 59:  480.


Ladd, T. L., Jr. & P. J. McCabe.  1967.  Persistence of spores of Bacillus popilliae, the causal organism of type A milky disease of Japanese beetle larvae, in New Jersey soils.  J. Econ. Ent. 60:  493-5.


LaDue, E. L., C. Shoemaker, N. P. Russell, R. B. Rovinsky & D. Pimentel.  1979.  The potential impact of cotton insect control technology.  Cornell Agr. Econ. Staff Paper No. 79-31, Cornell Univ. Ithaca. N.Y.


Lahourcade, M.  1962.  Quelques précisions sur la morphologie et la biologie de Scleroderma domestica Latr. petit Hyménoptère Béthylide vulnérant.  Ann. Parasit. Hum., Comp., Paris 37:  848-60.


Lai, P. Y.  1988.  Biological control, a positive point of view.  Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. 28:  179-90.


Laidlaw, H. H. & K. W. Tucker.  1964.  Diploid tissue derived from accessory sperm in the honeybee.  Genetics 50:  1439-1442.


Laidlaw, W. B. R.  1937.  Aphidecta obliterata Linn. (Coccinellidae): its efficiency as a control factor of Adelges cooleya Gillette.  Scott. For. J. 51(1) 47-58 & 51(2):  143-67.


Laidlaw, W. B. R.  1941.  Note on Rhizophagus and other enemies of the pine bark beetles (Myelophilus).  Scott. For. J. 55(1):  32-37.


Laigo, F. M. & M. Tamashiro.  1966.  Virus and insect parasite interaction in the lawn armyworm, Spodoptera mauritia acronyctoides.  Proc. Hawaii. Ent. Soc. 19:  233-37.


Laing, J.  1937.  Host-finding by insect parasites.  I.  Observations on finding hosts by Alysia manducator, Mormoniella vitripennis and Trichogramma evanescens.  J. Anim. Ecol. 6:  298-317.


Laing, J.  1968.  Life history and life table of Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot.  Acarologia 10:  578-88.


Laing, J.  1969a.  Life history and life table of Metaseiulus occidentalis.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 62:  978-82.


Laing, J.  1969b.  Life history and life table of Tetranychus urticae Koch.  Acarologia 11:  32-42.


Laing, J.E. and J.E. Corrigan. 1987.  Intrinsic competition between the gregarious parasite Cotesia glomerata and the solitary parasite Cotesia rubecula [Hymenoptera: Braconidael for their host Arlogeia rapae [Lepidoptera: Pieridael. Entomophaga, 32: 493-501.


Laing, J.E. and G.M. Eden. 1990.  Mass-production of Trichogramma minutum Riley on factitious host eggs.  Memoirs of the Entomological Soc. of Canada, 153: 10-24.


Laing, J. E. & J. Hamai.  1976.  Biological control of insect pests and weeds by imported parasites, predators and pathogens, pp. 686-743.  In:  C. B. Huffaker & P. S. Messenger (eds.), Theory and Practice of Biological Control.  Academic Press, New York. 514 p.


Laing, J. E. & J. M. Heraty.  1981.  Establishment in Canada of the parasite Apanteles pedias Nixon on the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (Fabr.).  Environ. Ent. 10:  933-35.


Laing, J. E. & C. B. Huffaker.  1969.  Comparative studies of predation by Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Metaseiulus occidentalis (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) on populations of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae).  Res. Popul. Ecol. 11:  105-26.


Laing, J. E. & J. A. L. Osborn.  1974.  The effect of prey density on the functional and numerical responses of three species of predatory mites.  Entomophaga 19:  267-77.


Laing, J. & H. E. Welch.  1963.  A dolichopodid predacious on larvae of Culex restuans Theob.  Proc. Ent. Soc. Ontario 93:  89-90.


Laird, M.  1947.  Some natural enemies of mosquitoes in the vicinity of Palmalmal, New Britain.  Trans. Roy. Soc. New Zealand 76(3):  453-76.


Laird, M.  1952.  Notes on the mosquitoes of Nissan Island, territory of New Guinea.  Pacif. Sci. 6:  151-56.


Laird, M.  1954.  The mosquitoes of Aitutaki, southern Cook Islands.  Bull. Ent. Res. 45:  423-27.


Laird, M.  1956a.  A new species of Coelomomyces (fungi) from Tasmanian mosquito larvae.  J. Parasit. 42:  53-5.


Laird, M.  1956b.  Studies of mosquitoes and freshwater ecology in the South Pacific.  Bull. Roy. Soc. N.Z. 6:  213 p.  [Rev. Appl. Ent. B-46:  64].


Laird, M.  1958.  A secondary effect of DDT upon the aquatic microflora and microfauna.  Canad. J. Microbiol. 4:  445-52.


Laird, M.  1959a.  Malayan Protozoa. 1. Plistophora collessi n. sp. (Sporozoa: Microsporidia), an ovarian parasite of Singapore mosquitoes.  J. Protozool. 6:  37-45.


Laird, M.  1959b.  Parasites of Singapore mosquitoes, with particular reference to the significance of larval epibionts as an index of habitat pollution.  Ecology 40:  206-21.


Laird, M.  1959c.  Fungal parasites of mosquito larvae from the Oriental and Australian regions, with a key to the genus Coelomomyces (Blastocladiales: Coelomomycetaceae).  Canad. J. Zool. 37:  781-91.


Laird, M.  1959d.  Blastocrithidia n. g. (Mastigophora: Protominadina) for Crithidia (in part), with a subarctic record for B. gerridis (Patton).  Canad. J. Zool. 37:  749-52.


Laird, M.  1959e.  Biological solutions to problems arising from the use of modern insecticides in the field of public health.  Acta Trop., Basel 16:  331-55.


Laird, M.  1959f.  Biological solutions to problems arising from the use of modern insecticides in the field of public health.  Acta Trop. 16:  331-55.


Laird, M.  1960.  Microbiology and mosquito control.  Mosq. News 20:  127-33.


Laird, M.  1960b.  Coelomomyces, and the biological control of mosquitoes, p. 84-93.  In:  Proc. Conf. Biol. Contr. Insects of Med. Imp., Wash., D.C., Amer., Tech. Rept. Inst. Biol. Sci.


Laird, M.  1961a.  New American locality records for four species of Coelomomyces (Blastocladiales, Coelomomycetaceae).  J. Insect Pathol. 3:  249-53.


Laird, M.  1961b.  Biological control in relation to container-breeding mosquitoes.  Abst. Symp. Papers, 10th Pacific Sci. Cong.  p. 191-92.


Laird, M.  1962.  Validation of certain species of Coelomomyces [Blastocladiales, Coelomomycetaceae] described from the Australian and Oriental regions.  J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 78:  132-3.


Laird, M.  1962.  Coelomomyces fungi, an important group of mosquito parasites.  WHO/EBL/1, WHO/Mal/334, WHO/Fil/42.  4 p.


Laird, M.  1963.  Vector ecology and integrated control procedures.  Bull. World Hlth Org. 29(Suppl.):  147-51.


Laird, M.  1964a.  Observations on Anopheles punctulatus Dönitz, 1901, and Anopheles farauti Laveran, 1902, at Palmalmal and Manginuna, New Britain, during July and August 1945.  Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z. 76:  148-57.  [Rev. Appl. Ent. B-37:  232].


Laird, M.  1964b.  A ceratopogonine midge (Culicoides anophelis Edwards, 1922) sucking engorged blood from a mosquito (Armigeres lacuum Edwards, 1922) at Palmalmal, New Britain. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z. 76:  158-61.  [Rev. Appl. Ent. B-37:  233].


Laird, M.  1965a.  Biotic factors in the control of the Culex pipiens complex.  WHO/Vector Contr./125.65:  175-181.


Laird, M.  1965b.  Insect pathology and vector control:  an international collaborative programme of research.  Proc. 12th Internatl. Cong. Ent. London, 12:  730.


Laird, M.  1965c.  Research needs and priorities-- biological control.  WHO/Vector Contr./125.65:  210-11.


Laird, M.  1965d.  Control of vectors of disease.  Mitt. Int. Verein. Limnol. 13:  63-5.


Laird, M.  1966a.  Integrated control and Aedes polynesiensis:  an outline of the Tokelau Islands project, and its results.  World Health Organ./EBL/66.69.  9 p.


Laird, M.  1966b.  Some Protozoa from Singapore insects.  Proc. 1st Internatl. Congr. Parasitol., Rome, 1964.  p. 595-6.


Laird, M.  1966.  Integrated control and Aedes polynesiensis:  an outline of the Tokelau Islands project, and its results.  WHO/EBL/66.69, WHO/FIL/66.63, WHO/Vector Contr./66.204.  9 p.


Laird, M.  1967a.  A coral island experiment.  A new approach to mosquito control.  WHO Chron. 21:  18-26.


Laird, M.  1967b.  Biotic factors in the control of Aedes aegypti.  WHO Bull. 36:  625-27.


Laird, M.  1969.  Recent advances of biological control in medical entomology.  Acad. Nazionale dei Lincei Quaderno N. 128:  155-64.


Laird, M.  1970.  Integrated control of mosquitoes.  Amer. Zool. 10:  573-8.


Laird, M.  1971a.  Microbial control of insects of medical importance, p. 387-406.  In:  H. D. Burges & N. W. Hussey (eds.), Microbial Control of Insects and Mites.  Academic Press, London & New York.


Laird, M.  1971b.  A bibliography on diseases and enemies of medically important arthropods 1963-67 with some earlier titles omitted from Jenkins' 1964 list.  Appendix 7, p. 751-90.  In:  H. D. Burges & N. W. Hussey (eds.), Microbial Control of Insects & Mites, Academic Press, London & New York.


Laird, M.  1971c.  The biological control of vectors.  Science 171(3971):  590-92.


Laird, M.  1972a.  Larval mosquito ecology in relation to mosquito control.  Internatl. Cong. Ent., Canberra Abstr. 14:  268.


Laird, M.  1972b.  The international co-ordination of research relating to integrated control in medical entomology.  Proc. Internatl. Cong. Ent. (Moscow) 13(3):  195-96.


Laird, M.  1973a.  Environmental impact of insect control by microorganisms.  Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 217:  218-26.


Laird, M.  1973b.  Biological control and Anopheles, prospects and priorities.  Internatl. Cong. Trop. Med. & Malaria (Athens) 9(1):  263-64.


Laird, M.  1973c.  Dragonflies versus mosquitoes again.  Mosq. News 33:  462-63.


Laird, M.  1975a.  Background statement for the discussions under agenda item C "control by parasites and predators."  Rev. Elev. Méd. Vét. Pays Trop., Suppl.  Les moyens de lutte contre les trypanosomes et leur vecteurs.  Actes du Colloque, Paris, Mar. 1974.  p. 79-81.


Laird, M.  1975b.  Recent progress towards innovative procedures for vector control.  Proc. Northwest Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc. 14:  1-10.


Laird, M.  1977a.  Enemies and diseases of mosquitoes their natural population regulatory significance in relation to pesticide use, and their future as marketable components of integrated control.  Mosq. News 37:  331-39.


Laird, M.  1977b.  Tsetse.  The Future for Biological Methods in Integrated Control.  Internatl. Develop. Res. Cent., Ottawa, Canada.  220 p.


Laird, M.  1977c.  Biological control by Protozoa.  Proc. 5th Internatl. Cong. Protozool., New York City.  p. 172-75.


Laird, M.  1977d.  Coelomomyces.  Mem. Univ. Newfoundland Res. Unit Vect. Pathol. Annu. Rept.  p. 13.


Laird, M.  1979.  Safety of microbial control agents to non-target invertebrates.  Environ. Conserv. 6(4):  278-80.


Laird, M.  1980.  Biocontrol in veterinary entomologyf.  Adv. Vet. Sci. Comp. Med. 24:  145-77.


Laird, M.  1981.  Black Flies:  The Future for Biological Methods in Integrated Control.  Academic Press, NY.  399 p.


Laird, M.  1982a.  Gregarine and microsporidian protozoa in Aedes polynesiensis, Tokelau Islands.  Recent accidental importations?  Canad. J. Zool. 60:  1922-29.


Laird, M.  1985a.  Use of Coelomomyces in biological control:  introduction of Coelomomyces stegomyiae into Nukunono, Tokelau Islands, p. 370-90.  In:  J. N. Couch & C. E. Bland (eds.), The Genus Coelomomyces.  Academic Press, Orlando, FL.


Laird, M.  1985b.  Conclusion, p. 216-18.  In:  H. C. Chapman (ed.), Biological Control of Mosquitoes.  Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Fresno, CA.


Laird, M.  1986.  The role of biological vector control in integrated health protection, p. 305-24.  In:  J. M. Franz (ed.), Biological Plant and Health Protection.  Fortschr. Zool., Stuttgart/NY. 32.  341 p.


Laird, M.  1988.  The natural history of larval mosquito habitats.  Academic Press, London.  p. 467-72.


Laird, M.  1990.  Five kingdoms-- reflections upon the classification of organisms.  J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 6:  553-56.


Laird, M. & D. H. Colless.  1959.  Experiments toward the biological control of mosquitoes in the Tokelau Islands.  WHO First Rept, Aug. to Oct., 1958.  39 p.


Laird, M. & J. W. Miles (eds.).  1984/85.  Integrated Mosquito Control Methodologies, Vol. 2.  Academic Press, London & New York.


Laird, M. & F. J. Simmonds.  1977.  Biocontrol prospects in future integrated tsetse control programs, p. 177-86.  In:  M. Laird (ed.), Tsetse:  the Future for Biological Methods in Integrated Control.  Intern. Devel. Res. Centre, Ottawa.


Laird, M. & J. W. Wright.  1966.  Integrated control and public health entomology.  Proc. FAO Symp. Integr. Pest Contr., Rome, 1965, 3:  77-9.


Laird, M., R. A. Nolan & M. Mogi.  1975.  Coelomomyces omorii sp. n. and C. raffaelei Coluzzi and Rioux var. parvum var. n. from mosquitoes in Japan.  J. Parasitol. 61:  539-44.


Laird, M., R. A. Nolan, M. Maffi & S. Biswas.  1976.  Coelomomyces-like diatom in hemocoel of a Syrian mosquito larva.  J. Invert. Pathol. 28:  385-87.


Laird, M., R. A. Nolan & J. C. Lien.  1980.  Coelomomyces stegomyiae var. chapmani var. nov. with new host records for Coelomomyces from mosquitoes of Taiwan.  Canad. J. Zool. 58:  1836-44.


Laird, M. et al.  1982a.  Biting Flies in Canada:  Health Effects and Economic Consequences.  Nat. Res. Counc. Canad., Ottawa NRCC Publ. No. 19248.  157 p.


Laird, M. J. Urdang & I. Tinielu.  1982b.  Establishment and long-term survival of Romanomermis culicivorax in mosquito habitats.  Tokelau Islands.  Mosq. News 42:  86-92.


Laird, M., J. Mokry, A. Semese & R. Uili.  1985.  Integrated control operations against Aedes aegypti in Tuvalu, Polynesia, p. 395-428.  In:  M. Laird & J. Miles (eds.), Integrated Mosquito Control Methodologies.  Academic Press, London.


Laird, M., L.A. Lacey, and E.W. Davidson, (eds.). 1990.  Safety of Microbial Insecticides.  CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, U.S.A.


Laird, M., M. Mogi & T. Sota.  1992.  Northernmost occurrences of the protistan pathogen, Coelomomyces stegomyiae var. stegomyiae.  J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 8:  430-32.


Lake, P.S. and DJ.  O'Dowd. 1991.  Red crabs in rain forest, Christmas Island: Biotic resistance to invasion by an exotic snail.  Oikos, 62: 25-29.


Lakitan, B., U. Pelly & D. Pimentel.  1989.  High versus low input agriculture and environmental consequences:  toward a productive-sustainable agriculture in developing countries.  Suara Pendidikan 6(13):  1-35.


Lal, K. B.  1934.  Insect parasites of Psyllidae.  Parasitol. 26:  325-34.


Lal, R. & E. Hague.  1955.  Effect of nutrition under controlled conditions of temperatures and humidity on longevity and fecundity of Sphaerophoria scuttellaris.  Efficacy of its maggots as aphid predators.  Indian J. Ent. 17:  317-20.


Lal, K. B. & M. A. Husain.  1945.  Hairiness of cotton leaves and anti-jassid resistance.  Current Sci. 14:  153-54.


Lall, B. S.  1962.  On the biology of Pediobius foveolatus (Crawford) [Eulophidae: Hymenoptera].  Indian J. Ent. (1961) 23:  268-73.


Lall, B. S. & L. M. Singh.  1968.  Biology and control of the onion thrips in India.  J. Econ. Ent. 61:  676-79.


Lamanna, C. & L. Jones.  1963.  Lethality for mice of vegetative and spore forms of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus cereus-like insect pathogens injected intraperitoneally and subcutaneously.  J. Bact., Baltimore 85:  532-5.


Lamas, J. M.  1980.  Control de los insectos- plaga del algodonero en el Peru.  Esquema de la planificación de una campaña de control integrado y sus problemas.  Revista Peruana Ent. 23:  1-6.


Lamb, C. G.  1918.  On a parasitic Drosophila from Trinidad.  Bull. Ent. Res. 9:  157-162.


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Lawson, F. R. & R. L. Rabb.  1964.  Factors controlling hornworm damage to tobacco and methods of predicting outbreaks.  Tobacco Sci. 8:  145-49.


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Lawton, J. H.  1986.  Host plant influences on insect diversity:  the effects of space and time. p. 105-25.  In:  L. A. Mound & N. Waloff (eds.), Diversity of Insect Faunas.  Blackwells Publ., Oxford.  204 p.


Lawton, J. H. & M. P. Hassell.  1984.  Interspecific competition in insects, p. 451-95.  In:  C. B. Huffaker & R. L. Rabb (eds.), Ecological Entomology.  John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.


Lawton, J. H. & S. McNeill.  1979a.  Between the devil and the deep blue sea:  on the problem of being a herbivore. p. 223-44.  In:  R. M. Anderson, B. D. Turner & L. R. Taylor (eds.), Population Dynamics.  Blackwell Scientific Publ., Oxford.


Lawton, J. H. & S. McNeill.  1979b.  Between the devil and the deep blue sea:  on the problem of being a herbivore.  Symp. British Ecol. Soc. 20:  223-44.


Lawton, J. H. & D. R. Strong.  1981.  Community patterns and competition in folivorous insects.  Amer. Nat. 118:  317-38.


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LeBeck, L. M.  1989.  Extracellular symbiosis of a yeast-like microorganism within Comperia merceti [Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae].  Symbiosis 7:  51-66.


LeBeck, L. M.  1991.  A review of the hymenopterous natural enemies of cockroaches with emphasis on biological control.  Entomophaga a36:  335-52.


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Lebrun, Ph.  1976.  Etude de l'action synergique d'insecticides chimiques et biologiques sur une population expérimentale de Tenebrio molitor [Col.: Tenebrionidae].  Entomophaga 21:  141-50.


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Lee, D K; Bhatkar, A P; Vinson, S B; Olson, J K.  1994.  Impact of foraging red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on Psorophora columbiae eggs.  J. of the Amer. Mosquito Control Assoc., v.10, n.2 PART 1, (1994): 163-173.


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Lee, J. C. & E. A. Bernays.  1988.  Declining acceptability of a food plant for the polyphagous grasshopper Schistocerca americana (Drury) (Orthoptera: Acrididae):  the role of food aversion learning.  Physiol. Ent. (in press).


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[Please refer to for details on publications by E. F. Legner]


Legner, E. F.  1958.  Some effects of aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin and heptachlor on the European earwig.  M.S. Thesis, Utah State University.  56 pp.


Legner, E. F.  1961.  An ecological study of some foliage-feeding insects on young nonbearing apple trees in Wisconsin.  Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison.  139 pp.


Legner, E. F.  1962.  Changes in sex ratio of the eye-spotted bud moth Spilonota ocellana, over its adult emergence period. J.Econ. Entomol. 55(4):  559-560.


Legner, E. F.  1962.  Some biotic control factors affecting the eye-spotted bud moth, and red-banded and fruit-tree leaf rollers in Wisconsin.  Entomol. Soc. Amer. North Cent. Br. Proc. 17: 115-117.


Legner, E. F.  1965a.  Un complejo de los artrópodos que influyen los estadios juveniles de Musca domestica L. en Puerto Rico.  Carib. J. Sci. 5(3-4):  109-115.


Legner, E. F.  1965b.  Natural and induced control of houseflies with parasites in southern California.  The Calif. Golden Egg 4(6):  18.


Legner, E. F.  1966a.  Parasites of the house fly and other filth-breeding Diptera in southern California.  J. Econ. Entomol. 59(4):  999-1001.


Legner, E. F.  1966b.  Competition among larvae of Hippelates collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae) as a natural control factor.  J. Econ. Entomol. 59(6):  1315-1321.


Legner, E. F.  1967a.  The status of Nasonia vitripennis as a natural parasite of the house fly, Musca domestica.  Canad. Ent. 99:  308-309.


Legner, E. F.  1967a.  Two exotic strains of Spalangia drosophilae merit consideration in biological control of Hippelates collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae).  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 60(2):  458-462.


Legner, E. F.  1967b.  Behavior changes the reproduction of Spalangia cameroni, S. endius, Muscidifurax raptor and Nasonia vitripennis [Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae] at increasing fly host densities.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 60:  819-26.


Legner, E. F.  1968.  Parasite activity related to ovipositional responses in Hippelates collusor.  J. Econ. Entomol. 61(5):  1160-1163.


Legner, E. F.  1969a.  Adult emergence interval and reproduction in parasitic Hymenoptera influenced by host size and density.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 62:  220-26.


Legner, E. F.  1969b.  Distribution pattern of hosts and parasitization by Spalangia drosophilae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Canad. Ent. 101:  551-57.


Legner, E. F.  1969c.  Reproductive isolation and size variation in the Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders complex.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 62(2):  382-385.


Legner, E. F.  1970a.  Contemporary considerations on the biological suppression of noxious brachycerous Diptera that breed in accumulated animal wastes.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 38:  88-89.


Legner, E. F.  1970b.  Advances in the ecology of Hippelates eye gnats in California indicate means for effective integrated control.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 38:  89-90.


Legner, E. F.  1971a.  Some effects of the ambient arthropod complex on the density and potential parasitization of muscoid Diptera in poultry wastes.  J. Econ. Ent. 64:  111-15.


Legner, E. F.  1971b.  A substrate for positioning minute insect specimens in stereoscopic microscopy.  J. Econ. Entomol. 64(1):  343.


Legner, E. F.  1971c.  Observations on the distribution, relative abundance, and behavior of anthropophilic Chloropidae in the Caribbean area.  Carib. J. Sci. 11(3-4):  163-169.


Legner, E. F.  1972.  Observations on hybridization and heterosis in parasitoids of synanthropic flies.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 65(1):  254-263.


Legner, E. F.  1973.  Book Review, "Biologische Schadlingsbekampfung." by J. M. Franz.  Paul Parey-Verlag, Berlin.  298 pp., 16 fig.  Bull. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 19(2):  126.


Legner, E. F. 1975.  Ethology of Host Selection by Entomophagous Insects:  Effect on successful importation of entomophagous insects.  Proc. Workshop Ethology of Host Selection by Entomophagous Insects, Tifton, Georgia, March 1975.  pp. 14-18.


Legner, E. F.  1976a.  The Musca sorbens Wiedemann complex in Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands.  Entomol. News 87(1-2):  39-48.


Legner, E. F.  1976b.  Low storage temperature effects on the reproductive potential of three parasites of Musca domestica.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 69(3):  435-441.


Legner, E. F.  1977a.  Temperature, humidity and depth of habitat influencing host destruction and fecundity of muscoid fly parasites.  Entomophaga 22:  199-206.


Legner, E. F.  1977b.  Response of Culex spp. larvae and their natural insect predators to two inoculation rates with Dugesia dorotocephala (Woodworth) in shallow ponds.  J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 37(3):  435-440.


Legner, E. F.  1978a.  Natural enemies imported in California for the biological control of face fly, Musca autumnalis DeGeer, and horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.).  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 46:  77-79.


Legner, E. F.  1978b.  Efforts to control Hydrilla verticillata Royle with herbivorous Tilapia zillii (Gervais) in Imperial County irrigation canals.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 46:  103-104.


Legner, E. F.  1978c.  Part I:  Parasites and predators introduced against arthropod pests.  Diptera.  In:  Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds:  a World Review (C. P. Clausen, ed.), pp. 335-39;  346-55.  Agr. Handbk. No. 480, ARS, USDA, U. S. Govt. Printing Off., Wash., D. C.  545 pp.


Legner, E. F.  1978d.  Mass culture of Tilapia zillii [Cichlidae] in pond ecosystems.  Entomophaga 23(1):  51-56.


Legner, E. F.  1983.  Requirements for appraisal of the true role of parasitic insects in the natural control of synanthropic Diptera.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 51:  97-98.


Legner, E. F.  1979a.  Prolonged culture and inbreeding effects on reproductive rates of two pteromalid parasites of muscoid flies.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 72(1):  114-118.


Legner, E. F.  1979b.  Reproduction of Spalangia endius, Muscidifurax raptor and M. zaraptor on fresh vs. refrigerated fly hosts.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 72(1):  155-157.


Legner, E. F.  1979c.  Emergence patterns and dispersal in Chelonus spp. near curvimaculatus and Pristomerus hawaiiensis, parasitic on Pectinophora gossypiella.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 72(5):  681-686.


Legner, E. F.  1979d.  Book Review, "Proc. of a Conf. on Pest Management." G. A. Norton & C. S. Holling (eds.).  International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.  A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria, 1977, 352 pp.  Protection Ecology 1:  154-156.


Legner, E. F.  1979e.  Advancements in the use of flatworms for biological mosquito control.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 47:  42-43.


Legner, E. F.  1979f.  Considerations in the management of Tilapia for biological aquatic weed control.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc.  47:  44-45.


Legner, E. F.  1979g.  The relationship between host destruction and parasite reproductive potential in Muscidifurax raptor, M. zaraptor, and Spalangia endius [Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae].  Entomophaga 24(2):  145-152.


Legner, E. F.  1980a.  Myriophyllum growth in irrigation canals following reductions of competitive Potamogeton by Tilapia zillii.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 48:  117.


Legner, E. F.  1980b.  Reduction of Pectinophora gossypiella in cotton by imported parasitic Hymenoptera.  Proc. 16th Intern. Cong. of  Entomology, 3-9 Aug 1980, Kyoto, Japan .  p. 360.


Legner, E. F.  1981.  Improving commercial biological control of filth flies with parasites.  pp. 5-10.  In:  U. S. Dept. Agr. Publ. A-106.2F64, "Status of Biological Control of Filth Flies."  212 pp.


Legner, E. F.  1983a.  Patterns of field diapause in the navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) and three imported parasites.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 76(3):  503-506.


Legner, E. F.  1983b.  Influence of residual Nonpareil almond mummies on densities of the navel orangeworm and parasitization.  J. Econ. Entomol. 76(3):  473-475.


Legner, E. F.  1983c.  Broadened view of Muscidifurax parasites associated with endophilous synanthropic flies and sibling species in the Spalangia endius complex.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 51:  47-48.


Legner, E. F.  1983d.  Requirements for appraisal of the role of parasitic insects in the natural control of synanthropic Diptera.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 51:  97-98.


Legner, E. F.  1983e.  Imported cichlid behaviour in California.  Proc. Intern. Symp. on Tilapia in aquaculture, Nazareth, Israel, 8-13 May, 1983.  Tel Aviv Univ. Publ. 59-63.


Legner, E. F.  1984a.  The requirement for expanded scientific study into interactions between dung beetles and Symbovine flies.  Proc. 17th Intern. Cong. of Entomology, Aug 20-26, Hamburg, Germany.  P. 704.


Legner, E. F.  1984b.  Biological control of mosquitoes and chironomids by habitat reduction and predation by cichlids.  Proc. 17th Intern. Cong. Entomology, Aug 20-26, Hamburg, Germany.  P 768.


Legner, E. F.  1984c.  Biological control of phycitids in soft-shelled almonds.  Proc. 17th Intern. Cong. Entomology, Aug 20-26, Hamburg, Germany. P. 773.


Legner, E. F.  1985a.  Invertebrate predators other than insects.  In:  "Biological Control of Mosquitoes,"  Chap. 6, pp. 46-50       (H. C. Chapman, ed.).  Bull. No. 6, Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 218 p.


Legner, E. F.  1985b.  Effects of scheduled high temperature on male production in thelytokous Muscidifurax uniraptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Canad. Entomol. 117(3):  383-389.


Legner, E. F.  1985c.  Risk categories of biological control organisms.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 53:  79-82.


Legner, E. F.  1985d.  Natural and induced sex ratio changes in populations of thelytokous Muscidifurax uniraptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 78(3):  398-402.


Legner, E. F. 1986a.  Importation of exotic natural enemies, pp. 19-30.  In:Franz, J.M., (ed.). Biological Plant and Health Protection: Biological Control of Plant Pests and of Vectors of Human and Animal Diseases.  International Sympo­sium of the Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Mainz, November 15-17th, 1984 at Mainz and Darmstadt. Fortschtltte der Zoologie, 32: 341 pp.  Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.


Legner, E. F.  1986b.  The requirement for reassessment of interactions among dung beetles, symbovine flies and natural enemies.  Entomol. Soc. Amer. Misc. Publ. 61:  120-131.


Legner, E. F.  1986c.  Breeding superior parasitoids of Diptera using a novel extranuclear inheritance mechanism.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 44:  156-159.


Legner, E. F.  1986d.  Trapping efficiency of exophilous synanthropic Diptera increased through considerations of behavior.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc.  54:  160-162.


Legner, E. F.  1987a.  The importance of single species in determining the average density of plants and animals.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 55:  121-23.


Legner, E. F.  1987b.  Further insights into extranuclear influences on behavior elicited by males in the genus Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 55:  127-130.


Legner, E. F.  1987c.  Transfer of thelytoky to arrhenotokous Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Canad. Entomol. 119(3):  265-271.


Legner, E. F.  1987d.  Pattern of thelytoky acquisition in Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Bull. Soc. Vect. Ecol. 12(2):  1-11.


Legner, E. F.  1987e.  Inheritance of gregarious and solitary oviposition in Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Canad. Entomol. 119(9):  791-808.


Legner, E. F.  1987f.  Some quantitative aspects of inheritance in breeding synanthropic fly parasitoids.  Bull. Soc. Vect. Ecol. 12(2);  528-533.


Legner, E. F.  1988a.  Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) females exhibit postmating oviposition behavior typical of the male genome.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 81(3):  522-527.


Legner, E. F.  1988b.  Quantitation of heterotic behavior in parasitic Hymenoptera.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 81(4):  657-681.


Legner, E. F.  1988c.  Hybridization in principal parasitoids of synanthropic Diptera:  the genus Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Hilgardia 56(4):  36 pp.


Legner, E. F.  1988d.  Studies of four thelytokous Puerto Rican isolates of Muscidifurax uniraptor [Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae].  Entomophaga 33(3);  269-280.


Legner, E. F.  1989a.  Wary genes and accretive inheritance in Hymenoptera.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 82(3):  245-249.


Legner, E. F.  1989b.  Paternal influences in males of Muscidifurax raptorellus  [Hymenoptera:  Pteromalidae].  Entomophaga 34(3):  307-320.


Legner, E. F.  1989c.  Phenotypic expressions of polygenes in Muscidifurax raptorellus [Hym.: Pteromalidae], a synanthropic fly parasitoid.  Entomophaga 34(4):  523-530.


Legner, E. F.  1989d.  Fly parasitic wasp, Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) invigorated through insemination by males of different races.  Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 14(2):  291-300.


Legner, E. F.  1990a.  Estimations of gene number, heritability and dominance in quantitative inheritance, with special reference to Hymenoptera.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 57:  95-105.


Legner, E. F.  1990.  Increasing parasitism and mortality of Synanthropic Muscidae.  Proc. 2nd International Congress of Dipterology,  Aug. 27-Sept. 1, 1990.  Bratislava, Czechoslovakia.  P. 131.


Legner, E. F.  1990b.  Might wary genes attenuate Africanized honey bees?  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 57:  106-109.


Legner, E. F.  1991a.  Recombinant males in the parasitic wasp Muscidifurax raptorelus  [Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae].  Entomophaga 36(2):  173-81.


Legner, E. F.  1991b.  Formidable position of turbellarians as biological mosquito control agents.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Vect. Contr. Assoc. 59:  82-5.



Legner, E. F.  1993.  Theory for quantitative inheritance of behavior in a protelean parasitoid, Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  European J. Ent. 90:  11-21.


Legner, E. F.  1995a.  Biological control of Diptera of medical and veterinary importance.  J. Vector Ecol. 20(1):  59-120.


Legner. E. F.  1995b.  Host specificity patterns and determinants in hymenopterous parasitoids:  constraint to the use of new associations.  In: Paper No. 62, Abstracts 13th International Plant Protection Congress, The Hague, The Netherlands, 2-7 July 1995.   European J. Plant Pathology, Kluwer Academic Publ.


Legner, E. F.  1995c.  Monarch & Viceroy Butterflies. Special Report, Riverside Municipal Museum, Riverside, CA.  3 p.


Legner, E. F.  1995d.  Secrets of Science. Special Report, Riverside Municipal Museum, Riverside, CA.  2 p.


Legner. E. F.  1995.  Host specificity patterns and determinants in hymenopterous parasitoids:  constraint to the use of new associations.  In: Paper No. 62, Abstracts 13th International Plant Protection Congress, The Hague, The Netherlands, 2-7 July 1995.   European J. Plant Pathology, Kluwer Academic Publ.


Legner, E. F.  1996.  Beneficial Insects. Special Report, Riverside Municipal Museum, Riverside, CA.  5 p.


Legner, E. F.  1997a.  History of Biological Control.  Special Report, Riverside Municipal Museum, Riverside, CA.  7 p.


Legner, E. F.  Ladybird Beetles. 1997b.  Special Report, Riverside Municipal Museum, Riverside, CA.  5 p.


Legner, E. F.  1998a.  Introduction and Scope of Biological Control.  Special Report, Riverside Municipal Museum, Riverside, CA.  10 p.


Legner, E. F.  1998b.  Fruit Flies in California.  Special Report, Riverside Municipal Museum, Riverside, CA.  12 p.


Legner, E. F.  1998c.  Killer Bees. Special Report, Riverside Municipal Museum, Riverside, CA.  4 p.


Legner, E. F.  1998d.  Everywhere is Home. Special Report, Riverside Municipal Museum, Riverside, CA.  2 p.


Legner, E. F.  1998e.  Familiar Butterflies of the Untied States & Canada. Special Report, Riverside Municipal Museum, Riverside, CA.  28 pp. + illus.


Legner, E. F.  2000.  Biological control of aquatic Diptera.  p. 847-870.  Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera, Vol. 1, Science Hearld, Budapest.  978 p


Legner. E. F.  2005.  Key to adults of principal parasitoids of synanthropic Diptera  breeding in decomposing organic wastes.  Private  Publication, 2005.


Legner, E. F.  2008.  Biological Pest Control:  A History.  Encyclopedia of Pest Management, 17 Nov; 1:1, 1-4. Taylor & Francis, NY.


Legner, E. F.  2008.  Biological Pest Control: A History.  Encyclopedia of Pest Management, 17 November; 1:1, 1 - 4


Legner, E. F. & M. E. Badgley.  1982.  Improved parasites for filth fly control.  Calif. Agr. 36(9 & 10):  27.  (Referee review).


Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1964a.  La primera exploración para buscar enemigos naturales de Hippelates en Puerto Rico (Insecta: Chloropidae).  Carib. J. Sci. 4(4):  467-471.


Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1964b.  Natural exposure of Hippelates eye gnats to field parasitization and the discovery of one pupal and two larval parasites.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 57:  767-69.


Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1965a.  Ooencyrtus submetallicus Howard in an extraordinary host-relationship with Hippelates pusio Loew.  Canad. Ent. 97:  556-57.


Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1965b.  Predatory and parasitic agents attacking the Hippelates pusio complex in Puerto Rico.  J. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico 49(3):  377-385.


Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1965c.  Culture of Hippelates pusio (Diptera: Chloropidae) in the West Indies for natural enemy exploration and some notes on behavior and distribution.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 58(4):  436-440.


Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1970a.  The introduction of natural enemies in California for the biological control of noxious flies and gnats.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 37:  126-129.


Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1970b.  Dynamics of Hippelates eye gnat breeding in the Southwest.  Calif. Agr. 24(5):  1, 4-6.


Legner, E. F. & T. S. Bellows, Jr..  1999.  Exploration for natural enemies. In: Bellows, T. S.,Jr. & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Chapter 15, p. 87-101., Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA


Legner, E. F. & W. R. Bowen.  1973.  Influence of available poultry manure breeding habitat on emergence density of synanthropic flies (Diptera).  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 66(3):  533-538.


Legner, E. F. & H. W. Brydon.  1966. Suppression of dung inhabiting fly populations by pupal parasites.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 59(4):  638-651.


Legner, E. F. & D. W. Davis.  1962.  Tests with attractants and a simple trap for the European earwig, Forficula auricularia.  J. Econ. Entomol. 55(6):  1006-1007.


Legner, E. F. & D. W. Davis.  1963.  Some effects of aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin and heptachlor on the European earwig, Forficula auricularia.  J. Econ. Entomol. 56(1):  29-31.


Legner, E. F. & E. J. Dietrick.  1972.  Inundation with parasitic insects to control filth breeding flies in California.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 40:  129-130.


Legner, E. F. & E. J. Dietrick.  1974.  Effectiveness of supervised control practices in lowering population densities of synanthropic flies on poultry ranches.  Entomophaga 19(4):  467-478.


Legner, E. F. & E. J. Dietrick.  1989.  Coexistence of predatory Muscina stabulans and Ophyra aenescens [Dipt.: Muscidae] with dipterous prey in poultry manure.  Entomophaga 34(4):  453-461.


Legner, E. F. & R. E. Eastwood.  1973.  Seasonal and spatial distribution of Tinea fuscipunctella on poultry ranches.  J. Econ. Entomol. 66(3):  685-687.


Legner, E. F. & T. W. Fisher.  1980.  Impact of Tilapia zillii (Gervais) on Potamogeton pectinatus L., Myriophyllum spicatum var. exalbescens Jepson, and mosquito reproduction in lower Colorado Desert irrigation canals.  Acta Oecologica, Oecol. Applic. 1(1):  3-14.


Legner, E. F. & D. Gerling.  1967.  Host-feeding and oviposition on Musca domestica by Spalangia cameroni, Nasonia vitripennis, and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) influences their longevity and fecundity.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 60(3):  678-691.


Legner, E. F. & R. D. Goeden.  1987.  Larval parasitism of Rhagoletis completa (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Juglans microcarpa (Juglandaceae) in western Texas and southeastern New Mexico.  Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 89(4):  739-743.


Legner, E. F. & G. Gordh.  1992.  Lower navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) population densities following establishment of Goniozus legneri (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in California.  J. Econ. Ent. 85(6):  2153-60.


Legner, E. F. & D. J. Greathead.  1969.  Parasitism of pupae in East African populations of Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 62(1):  128-133.


Legner, E. F. & M. Kogan.  1969.  The scanning electron microscope offers new techniques for diagramming diagnostic characters on insects.  Calif. Agr. 23(9):  1, 4-5.


Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1972.  Predators investigated for the biological control of mosquitoes and midges at the University of California, Riverside.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 40:  109-111.


Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1973a.  Predation of mosquitoes and chironomid midges in ponds by Tilapia zillii (Gervais) and T. mossambica (Peters) (Teleosteii: Cichlidae).  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 41:  119-121.


Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1973b.  Influence of Tilapia mossambica (Peters), T. zillii (Gervais) (Cichlidae) and Mollienesia latipinna LeSueur (Poeciliidae) on pond populations of Culex mosquitoes and chironomid midges.  J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 33(3):  354-364.


Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1974a.  Laboratory and small-scale field experiments with planaria (Tricladida, Turbellaria) as biological mosquito control agents.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 42:  79-80.


Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1974b.  The native desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius Baird and Girard, a substitute for Gambusia in  mosquito control?  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 42:  58-59.


Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1979.  Influence of parasitic Hymenoptera on the regulation of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, on cotton in the lower Colorado Desert.  Environ. Entomol. 8(5):  922-930.


Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1981.  Pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), suppression with Gossyplure, a pyrethroid, and parasite releases.  Canad. Entomol. 113:  355-357.


Legner, E. F. & C. W. McCoy.  1966a.  The housefly, Musca domestica Linnaeus, as an exotic species in the Western Hemisphere incites biological control studies.  Canad. Entomol. 98(3):  243-248.


Legner, E. F. & I. Moore.  1977a.  Staphylinidae from under bark and at sap of trees, a preliminary survey of species possibly beneficial to forestry (Coleoptera).  The Great Lakes Entomologist 10(4):  173-177.


Legner, E. F. & I. Moore.  1977b.  The larva of Platystethus spiculus Erichson (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and its occurrence in bovine feces in irrigated pastures.  Psyche 84(2):  158-164.


Legner, E. F. & C. A. Murray.  1981.  Feeding rates and growth of the fish Tilapia zillii [Cichlidae] on Hydrilla verticillata, Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum var. exalbescens and interactions in irrigation canals in southeastern California.  J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 41(2):  241-250.


Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman.  1962a.  Effects of Thuricide on the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana.  J. Econ. Entomol. 5(5):  677-679.


Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman.  1962b.  Foliage-feeding Lepidoptera on young nonbearing apple trees in Wisconsin.  J. Econ. Entomo. 5:


Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman.  1962c.  Suspected cases of Prunus virus transmission by aphids in Wisconsin.  Entomol. Soc. Amer. North Cent. Br. Proc. 17:  3 pp.


Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman.  1962d.  Pupal mortality of the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana (D. & S.), and its constancy over a three-year period in Wisconsin.  Entomol. Soc. Amer. North Cent. Br. Proc. 17:  27.


Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman.  1962e.  Sampling and distribution of summer eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana (D. & S.), larvae and nests on apple trees.  Canad. Entomol. 94(11):  1187-1189.


Legner, E. F. and  E. R. Oatman.  1963a.  Pupation sites of the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana (D. & S.), and differences in degree of development on two apple varieties in Wisconsin.  J. Econ. Entomol. 56(5):  689-690.


Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman.  1963b.  Natural biotic control factors of the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana on apple in Wisconsin.  J. Econ. Entomol. 56(6);  730-732.


Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman.  1964.  Spiders on apple in Wisconsin and their abundance in a natural and two artificial environments.  Canad. Entomol. 96(9):  1202-1207. 55(4):  552-554.


Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman.  1965.  Limitation on the pupal development of the eye-spotted bud moth in northeastern Wisconsin.  J. Econ. Entomol. 58(2):  359-360.


Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1968a.  The biological method and integrated control of house and stable flies in California.  Calif. Agr. 22(6):  1-4.


Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1968b.  Activity of parasites from Diptera: Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, and species of Fannia, Muscina and Ophyra  II.  at sites in the Eastern Hemisphere and Pacific area.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 61: 1306-14.


Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1969.  Migrations of Hippelates collusor larvae from moisture and trophic stimuli and their encounter by Trybliographa parasites.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 62(1):  136-141.


Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1970.  Worldwide survey and comparison of adult predator and scavenger insect populations associated with domestic animal manure where livestock is artificially congregated.  Hilgardia 40(9):  225-266.


Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1971.  Distribution and relative abundance of dipterous pupae and their parasitoids in accumulations of domestic animal manure in the southwestern United States.  Hilgardia 40(14):  505-35.


Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1971.  Distribution and relative abundance of dipterous pupae and their parasitoids in accumulations of domestic animal manure in the southwestern United States.  Hilgardia 40(14):  505-535.


Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1975.  Filth fly sources in decaying melon fields in southern California's low deserts.  Calif. Agr. 29(1):  10-11.


Legner, E. F. & F. W. Pelsue.  1977.  Adaptations of Tilapia to Culex and chironomid midge ecosystems in south California.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 45:  95-97.


Legner, E. F. & F. W. Pelsue, Jr.  1980.  Bioconversion:  Tilapia fish turn insects and weeds into edible protein.  Calif. Agr. 34(11-12):  13-14.


Legner, E. F. & F. W. Pelsue, Jr.  1983.  Contemporary appraisal of the population dynamics of introduced cichlid fish in south California.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 51:  38-39.


Legner, E. F. & J. H. Poorbaugh, Jr.  1972.  Biological control of vector and noxious synanthropic flies:  a review.  Calif. State Dept. Publ. Health, Vector Views 19(11):  81-100.


Legner, E. F. & A. Silveira-Guido.  1983.  Establishment of Goniozus emigratus and Goniozus legneri [Hym: Bethylidae] on navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella [Lep: Phycitidae] in California and biological control potential.  Entomophaga 28(2):  97-106.


Legner, E. F. & R. D. Sjogren.  1984.  Biological mosquito control furthered by advances in technology and research.  J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 44(4):  449-456.


Legner, E. F. & R. D. Sjogren.  1985.  Biological mosquito control:  broader recognition of past successes and future emphases.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 52:  102-107.


Legner, E. F. & S. N. Thompson.  1977.  Effects of the parental host on host selection, reproductive potential, survival and fecundity of the egg-larval parasitoid Chelonus sp. near curvimaculatus, reared on Pectinophora gossypiella and Phthorimaea operculella.  Entomophaga 22(1):  75-84.


Legner, E. F. & S.-C. Tsai.  1978.  Increasing fission rate of the planarian mosquito predator, Dugesia dorotocephala, through biological filtration.  Entomophaga 23(3):  293-298.


Legner, E. F. & R. W. Warkentin.  1983.  Questions concerning the dynamics of Onthophagus gazella (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) with symbovine flies in the lower Colorado Desert of California.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 51:  99-101.


Legner, E. F. & R. W. Warkentin.  1985.  Genetic improvement and inbreeding effects in culture of beneficial arthropods.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 52:  156-161.


Legner, E. F. & R. W. Warkentin.  1988.  Parasitization of Goniozus legneri (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) at increasing parasite and host Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) densities.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 81(5):  774-776.


Legner, E. F. & R. W. Warkentin.  1990.  Rationale for the desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, as a complement to Gambusia in mosquito control.  Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 57:  142-145.


Legner, E. F. & R. W. Warkentin.  1991.  Influence of Onthophagus gazella on hornfly, Haematobia irritans density in irrigated pastures.  Entomophaga 36:  547-53.


Legner, E. F. & H.-S. Yu.  1975.  Larvicidal effects on mosquitoes of substances secreted by the planarian Dugesia dorotocephala (Woodworth).  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 43:  128-131.


Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay & C. W. McCoy.  1965.  Parasitic natural regulatory agents attacking Musca domestica L. in Puerto Rico.  J. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico 49(3):  368-376.


Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay & T. H. Farr. 1966a. Parasitic and predacious agents affecting the Hippelates pusio complex in Jamaica and Trinidad.  Canad. Entomol. 98(1):  28-33.


Legner, E. F., G. S. Olton & F. M. Eskafi.  1966b.  Influence of physical factors on the developmental stages of Hippelates collusor in relation to the activities of its natural parasites.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 59(4):  851-861.


Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay & R. A. Medved.  1966c.  Behavior of three native pupal parasites of Hippelates collusor in controlled systems.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 59(5):  977-984.


Legner et al.  (with V. E. Burton, A. S. Deal, W. C. Fairbanks, G. P. Georghiou, E. C. Loomis & M. H. Swanson).  1966d.  Fly control on poultry ranches.  Univ. of Calif. Agr. Ext. Serv. Publ. AXT-72, Rev. 16 pp.


Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay, H. W. Brydon & C. W. McCoy.  1966e.  Research with parasites for biological control of house flies in southern California.  Calif. Agr. 20(4):  10-12.


Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay & E. B. White.  1967.  Activity of parasites from Diptera:  Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Fannia canicularis and F. femoralis, at sites in the Western Hemisphere.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 60(2):  462-468.


Legner et al.  (with Anderson, J. R., A. S. Deal, E. C. Loomis & M. H. Swanson).  1968.  Fly control on poultry ranches.  Univ. of Calif. Agr. Ext. Serv. Publ. AXT-72.  Rev.  13 pp.


Legner, E. F., R. D. Sjogren & J. T. Wiles.  1970.  Effects of low biuret urea on natural populations of Hippelates collusor (Townsend) and Leptoconops kerteszi (Kieffer).  J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 30(4):  634-640.


Legner, E. F., L. Moore & R. A. Medved.  1971.  Observations on predation of Hippelates collusor and distribution in southern California of associated fauna.  J. Econ. Entomol. 64(2):  461-468.


Legner, E. F., W. R. Bowen, W. D. McKeen, W. F. Rooney & R. F. Hobza.  1973a.  Inverse relationships between mass of breeding habitat and synanthropic fly emergence and the measurement of population densities with sticky tapes in California inland valleys.  Environ. Entomol. 2(2):  199-205.


Legner, E. F., T. W. Fisher & R. A. Medved.  1973b.  Biological control of aquatic weeds in the lower Colorado River basin.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 41:  115-117.


Legner, E. F., R. D. Sjogren & I. M. Hall.  1974a.  The biological control of medically important arthropods.  Critical Reviews in Environmental Control 4(1):  85-113.


Legner, E. F., B. B. Sugerman, H.-S. Yu and H. Lum.  1974b.  Biological and integrated control of the bush fly, Musca sorbens Wiedemann and other filth breeding Diptera in Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands.  Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 1:  1-14.


Legner, E. F., R. D. Sjogren & I. M. Hall.  1974c.  The biological control of medically important arthropods.  Crit. Rev. Environ.  Control 4(1):  85-113.


Legner, E. F., W. R. Bowen, W. F. Rooney, W. D. McKeen & G. W. Johnston.  1975a.  Integrated fly control on poultry ranches.  Calif. Agr. 29(5):  8-10.


Legner, E. F., R. A. Medved & W. J. Hauser.  1975b.  Predation by the desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius on Culex mosquitoes and benthic chironomid midges.  Entomophaga 20(1):  23-30.


Legner, E. F., H.-S. Yu, R. A. Medved & M. E. Badgley.  1975c.  Mosquito and chironomid midge control by planaria.  Calif. Agr. 29(11):  3-6.


Legner, E. F., W. J. Hauser, T. W. Fisher & R. A. Medved.  1975d.  Biological aquatic weed control by fish in the lower Sonoran Desert of California.  Calif. Agr. 29(11):  8-10.


Legner, E. F., R. A. Medved & G. C. McFarland.  1975e.  Population density of chironomid midge larvae in relation to position downstream in paved channels.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 43:  107-109.


Legner, E. F., R. A. Medved & R. D. Sjogren.  1975f.  Quantitative water column sampler for insects in shallow aquatic habitats.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc.  43:  110-115.


Legner, E. F., G. S. Olton, R. E. Eastwood & E. J. Dietrick.  1975g.  Seasonal density, distribution and interactions of predatory and scavenger arthropods in accumulating poultry wastes in coastal and interior southern California.  Entomophaga 20(3):  269-283.


Legner, E. F., R. D. Sjogren, G. S. Olton & L. Moore.  1976a.  Control of biting and annoying gnats with fertilizer.  Calif. Agr. 30(2):  14-17.


Legner, E. F., I. Moore & G. S. Olton.  1976b.  Tabular keys and biological notes to common parasitoids and synanthropic Diptera breeding in accumulated animal wastes.  Entomol. News 87(3 & 4):  113-144.


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