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Entomology / Biological Pest Control





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Abarca, M., A. C. Iturbe & S. F. Caceres.  1958.  The sugarcane borers in Mexico.  An attempt to control them through parasites.  Proc. 10th Intern. Cong. Ent. (1956) 4:  827-34.


Abasa, R. O.  1973.  Observations on the seasonal emergence of fruit flies on a Kenya coffee estate and studies of the pest status of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in coffee [Diptera: Tephritidae].  E. Afr. Agr. For. J. 39:  144-148.


Abasa, R. O. & W. M. Mathenge.  1972.  Observations on the biology and host-searching behaviour of Afromelanichneumon sporadicus and Cryptus nigropictus [Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae] pupal parasites of Ascotis selenaria reciprocaria [Lepidoptera: Geometridae].  Entomophaga 17:  93-8.


Abasa, R. O. & W. M. Mathenge.  1974.  Laboratory studies of the biology and food requirements of Macroraphis acuta [Hemiptera: Pentatomidae].  Entomophaga 213-18.


Abbas, H. M., M. S. Khan & H. Haque.  1955.  Black fly of citrus (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby) in sind and its control.  Agr. Pakistan 6:  5-23.


Abbas, M. S. T.  1989.  Studies on Trichogramma buesi as a biocontrol agent against Pieris brassicae in Egypt.  Entomophaga 34:  447-54.


Abbas, M. S., A. H. El-Heneidy, M. M. Imbaby & M. A. Ewaise.  1989.  On utilization of Trichogramma evanescens West. to control the lesser sugar cane borer, Chilo agamemnon Bles. in sugar cane fields in Egypt. 3-- Three-wave release technique.  Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte, Proc. 1st Internatl. Conf. Econ. Ent. Vol 11:  87-92.


Abbott, C. E.  1928.  Some observations on the behaviour of Cerceris architis Mickel (Hym.: Philanthidae).  Ent. News 39:  205-06.


Abbott, C. E.  1934a.  How Megarhyssa deposits her eggs.  J. New York Ent. Soc. 42:  127-33.


Abbott, C. E.  1934b.  Notes on Megarhyssa lunator.  Psyche 41(4):  238-40.


Abbott, C. E.  1934c.  Anatomical modifications associated with the oviposition of Megarhyssa lunator.  Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 29:  39-41.


Abbott, C. E.  1936.  On the olfactory powers of Megarhyssa lunator (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae).  Ent. News 47:  263-64.


Abbott, C. E.  1937.  The necrophilous habit in Coleoptera.  Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 32:  202-04.


Abbott, C. E.  1938.  The development and general biology of Creophilus villosus Grav.  J. New York Ent. Soc. 46:  49-52.


Abbott, R. L.  1932.  Instinct or intelegence in the great golden digger?  Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 38 (1931):  241-44.


Abd Allah, A. T.; Borchardt, D. B.; Wanas, M. Q. A.; Thompson, S. N.  1998.  A qualitative 31P NMR investigation on the effects of exposure to lead, cadmium, or mercury on the energetic status of the pulmonate gastropod, Biomphalaria glabrata (Say).Veliger, v.41, n.4, (1998. Oct. 1): 339-343.


Abdel-Kawi, F.  1971.  Studies on different predators of certain economic pests.  M.S. Thesis, Plant Protection Dept. of Agr., Assiut University, Egypt.


Abdel-Malek, A.  1947.  A study of the biology of Chelonella sulcata Nees (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  Ohio J. Sci. 47(5):  206-16.


Abdel-Malek, A. A.  1963.  Inhibitory effect of L-methinonine-methyl- C-14 on oviposition by females of the cotton leaf worm, Prodenia litura (F.), induced by radioactive males.  Nature, London 200:  604-5.


Abdel-Malek, A. A., A. O. Tantawy & A. M. Wakid.  1967.  Studies on the eradication of Anopheles pharoensis by the sterile-male technique using cobalt-60. III. Determination of the sterile dose and its biological effects on different characters relatd to "fitness" components.  J. Econ. Ent. 60:  20-3.


Abdelrahman, I.  1973.  Toxicity of malathion to the natural enemies of California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Mask.) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).  Australian J. Agr. Res. 24:  119-33.


Abdel-Salam, F.  1966.  Über die Wirkung von Phosphorsäureestern auf einige Arthropoden innerhalb der Apfelbaum-Biozönose in Abhängigkeit von ihrer Dichte.  Diss. Landw. Hochschule Hohenheim.  74 p.


Abdullah, M. 1974. World Entomophaga Abdullah, a new suborder of Coleoptera including Strepsiptera (Insecta). Zoo I. Beit., 20(2):177-211; illus.


Abdullaev, E.  1974.  Parasites of the codling moth of some regions of Uzbekistan, p. 10-15.  In:  Ecology and biology of entomophages of pests of agricultural crops of Uzbekistan.  Tashkent.  [in Russian].


Abdurahiman, U. C. & K. J. Joseph.  1975.  New fig insects [Hym.: Chalcidoidea] from India:  three torymids parasitic on agaonids.  Entomophaga 20:  73-80.Abeille de Perrin, E.  1909.  Etude d'un Rhipidius nouveau du Provence.  (R. boissyi Abeille).  C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris 67:  854-58.


Ables, J.R. 1979.  Methods for the field release Of insect parasites and predator.Agric. Engineers USDA, 22: 59-62. Trans. Amer. Soc.


Ables, J. R. & R. L. Ridgway.  1981.  Augmentation of entomophagous arthropods to control pest insects and mites. p. 273-303.  In: G. C. Papvisas (ed.), Biological Control in Crop Protection.  Allenheld, Osman & Co. Publ.


Ables, J. R. & M. Shepard.  1974a.  Hymenopterous parasitoids associated with poultry manure.  Environ. Ent. 3:  884-6.


Ables, J. R. & M. Shepard.  1974b.  Responses and competition of the parasitoids Spalangia endius and Muscidifurax raptor  [Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae] at different densities of house fly pupae.  Canad. Ent. 106:  825-30.


Ables, J. R. & M. Shepard.  1976.  Seasonal abundance and activity of indigenous hymenopterous parasitoids attacking the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae).  Canad. Ent. 108:  841-4.


Ables, J. R. & S. B. Vinson.  1981.  Regulation of host larval development by the egg-larval endoparasitoid Chelonus insularis [Hym.: Braconidae].  Entomophaga 26: 453-58.


Ables, J. R., S. L. Jones & D. L. Bull.  1977.  Effect of diflubenzuron on beneficial arthropods associated with cotton.  Southwest Ent. (1977).


Ables, J. R., S. L. Jones, R. K. Morrison, V. S. House, D. L. Bull, L. F. Bouse & J. B. Carlton.  1979.  New development in the use of Trichogramma to control lepidopteran pests of cotton. p. 125-27.  In:  Proc. 1979 Cotton Prod. Res. Conf.


Ables, J. R., S. B. Vinson & J. S. Ellis.  1981.  Host discrimination by Chelonus insularis (Hym.: Braconidae), Telenomus heliothidis (Hym.: Scelionidae) and Trichogramma pretiosum (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae).  Entomophaga 26: 149-56.


Abou-Awad, B.A., and E.M. El-Banhawy. 1986.  Biological studies of Amblyseius olivi, a new predator of eriophyid mites infesting olive trees in Egypt (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  Entomophaga, 31: 99-103.


Abou-Awad, B.A., A.S. Reda, and S.A. Elsawi, 1992.  Effects of artificial and natural diets on the development and reproduction of two phytoseiid mites Amblyseius gossipi and Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  Insect Science and Its Application, 13: 441-445.


Abou-Zeid, N. A., M. S. I. El-Dakroury, A. H. El-Heneidy & M. S. T. Abbas  1978.  Biology of Microplitis rufiventris Kok. parasitising Heliothis armigera Hb. in Egyp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  Agr. Res. Rev 1978:  31-36.


Abou-Zeid, N. A.  1978.  Biology of Microplitis rufiventris Kok. parasitising Heliothis armigera Hb. in Egypt (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  Agr. Res. Rev 1978:  31-36.


Abraham, R.  1985.  Nasonia vitripennis an insect from bird's nests (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae).  Ent. Gen. 10:  121-24.


Abraham, R. & H. König.  1977.  Der Einfluss der Temperatur auf die Anstichaktivität bei Nasonia vitripennis und Spalangia nigra [Chalcid.: Pteromalidae].  Entomophaga 22:  299-308.


Abraham, Y.J., D. Moore, and G. Godwin. 1990.  Rearing and aspects of biology of Cephalonomia stephanodes and Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) parasitoids of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus bampei (Coleop­tera: Scolytidae).  Bull. of Entomological Res., 80: 121-128.


Abrahamsen, S. E.  1952.  New investigations on the biology of Danish digger wasps.  Flora og Fauna, Aahus 57:  115-30.  [in Danish w/ English summary].


Abrams, L.  1923.  Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States. I.  Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, CA. 538 p.


Abrams, L.  1951.  Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States. III. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, CA. 866 p.


Abrams, L. & R. S. Ferris.  1960.  Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States. IV.  Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, CA. 732 p.


Abu Yaman, I. K.  1960.  Natural control on cabbage root fly populations and influence of chemicals.  Meded. Landbou. Sch., Wageningen 60:  1:  1-57.




Acatrinel, G. & I. P. Petcu.  1966.  Le développement du champignon Beauveria bassiana Vuill. dans le corps des larves de doryphores (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) et son action histopathologique.  An. Stiint. Univ. Iasi, Sec. Biol. 12:  133-38.  [in Romanian].


Achan, P. D., K. C. Mathur, P. R. Dharmadhikari & T. M. Manjunath.  1968.  Parasites of Heliothis spp. in India.  Connonw. Inst. Biol. Contr., Tech. Bull. 10:  129-49.


Acholonu and Joyce Ann Penfield.  1980.  Linguistic Processes of Lexical Innovation in Igbo.  Anthropological Linguistics. 22: 118-130.


Acholonu, C. O. 1985. The Role of Nigerian Dancers in Drama. Nigeria Magazine. 53.1. 33-39.


Acholonu, Catherine Obianuju. 1987. "The Home of Olaudah Equiano -- A Linguistic and Anthropological Search," The Journal of Commonwealth Literature. 22.1: 5-16.


Acholonu, C. O.  1989.  L'Igbo Langue Litteraire: Le Cas du Nigeria." (Literary Igbo Language: The Case of Nigeria.) Notre Librairie: Revue du Livre: Afrique, Caraibes, Ocean Indien. 98 (Jul-Sept): 26-30.


Acholonu, C. O.  1993.  Mother was a Great Man." The Heinemann Book of African Women's Writing. Ed. Charlotte H. Bruner. London: Heinemann. 7-14.


Achvlediani, E. N.  1965.  Studium der bakteriellen Bekämpfungsmethode gegen schädliche Nagetiere in Georgien.  Trudy Vses. nau…n.-issled. Inst. Zaš…. Rast., Leningrad 24:  196-202.  [in Russian].


Achvlediani, M. N.  1963.  Material zum Studium der Blattlausparasiten des östlichen Gruziniens.  Soobš…. Akad. nauk Gruz SSR 30(6):  181-6.  [in Russian].


Ackermann, H.-W., W. A. Smirnoff & A. Z. Blisky.  1974.  Structure of two phages of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. cereus.  Canad. J. Microbiol. 20:  29-33.


Acqua, C.  1919.  Richerche sulla malattia del giallume del baco da seta.  Rendiconti dell' Istituto Bac. del R. Scuola Super. di Agr. in Portici, 3:  243-56.




Adam, H.  1965.  The hemocyte defensive reactions of the blood of Strongylogaster xanthoceros (Christ) against the endoparasitic ichneumonid Mesoleius niger (Gravenhorst).  Beitr. Ent. 15:  893-965.  [in German].


Adams, C. H.  1966.  Biology and insecticide resistance of Bracon mellitor, a parasite of the boll weevil.  Diss. Abstr. 26(9):  4974-75.


Adams, C. H. & W. H. Cross.  1967.  Insecticide resistance in Bracon mellitor, a parasite of the boll weevil.  J. Econ. Ent. 60:  1016-20.


Adams, C. H., W. H. Cross & H. C. Mitchell.  1969.  Biology of Bracon mellitor, a parasite of the boll weevil.  J. Econ. Ent. 62:  889-96.


Adams, J., E. D. Rothman, W. E. Kerr & Z. L. Paulino.  1977.  Estimation of the number of sex alleles and queen matings from diploid male frequencies in a population of Apis melifera.  Genetics 86:  853-596.


Adams, J. R., C. C. Beegle & G. J. Tompkins.  1982.  A chlamydial-like organism isolated from insect mass rearing facilities.  40th Ann. Proc. Electron Microscopy Soc. Amer.  p. 316-17.


Adams, M. E., E. E. Herold & V. J. Venema.  1989.  Two classes of channel-specific toxins from funnel web spider venom.  J. Comp. Physiol. 164:  333-42.


Adams, P. A. 1956. New antiionsfromthe southwestern Umted States (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae). Psyche, 63(2):82-108;46 f.


Adams, P.B. 1990.  The potential of mycoparasites for biological control of plant diseases.  Annu. Rev. of Phytopathol., 28: 59-72.


Adams, R. G., Jr. & R. J. Prokopy.  1977.  Apple aphid control through natural enemies.  Mass. Fruit Notes 42:  6-10.


Adams, R. G., Jr. & R. J. Prokopy.  1980.  Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae): an effective predator of the apple aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Massachusetts.  Prot. Ecol. 2:  27-39.


Adam-Shafee, S.  1974.  Species of the genera Promuscidea Girault and Prospaltella Ashmead [Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae] from India.  Entomophaga 19:  33-40.


Adamson, A. M.  1936.  Progress report on the introduction of a parasite of the cacao thrips from the Gold Coast to Trinidad, B.W.I.  Trop. Agr., Trinidad 13:  62-3.


Adamson, A. M.  1942.  Mole-cricket parasites of the genus Larra in Trinidad.  Trop. Agriculture 19(3):  43-45.


Adamson, D.  1997.  Benefit cost analysis for biological control projects.  In Biological Control of Weeds: Theory and Practical Application; Julien, M., White, G., Eds.; ACIAR Monograph 49; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research: Canberra, 1997; 185-190.


Adaškevi…, B. P.  1966.  Einfluss chemischer und microbiologischer Methoden auf die Parasiten der Kohlmotte.  Zool. Z. 45(7):  1040-46.  [in Russian].


Adashkevich, B. P.  1970.  Rearing Aleochara bilineata (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in the laboratory.  Zool. Zh. 49(7):  1081-5.  [in Russian].


Adashkevich, B. P.  1971.  Promising species of parasites for controlling pea aphids, p. 3-4.  In:  Biological Protection of Fruit and Vegetable Crops.  Kishinev.  [in Russian].


Adashkevich, B. P.  1974.  Competing ability of parasites of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris), p. 3-4.  In:  Entomophages, Phytosages and Microorganisms in the Protection of Plants.  Shtiintsa Publ., Kishinev.  [in Russian].


Adashkevich, B. P.  1975.  Entomophages and acariphages in controlling pests of vegetable crops in the USSR, p. 7-12.  In:  Doklady na sektseii VIII Mezhdunarodnogo kongressa po zashchite rastenii, vol. 3, Moscow.  [in Russian].


Adashkevich, B. P. & O. N. Perekrest.  1973.  Mass-rearing of Aleochara bilineata (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in the laboratory.  Zool. Zh. 52(11):  1705-9.  [in Russian].


Adashkevich, B. P. & O. N. Perekrest.  1974.  Use of Aleochara bilineata Gill (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in controlling cabbage maggot and onion fly, p. 9-16.  In:  Entomofagi, fitofagi, i mikroorganiszmy v zashchite rastenii.  Shtiintsa Publ., Kishinev.  [in Russian].


Adashkevich, B. P. & N. P. Kuzina.  1971.  Chrysopa against the Colorado potato beetle.  Zashch. Rast. 12:  23.  [in Russian].


Adashkevich, B. P. & N. P. Kuzina.  1974.  Lacewing on vegetable crops.  Zashch. Rast. 9:  28-9.  [in Russian].


Adashkevitch, B. P. & N. A. Popov.  1972.  The predators of the leguminous aphids (Acyrtosiphon pisum Harr.) in Moldavia.  Defense Veg. Plants, Kishinev 12:  36-46.


Adashkevich, B. P., N. P. Kuzina & L. Shiiko.  1972.  Rearing, storage and use of the lacewing Chrysopa carnea Steph., p. 15-18.  In:  Voprosy biologicheskoi zashchity rastenii, Kishinev.  [in Russian].


Addington, J.  1966.  Satisfactory control of red spider mites on cucumbers.  Grower 66:  726-27.


Adejei-Maafo, I. K. & L. T. Wilson.  1983.  Factors affecting the relative abundance of arthropods on nectaried and nectariless cotton.  Environ. Ent. 12:  349-52.


Adhami, U. M. & C. B. Craig.  1965.  Predation of Bradysia coprophila (Lint.) [Diptera: Sciaridae] on mosquito larvae.  Mosq. News. 25:  487-88.


Adkisson, P. L.  1958.  The influence of fertilizer applications on populations of Heliothis zea (Boddie), and certain insect predators.  J. Econ. Ent. 51:  757-59.


Adkisson, P. L.  1962.  Timing of devoliants and desiccants to reduce populations of the pink bollworm in diapause.  J. Econ. Ent. 55:  949-51.


Adkisson, P. L.  1964.  Action of the photoperiod in controlling insect diapause.  Amer. Natur. XCVIII 902:  357-74.


Adkisson, P. L.  1966.  Internal clocks and insect diapause.  Science 154:  234-41.


Adkisson, P. L.  1971.  Objective use of insecticides in agriculture, p. 43-51.  In:  J. E. Swift (ed.), Agricultural Chemicals-- Harmony or Discord.  Univ. of Calif. Div. Agr. Sci.


Adkisson, P. L.  1972a.  The integrated control of insect pests of cotton.  Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Control Habitat Mngmt., Tallahassee, Florida 4:  175-88.


Adkisson, P. L.  1972b.  How insects damage crops, p. 154-64.  In:  How Crops Grow - A Century Later.  Conn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 708.


Adkisson, P. L.  1973.  The principles, strageties and tactics of pest control in cotton, p. 274-83.  In:  P. W. Geier, L. R. Clark, D. J. Anderson & H. A. Nix (eds.), Insects:  Studies in Population Management.  Ecol. Soc. Australia (Mem. 1), Canberra.


Adkisson, P. L. & J. C. Gaines.  1960.  Pink bollworm control as related to the total cotton insect control program of Central Texas.  Texas. Agr. Expt. Sta. MP. 444.


Adkisson, P. L., L. H. Wilkes & S. P. Johnson.  1958.  Chemical, cultural and mechanical control of the pink bollworm.  Texas Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 920.


Adkisson, P. L., L. H. Wilkes & B. J. Cochran.  1960.  Stalk shredding and plowing as methods for controlling the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella.  J. Econ. Ent. 53:  436-39.


Adkisson, P. L., R. A. Bell & S. G. Wellso.  1963.  Environmental factors controlling the induction of diapause in the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders).  J. Insect Physiol. 9:  299-310.


Adkisson, P. L., G. A. Niles, J. K. Walker, L. S. Bird & H. B. Scott.  1982.  Controlling cotton's insect pests:  a new system.  Science 216:  19-22.


Adler, H. F.  1908.  Beitrag zur Biologie von Inostemma (Platygaster) bosci Jur.  Ztschr. f. Wiss. Insektenbiol. 4:  306-07.


Adler, S.  1918.  Zur Biologie von Apanteles glomeratus L.  Zeit. Wiss. Insektbiol. 14:  182-86.


Adler, S.  1920.  Lebensweise und Fortflanzung des Schmarotzers der Kohlweisslingsraupe, Apanteles glomeratus L.  Aus. d. Natur. 16:  236-43.


Adlerz, G.  1900.  Biologiska meddelanden om rofstekler.  Ent. Tidskr. 21:  161-200.


Adlerz, G.  1903-12.  Lefnadsforhallanden och Instinkter inom Familjerna Pompilidae och Sphegidae.  Svenska Ak. Handl. 37(5):  173 p.  42(1):  48 p.; 45(12):  75 p.; 47(10):  61 p.


Adlerz, G.  1903.  La Proie de Methoca ichneumonoides Latr.  Arkiv. för Zoologi. Bd. 1:  255-58.


Adlerz, G.  1905.  Methoca ichneumonoides Latr., des Lefnadssat och Utrecklingsstadier.  Arkiv för Zool. 3:  1-48.


Adlerz, G.  1906a.  The parasitic methods of Chrysis viridula L.  Ark. Zool., Stockholm 3(8):  1-9.  [in Swedish].


Adlerz, G.  1906b.  Conditions of existance and instincts of the Pompilidae an Sphegidae.  Vet. Ak. Handl., Stockholm 42(1):  1l-48.  [in Swedish].


Adlerz, G.  1909.  New observations on Ammophila (Miscus) campestris.  Ent. Tidskr., Stockholm 30:  163-76.  [in Swedish].


Adlerz, G.  1910a.  Chrysis ignita L. och Chr. neglecta Shuck. sasom foderparasiter.  Ark. Zool. Stockholm 6(11):  7.


Adlerz, G.  1910b.  Hymenoptera larvae as ectoparasites on spiders which move about freely.  Ent. Tidskr., Stockholm 31:  90-100.


Adlerz, G.  1910c.  Conditions of existance and instincts of the Pompilidae and Sphegidae.  Stockholm Vet.-Ak. Handl. 45(12):  75.


Adlerz, G.  1911.  Tiphia femorata Fabr., dess lefnadssatt och utverklingsstadier.  Arkliv. Zool. 7(11):  1-19.


Adlerz, G.  19__.  Ceropales maculata Fab. ein parasitisk pompilid.  Bih. Svenska Ak., 28, 4, No. 14:  20 p.


Adlung, K. G.  1962.  Observations on the occurrence of Tetrastichus turionum Htg. (Hym.: Euloph.) a parasite of Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) (Lep.: Tortric.).  Zeit. angew. Ent. 50(4):  455-62.


Adlung, K. G.  1964a.  Beobachtungen über das Auftreten von Luzerneschädlingen und ihrer Parasiten.  Gesunde Pflanzen 16:  136-40.


Adlung, K. G.  1964b.  Zum Auftreten einiger Laus- und Käferarten an Jungkiefern.  Anz. Schädl.kunde 37:  90-1.


Adlung, K. G.  1964c.  Biologische Abwehr des Kieferntriebwicklers in Nordamerika.  Allg. Forstztschr. 19:  116-18.


Adlung, K. G.  1964d.  Zum Verhalten von Scambus sagax Htg. (Hym. Ichneumonidae) bei der Eiablage mit Bermerkungen zur Nahrungsaufnahme der Ichneumonoidea.  Zeit. rhein. naturf. Ges. 3:  15-20.


Adlung, K. G.  1965.  Ein weiterer Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Parasiten des Kieferntriebwicklers, Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff. (Lep., Olethreutidae).  Allg. Forst-. Jagd-Ztg. 136:  161-66.


Adlung, K. G.  1966.  A critical evaluation of the European research on the use of red wood ants (Formica rufa- group) for the protection of forests against harmful insects.  Z. angew. Ent. 57:  167-89.  [in German].


Adlung, K. G.  1967.  Einfuhr nützlicher Insekten aus Europa nach den U.S.A.  Leben 4:  24.


Adlung, K. G. & R. I. Sailer.  1963.  Forest entomological studies in German afforestation areas, with special regard to pin shoot moth parasites of Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff.  Algem. Forst. u. Jagdzeit. 134(9):  229-38.  [in German].


Adriaanse, A.  1943.  Über eine lokale Verhaltensvariation beim Offnen und Schliessen des Nestganges durch Ammophila campestris Jur.  Ent. Ber., 11:  69-78.


Adriaanse, A.  1944.  Biologie van Ammophila campestris Jur.  Ent. Ber. 11:  150-53.


Adriaanse, A.  1945.  Over Passaloecus tenuis A. Moraw. en haar parasiet, een Eurytoma-soort.  Ent. Ber., Haarlem 11:  264-68.


Adriaanse, A.  1947.  Ammophila campestris Latr. und Ammophila adriaansei Wilcke.  Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Verhaltensforschung.  Behaviour 1:  1-34.


Adriaanse, A. & G. P. Baerends.  1944.  Het raadsel van de kleine rupsendooder (Ammophila campestris Jur.).  Levende Nat. Amsterdam 49:  13-18.


Adriani, M. J.  1964.  Auf Tod und Leben.  Probleme mit Bezug auf die chemische und biologische Bekämpfung von Schädlingen.  natuur en landschap 18:  195-212.  [in Dutch].


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Allen, G. E., B. G. Gregory & J. R. Brazzel.  1966.  Integration of the Heliothis nuclear polyhedrosis virus into a biological control program on cotton.  J. Econ. Ent. 59:  1333-36.


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Allen, H. W.  1954b.  Nosema disease of Gnorimoschema operculella (Zeller) and Macrocentrus ancylivorus Rohwer.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 47:  407-24.


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Allen, H. W.  1958b.  Orchard studies on the effect of organic insecticides on parasitism of the oriental fruit moth.  J. Econ. Ent. 51:  82-7.


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Allen, H. W. & E. Lott.  1930.  Epiblema strenuana Walk., the host of certain parasites of the oriental peach moth, Laspeyresia molesta Busck (Lepidoptera).  Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 32(7):  135-36.


Allen, H. W. & E. L. Plasket.  1958.  Populations of the oriental fruit moth in peach and apple orchards in the eastern states.  U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 1182.  13 p.


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Alston, A. M.  1920.  The life history and habits of two parasites of blowflies.  Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Pt. 3:  195-243.


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Altevogt, R.  1970.  Origin and variability of alfalfa:  a biosystematic survey of Medicago.  Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Biology, Washington Univ., St. Louis, Missouri.  172 p.


Altieri, M. A.  1981.  Weeds may augment biological control insects.  Calif. Agr. 35:  22-24.


Altieri, M. A.  1984.  Patterns of insect diversity in monocultures and polycultures of brussels sprouts.  Pract. Ecol. 6:  227-32.


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Altieri, M. A. & D. K. Letourneau.  1984.  Vegetation diversity and insect pest outbreaks.  CRC Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 2:  131-69.


Altieri, M. A. & D. K. Letourneau.  1992.  Environmental management to enhance biological control in agroecosystems.  In:  Principles and Application of Biological Control.  University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. (in press).


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Altieri, M. A. & C. I. Nicholls.  1999.  Classical biological control in Latin America:  past, present and future. In:  T. S. Bellows & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Chapter 39, p. 975-991, Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, New York.  1046 p.


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Altieri, M. A. & L. L. Schmidt.  1984.  Abundance patterns and foraging activity of ant communities in abandoned, organic and commercial apple orchards in northern California.  Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 11:  3441-52.


Altieri, M. A. & L. L. Schmidt.  1985.  Cover crop manipulation in northern California apple orchards and vineyards:  effects on arthropod communities.  Biol. Agr. Hortic. 3:  1-24.


Altieri, M. A. & L. L. Schmidt.  1986.  Population trends, distribution patterns, and feeding preferences of flea beetles (Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze) in collard-wild mustard mixtures.  Crop Protect. 5(3):  170-75.


Altieri, M. A. & L. L. Schmidt.  1987.  Mixing cultivars of broccoli reduced populations of the cabbage aphid, Breviocoryne brassicae (Linnaeus).  Calif. Agr. 41(11-12):  24-6.


Altieri, M. A. & W. H. Whitcomb.  1979a.  Manipulation of insect populations through seasonal disturbance of weed communities.  Prot. Ecol. 1:  185-202.


Altieri, M. A. & W. H. Whitcomb.  1979b.  The potential use of weeds in the manipulation of beneficial insects.  Hort. Sci. 14:  12-18.


Altieri, M. A., A. Schoonhoven & J. D. Doll.  1977.  The ecological role of weeds in insect pest management systems:  a review illustrated with bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cropping systems.  PNAS 23:  185-206.


Altieri, M. A., C. A. Francis, A. Schoonhoven & J. Doll.  1978.  Insect prevalence in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) polycultural systems.  Field Crops Res. 1:  33-49.


Altieri, M. A., W. J. Lewis, D. A. Nordlund, R. C. Gueldner & J. W. Todd.  1981.  Chemical interactions between plants and Trichogramma sp. wasps in Georgia soybean fields.  Prot. Ecol. 3:  259-63.


Altieri, M. A. et al. 1982a.  Effects of plant extracts on the rates of parasitization of Anagasta kuehniella (Lep.: Pyralidae) eggs by Trichogramma pretiosum (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae) under greenhouse conditions.  Entomophaga 27:  431-38.


Altieri, M., K. S. Hagen, J. Trujillo & L. E. Caltagirone.  1982b.  Biological control of Limas maximus and Helix esparsa by indigenous predators in a daisy field in central coasta California.  Oecología Appl. 4(3):  387-90.


Altieri, M. A., R. C. Wilson & L. L. Schmidt.  1985.  The effects of living mulches and weed cover on the dynamics of foliage and soil arthropod communities in three crop systems.  Crop Protect. 4:  201-13.


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Angus, T. A.  1954.  A bacterial toxin paralyzing silkworm larvae.  Nature 173:  545-46.


Angus, T. A.  1956a.  The reaction of certain lepidopterous and hymenopterous larvae to Bacillus sotto toxin.  Canadian Ent. 88:  280-83.


Angus, T. A.  1956b.  Association of toxicity with protein-crystalline inclusions of Bacillus sotto Ishiwata.  Canadian J. Microbiol. 2:  122-31.


Angus, T. A.  1956c.  Extraction, purification, and properties of Bacillus sotto toxin.  Canad. J. Microbiol. 2:  416-26.


Angus, T. A.  1964a.  A magnetic stirring device for syringes.  J. Insect Path. 6:  125-6.


Angus, T. A.  1964b.  Canadian participation in insect pathology.  Canad. Ent. 96:  231-41.


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Angus, T. A.  1974.  Microbiological control of insects: bacterial pathogens.  In:  F. G. Maxwell & F. A. Harris (eds.), Proc. Summer Inst. on Biol. Contr. of Plant Insects & Diseases, Jackson:  Univ. Mississippi.  p. 532-40.


Angus, T. A. & P. Luthy.  1971.  Formulation of microbial insecticides, p. 623-38.  In:  H. D. Burges & N. W. Hussey (eds.), Microbial Control of Insects and Mites.  Academic Press, New York.


Anikina, N. E., G. A. beglyarov, T. N. Bushchik & V. F. Plotnikov.  1971.  The toxicity of pesticides for the predatory mite phytoseiulus (Phytoseiulus persimilis A.-H.), p. 121.  In:  Trudy XIII Mezhdunarodnogo entomologicheskogo kongressa, Moskva, 2-9 avgusta 1968. Nauka Publ., Leningrad.  [in Russian].


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Annand, P. N. 1928. A contribution toward a monograph of the Adelginae (Phylloxeridae) of North America. Stanford Univ. Ser. BioI. Sci., 6(1):1-146; illus.


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Annecke, D. P.  1959.  The effect of parathion and ants on Coccus hesperidum L. (Coccidae:  Hemiptera) and its natural enemies.  J. Ent. Soc. So. Africa 22:  245-74.


Annecke, D. P.  1962.  The occurrence of Comperiella bifasciata Howard in South Africa (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).  So. Africa J. Agr. Sci. 5:  281-82.


Annecke, D. P.  1963a.  Observations of some citrus pests in Mossambique and Southern Rhodesia.  J. Ent. Soc. So. Africa 26:  194-225.


Annecke, D. P.  1963b.  The encyrtid and aphelinid parasites (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of soft brown scale, Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in South Africa.  So. Africa. Dept. Agr. Tech. Serv., Ent. Mem. 7:  75 p.


Annecke, D. P.  1964a.  The encyrtid and aphelinid parasites (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of soft brown scale, Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in South Africa.  So. Afr. Dept. Agr. Tech. Serev., Ent. Mems. 7.  74 p.


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Annecke, D. P.  1969.  Recent developments in biological and integrated control of citrus pests in South Africa.  Proc. 1st Int. Citrus Symp. Riverside, Calif. 2:  849-54.


Annecke, D. P. & C. J. Cilliers.  1963a.  The citrus psylla, Trioza erytreae (Del Guerico), and its parasites in South Africa.  South Afr. J. Agr. Sci. 6:  187-91.


Annecke, D. P. & C. J. Cilliers.  1963b.  The citrus psylla and its parasites in South Africa.  J. South Afr. Citrus 360:  19-20, 23.


Annecke, D. P. & R. L. Doutt.  1961a.  An interesting encyrtid parasitic in the larvae of carpenter-bees (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Pan-Pacific Ent. 37(4):  195-99.


Annecke, D. P. & R. L. Doutt.  1961b.  The genera of the Mymaridae, Hymenoptera; Chalcidoidea.  So. Africa Dept. Agr. Tech. Serv. Ent. Mem. 5:  1-71.


Annecke, D. P. & M. J. Mynhardt.  1970.  On some species of Habrolepis Foerster, Adelencyrtus Ashmead [Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae] in southern Africa and Mauritius.  Entomophaga 15:  127-48.


Annecke, D. P. & V. C. Moran.  1982.  Insects and Mites of cultivated plants in South Africa.  Butterworth & Co., South Africa.  383 p.


Annecke, D. P., M. Karny & W. A. Burger.  1969.  Improved biological control of the prickly pear, Opuntia megacantha Salm-Dyck, in South Africa through use of an insecticide.  Phytophylactica 1:  9-13


Anonymous.  1853.  Lecture by Prof. von Siebold on Strepsiptera.  Trans. Ent. Soc. London, (n.s.) 2:  1853.  p. 124-26.


Anonymous.  1913.  Parasites of Chloridea and the codling moth.  Agr. of Turkestan 8:  810-13.


Anonymous.  1924.  Wasps.  Min. Agr. & Fish., Misc. Pubs. 44:  8 p.


Anonymous.  1933.  Responses of orchard insects to light.  New York St. Agr. Expt. Sta., Geneva, Annu. Rept. 52:  yr. ended June 30, 1933.  p. 65-66.  [Ascogaster carpocapsae].


Anonymous.  1951.  Distribution maps of insect pests.  Map No. 1, Ceratitis capitata.  Commonw. Inst. Entomol., Ser. A.  1p.


Anonymous.  1914.  La Diaspis pentagona ed il modo di combatterla.  L'Agr. Pratico, Genoa 7:  5-6.


Anonymous.  1917.  Investigations on the coccinellid, vedalia, and the scale-insect Icerya.  Dept. Agr. & Comm. Plant Path. and Injur. Instcts Bull. 3:  197 p.


Anonymous.  1927.  The use of American fish to fight Italian mosquitoes.  Science 66: 12.


Anonymous.  1932.  Entomological investigations.  Austral. Counc. Sci. & Indus. Res. Rept. 6:  20-23.


Anonymous.  1936.  Success shown in uses of parasite on yellow scale.  Citrus Leaves 17:  3-4.


Anonymous.  1940.  Summary of a report on a recent mission of Mr. H. W. Simmonds to Java, Malaya, Mauritius and Madagascar.  Fiji. Isl. Dept. Agr. J. 11:  21.


Anonymous.  1948.  Plant Pathology.  Bermuda Rept. Dept. Agr. 1947:  10-12.


Anonymous.  1954.  Review of agricultural entomology during the period 1948-1954-- Mauritius.  Rept. Commonwealth Ent. Conf., 6th Meeting, London, England.  p. 281-84.


Anonymous.  1955.  Biological control of noxious weeds.  Fiji contribution.  Fiji Dept. Agr., Agr. J. 25:  64.


Anonymous.  1956a.  Distribution maps of insect pests.  Map No. 64, Dacus curcubitae.  Commonw. Inst. Entomol.Ser. A.  1 p.


Anonymous.  1956b.  Nematode on our side.  U. S. Dept. Agr. Res. 4:  3-4.


Anonymous.  1959.  Chemical plant internationally known.  Commerce & Industry 3:  18-20.


Anonymous.  1960a.  Distribution maps of insect pests.  Map No. 109, Dacus dorsalis.  Commonw. Inst. Entomol., Ser. A.  1 p.


Anonymous.  1960b.  Mauritius.  Review of Agricultural Entomology.  In:  7th Commonw. Ent. Conf. Rept. July 6-15, 1960.  London:  310-12.


Anonymous.  1960c.  Insect on our side--imported cinnabor moth larvae eat toxic weed but bypass useful plants.  Agr. Res. 8:  12.


Anonymous.  1960d.  Kenya.  I.  Review of entomological work of the Department of Agriculture.  In: 7th Commonw. Ent. Conf. Rept., July 61-5, 1960, London:  298-303.


Anonymous.  1960e.  Biological control of insects of medical importance.  A.I.B.S. Tech. Rept. Nov. 1960.  144 p.


Anonymous.  1960f.  The boll weevil-- how to control it.  U.S. Dept. Agr. Farmer's Bull. 2147.


Anonymous.  1962a.  Alligatorweed controlled by insects?  Agr. Res. 10:  8-9.


Anonymous.  1962b.  Insect parasitology:  studies on the host selection and distribution of progeny in Chelonus rufus Lyle.  Agr. Res. 2(1):  6-7.


Anonymous.  1963a.  Nearer mass biological control of Japanese beetle.  Agr. Res. 12(2):  3-4.


Anonymous.  1963b.  Liquid microbial insecticide undergoing extensive field tests.  Agr. Chemic. 18:  125-6.


Anonymous.  1963c.  Eradicating the melon fly.  Agr. Res. 12(2):  5.


Anonymous.  1964a.  Insect enemy of scotch broom.  Agr. Res. 12:  14.


Anonymous.  1964b.  Verwended Entobakterin.  Zaš…. Rast., Moskva 9(5):  45.  [in Russian].


Anonymous.  1965a.  Instrucciones para el manejo del parásito Dusmetia sangwani Rao, un enemigo natural de la escame algodonosa de los pastos (Antonina graminis (Maskell).  Fitofili 18:  14-18.


Anonymous.  1965b.  La lotta biological control insetti dannosi alle foreste.  Monti, Boschi 16(5):  71.


Anonymous.  1966a.  Internationale Konferez über biologische Schädlingsbekämpfung.  Zaš…. Rast., Moskva, 11(12):  51-3.  [in Russian].


Anonymous.  1966b.  Entomología-- control químico y biológico.-- 2.  Mem. Ann. Inst. Invest. Agropec. 1965-1966, Minist. Agr., Santiago, Chile.  p. 64-5.


Anonymous.  1966c.  Biology and systematics of some harmful and useful insects found in the USSR.  Tr. Vses. Ent. Obshchest 51:  1-206.  [in Russian].


Anonymous.  1967a.  Tiny wasp may curtail Dutch elm disease.  Agr. Res. 16:  14.


Anonymous.  1967b.  Colloque de pathologie des insectes et de lutte microbiologique (Wageningen, 1966).  Entomophaga 12:  91-5.


Anonymous.  1967c.  Bekämpfung von Forstschädlingen mit attractants und chemosterilants.  Naturwiss. Rundschau 20(1):  34.


Anonymous.  1968a.  Proceedings of the Joint United States-Japan Seminar on Microbial Control of Insect Pests.  Fukuoka:  U. S. - Japan Comm. Sci. Coop.


Anonymous.  1968b.  Report of the Second Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Integrated Pest Control. Rome, Italy, 19-24 Sept, 1968.  48 p.


Anonymous.  1968c.  Cockchafers.  Plrs. Bull. Rubb. Res. Inst. Malaya 97:  102-09.


Anonymous.  1968d.  Weed Control.  Principles of Plant and Animal Pest Control. Vol. 2.  Publ. 1597, Nat. Acad. Sci., Wash., D.C.  471 p.


Anonymous.  1968e.  Principles of plant and animal pest control. Vol. 2. Weed Control.  Nat. Acad. Sci. Wash., D.C. Publ. 1597.  471 p.


Anonymous.  1969a.  Principles of plant and animal control, Vol. 3, p. 100-69.  Insect-pest Management and Control, NAS, Washington, D.C.


Anonymous.  1969b.  Controlling White-fringed beetles.  U. S. Dept. Agr. Leafl. 550.


Anonymous.  1969c.  Microbial control of insects, p. 165-95.  In:  Principles of Plant and Animal Pest Control, Vol. 3, Insect Pest Management and Control.  Nat. Acad. Sci. Publ. No. 1695.  Wash., D.C.


Anonymous.  1969.  Control by parasites, predators, and competitors, p. 100-64.  In:  Insect Pest Management and Control.  National Acad. Sci. Publ. 1695, Wash., D. C.


Anonymous.  1970.  Soil fertility and shifting cultivation (an introduction).  3rd Conf. on Soil FErt. & Fertilizer use in Africa, Addis Ababa, Nov., 1970.  Rome:  FAO.


Anonymous.  1971.  A big bet on biological control.  Citrograph 56:  315-16, 327.


Anon. 1971.  Biological Control Programmes Against Insects and Weeds in Canada, 1959-Commonweallb Agric. Bureaux Tech. Commun..  No. 4., Lamport Gilbert Printers, Reading, U.K.


Anonymous.  1972a.  Boer Beetle--down under.  South African Rev. 6(11):  6-9.


Anonymous.  1972b.  Preventing onchocerciasis through blackfly control.  Intern. Develop. Res. Cent. 0060.  11 p.


Anonymous.  1972c.  The biological control of cucumber pests.  Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. Growers' Bull 1.


Anonymous.  1972d.  Report of the Mirex Advisory Committee to William D. Ruckelshaus, Administrator.  Environ. Prot. Agency, Wash., D.C.  70 p. (revised 1 Mar 1972).


Anonymous.  1973a.  Mosquito control, some perspectives for developing countries.  Nat. Acad. Sci. Rept.  62 p.


Anonymous.  1973b.  Finding and using natural enemies of the gypsy moth.  U. S. Dept. Agr. Picture Story 272.


Anonymous.  1973c.  The use of viruses for the control of insect pests and disease vectors.  FAO Agr. Studies 91.


Anonymous.  1973d.  The screw worm strikes back.  Nature 242:  493-94.


Anonymous.  1974a.  A biological survey of the insects of Canada.  Bull. Ent. Soc. Ana. 6(2):  16 p.


Anonymous.  1974b.  Lutte Integree en Vergers, p. 3-7.  5th Symposium.  OILB/SROP, Bozen-Bolzano IX. 369 p.


Anonymous.  1974c.  Integrated Control in Glasshouses.  OILB-SROP/WPRS, Bull.  73 p.


Anonymous.  1974d.  Proc. of the International Organization of Biological Control.  Conference on integrated control in glasshouses.  Report on the meeting held from 18-20 Sept., 1973 at the Glasshouse Crops Res. Sta., Littlehampton, England.  73 p.


Anon   1974e.  Amounts and kinds of filth in foods and the parallel methods for assessing filth and insanitation. Food Purity Perspect. 1974, 3, pp. 19-20.


Anonymous.  1975a.  How to move live pests, pathogens, and disease vectors of plants.  U. S. Dept. Agr. Program Aid 1110.


Anonymous.  1975b.  Biological pest control, reariang parasites and predators.  Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. Growers' Bull. 2.


Anonymous.  1977a.  Insect control in the People's Republic of China.  National Academy of Sciences, Wash., D.C.  218 p.


Anonymous.  1977b.  The sterile screwworm fly production plant, Mission, Texas.  USDA, APHIS, U. S. Govt. Print. Off.  1977-772-925/272/7.  6 p.


Anonymous.  1978.  Medfly on the move.  Citrograph 63:  99, 100,



Anonymous.  1978.  Pest control:  the case of the black fly shows the effectiveness of biological control.  Noticias Agricolas 8:  51-52.


Anonymous.  1978.  VII Reunión Nacional de Control Biológico (Memorias).  Veracruz, México.


Anon. 1980.  Biological Control Service. 25 Years ofachievement.  Commonw. Agric. Bureaux, Slough, U.K. Anon. 1987.  Early warning system.  Citrograph, 72(9): 182,184.


Anonomous.  1981a.  Data sheet on Nothobranchius spp., N. guentheri and N. rachovi [as a predator of mosquito larvae] distribution, life cycle, biology, growth, reproduction, aging and behaviour.  World Health Organization, WHO/VBC/81.829; VBC/BCDS/81.16, Geneva.


Anonymous.  1981b.  Editorial.  Biocontrol News & Info. 2(4):  273.


Anonymous.  1982.  Aalsmeer flower auction.  Flowers...unlimited.  International developments in floriculture.  Vereniging Verenigde Bioemenueilingen Aalsmeer, Aalsmeer, The Netherlands.


Anonymous.  1985a.  Editorial.  Biocontrol News & Info. 6:  297.


Anonymous.  1985b.  Editorial.  Biocontrol News & Info. 6:(1).


Anonymous.  1985c.  Search for microbial insecticide at Microbial Resources Ltd. in UK.  Biocontrol News & Info. 6(4):  298-99.


Anonymous.  1985d.  Editorial.  Biocontrol News & Info. 6(2):  87.


Anonymous.  1985e.  Recommended measures for regulating the importation and movement of plants.  Information Letter, FAO, Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission (1985) No. 132.  20 p.


Anonymous.  1986.  Editorial.  Biocontrol News & Info. 7(4):  219.


Anonymous.  1987a.  Proceedings Working Group Integrated Control in Glasshouses.  In:  B. Nedstam, L. Stengard Hansen & J. C. van Lenteren (eds.).  Bull. OILB/SROP  1987/X/2.  202 p.


Anonymous.  1987b.  Editorial.  Biocontrol News & Info. 8(1):  5.


Anon. 1988a.  The maize pyralid.  Phytoma, 403: 54. (in French)


Anon. 1988b.  Locusts blow from Africa to Caribbean. The Miami Herald, October 21, 1988, p. 19A.


Anonymous.  1988c.  The Russian wheat aphid:  a serious new pest of small grains in the Great Plains.  Great Plains Agricultural Council Publ. No. 124.


Anonymous.  1989.  Suppliers of beneficial organisms in North America.  Calif. Dept. of Food & Agriculture, Biological Control Services Program.  3288 Meadowview Rd., Sacramento, CA.  13 p.


Anonymous.  1989.  Directory of producers of natural enemies of common pests.  IPM Practitioner, 11(4):  15-18.  BIRC, P.O. Box 7414, Berkeley, CA  94707.


Anon.  1991.  Appearance of produce versus pesticide use. Chemecology 1991, 20 (4), p. 11.


Anon. 1992.  Expert Consultation on Guidelines for Introduction of biological Control Agents.  FAO.  Rome, Italy. 17-19 September, 1991.


Anon. 1994a. 1995 directory of least-toxic pest control products. The IPM Practitioner, 16: 1-34.


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Axtell, R. C.  1964b.  Laboratory rearing of Hippelates pusio and H. bishoppi (Diptera:  Chloropidae).  J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 80(2): 163-4.


Axtell, R. C.  1965.  A better way.  Research project aimed at finding a better way to deal with house flies, Tarheel eye gnats.  Research and Farming.  XXIV(2): 4-5.


Axtell, R. C.  1966a.  Comparative toxicities of insecticides to house fly larvae and Macrocheles muscaedomesticae, a mite predator of the house fly.  J. Econ. Ent. 59(5): 1128-1130.


Axtell, R. C.  1966b.  Evaluations of repellents for Hippelates eye gnats.  J. Econ. Ent. 60(1): 176-180.


Axtell, R. C.  1968.  Integrated house fly control:  Populations of fly larvae and predaceous mites, Macrocheles muscaedomesticae, in poultry manure after larvicide treatment.  J. Econ. Ent. 61(1): 245-249.


Axtell, R. C.  1969a.  Macrochelidae (Acarina:  Mesostigmata) as biological control agents for synanthropic flies.  Proceedings Second International Congress of Acarology, Sutton Bonington, England, July 19-25, 1967.  Publ. Akademai Kiado, Budapest. p. 401-416.


Axtell, R. C.  1969b.  Macrochelidae (Acarina:  Mesostigmata) as biological control agents for synanthropic flies.  World Health Organ. WHO/VBC/69.119 17 p.


Axtell, R. C.  1970a.  Integrated fly control program for caged poultry houses.  J. Econ. Ent. 63(2): 400-405.


Axtell, R. C.  1970b.  Fly control in caged-poultry houses:  Comparison of larviciding and integrated control programs.  J. Econ. Ent. 63(6): 1734-7.


Axtell, R. C.  1970c.  Scanning electron microscopy of Acarina (Resume).  J. Parasitol. 56 (4) Sec. 2, Part 1: 12.


Axtell, R. C.  1971.  Ultralow volume aerial sprays for the control of Hippelates gnats and flies.  J. Georgia.  Ent. Soc. 6(2): 101-5.


Axtell, R. C.  1972.  Hippelates pusio eye gnat control by ultralow volume aerial sprays.  J. Georgia Ent. Soc. 7(2): 119-27.


Axtell, R. C.  1974a.  Fly control.  A vicious circle!  Egg Industry 7(2): 22, 24, 27, 28, 31.


Axtell, R. C. (ed.).  1974b.  Training manual for mosquito and biting fly control in coastal areas.  Univ. North Carolina Sea Grant Publication UNC-SG-74-08.  249p.


Axtell, R. C.  1975a.  Training and certification of mosquito control and public health pesticide applicators in North Carolina.  Proc. 62nd Annu. Mtg. Mosq. Exterm. Assoc. p. 102-5.


Axtell, R. C.  1975b.  ULV and Mosquito Control.  N.C.S.U. Entomology, Community Insect Control Information Note No. 1, 2 p.


Axtell, R. C.  1976.  Horse flies and deer flies:  (Diptera:  Tabanidae) Chapter 12, p. 415-445.  In:  Marine Insects (L. Cheng, editor).  North-Holland, Amsterdam.  581 p.


Axtell, R. C. 1979a.  Principles of integrated pest management (IPM) in relation to mosquito control.  Mosquito News 39(4): 709-718.


Axtell, R. C.  1979b.  Tarsal sensory receptors of ticks.  Proc. 4th internat. Congr. Acarology (1974), Acad. Kiado, Budapest p. 699-672.


Axtell, R. C.  1980.  Management of mosquito production in coastal dredged material disposal areas.  Proc. Texas Mosquito Control Assoc. p. 2-4.


Axtell, R. C.  1981a.  Livestock integrated pest management (IPM):  Principles and prospects. p. 31-40, In:  Systems Approach to Animal Health and Production:  A Symposium (F.W. Knapp, ed.).  Univ. Kentucky, Lexington. 241 p.


Axtell, R. C.  1981b.  Use of predators and parasites in filth fly IPM programs in poultry housing. p. 26-43, In:  Status of Biological Control of Filth Flies, USDA Sci. Educ. Adm. Publ. A106. 2: F64, 212 p.


Axtell, R. C.  1982.  Attacking the pest problem - a systems approach to controlling livestock pests.  Animal Nutrition & Health (April), p. 16-18.


Axtell, R. C.  1983a.  Mosquito control challenges and the AMCA. Mosq. News. 43(2): 122-125.


Axtell, R. C.  1983b.  Mosquitoes, humans and the environment:  Integrated management of vector borne disease in relation to economic development. p. 219-235.  In:  A Health Economy in a Healthy Environment.  Proceedings First Annual Carolina Environmental Affairs Conference, Univ. North Carolina, Environmental Studies Council (J. Hernandez, ed.).


Axtell, R. C.  1985.  Poultry Pests.  Chapter 16, p. 269-293, In:  Livestock Entomology (Williams et al., editors), Wiley & Sons, New York.


Axtell, R. C.  1986a  Status and potential of biological control agents in livestock and poultry pest management systems.  In:  Biological Control of Muscoid Flies (Patterson, R.S. and D.A. Rutz, editors).  Misc. Publications Entomological Society of America. 61, p. 1-9.


Axtell, R. C.  1986b  Fly management in poultry production:  Cultural, biological and chemical.  Poultry Sci. 65: 657-667.


Axtell, R. C.  1986.  Fly control in confined livestock and poultry production.  Tech. Monograph, Ciba-Geigy Corp., Greensboro, N.C. p. 59.


Axtell, R. C.  1990.  Integration of chemical and biological methods for mosquito and filth fly control.  In:   Casida, J.E. (ed.), Pesticides and Alternatives, Elsevier, Amsterdam. p. 195-203.


Axtell, R. C.  1990.  Potential of biocontrol for livestock and poultry pests.  Chapter 20, p. 293-304 In:  Rutz, D.A. and Patterson, R.S. (eds.), Biocontrol of Arthropods Affecting Livestock and Poultry, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.


Axtell, R. C.  1991a  Control of northern fowl mites on poultry.  Proc. VIII Int'l Congr. Acarology (Ceske Budejovice, Czech. 1990).  in press.


Axtell, R. C.  1991b  Role of mesostigmatid mites in integrated fly control.  Proc. VIII Int'l Congr. Acarology (Ceske Budejovice, Czech 1990).  in press.


Axtell, R. C.  1992. Fly Management Simulator (FMS) User's Guide.  Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.


Axtell, R. C. & J. J. Arends.  1990.  Ecology and management of arthropod pests of poultry.  Annu. Rev. Ent. 35: 101-126.


Axtell, R. C. & J. C. Dukes.  1974.  ULV Chemical control of mosquitoes, Culicoides and tabanids in coastal North Carolina.  Proceedings California Mosq. Control Assoc. 42: 99-101.


Axtell, R. C. & T.D. Edwards.  1970a.  Susceptibilities of adult Hippelates eye gnats to insecticidal deposits.  J. Econ. Ent. 63(4): 1186-7.


Axtell, R. C. & T. D. Edwards.  1970b.  Susceptibility of adult Hippelates pusio eye gnats to insecticidal fogs.  J. Econ. Ent. 63(4): 1184-5.


Axtell, R. C. & T. D. Edwards.  1970c.  Seasonal populations of Hippelates gnats (Diptera:  Chloropidae) in North Carolina.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 63(4): 1049-53.


Axtell, R. C. & T. D. Edwards.  1970d.  Hermetia illucens control in poultry manure by larviciding.  J. Econ. Ent. 63(6): 1786-7.


Axtell, R. C. & T. D. Edwards.  1983.  Efficacy and non-target effects of LarvadexR as a feed additive for controlling house flies in caged-layer poultry manure.  Poultry Sci. 62: 2371-2377.


Axtell, R. C. & D. R. Guzman.  1987.  Encapsulation of the mosquito fungal pathogen Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes:  Lagenidiales) in calcium alginate.  J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 3: 450-459.


Axtell, R. C. & A. LeFurgey.  1979.  Comparisons of the foveae dorsales in male and female ixodid ticks Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacentor andersoni and D. variabilis.  J. Med. Ent. 16(3): 173-179.


Axtell, R. C. & D. A. Rutz.  1986.  Role of parasites and predators as biological fly control agents in poultry production facilities.  In:  Biological control of Muscoid Flies (Patterson, R.S. and D.A. Rutz, editors).  Misc. Publications Entomological Society of America. 61, p. 88-100.


Axtell, R. C. & R. E. Stinner.  1990.  Computer simulation modeling of fly management.  Chapter 19, p. 265-291 In:  Rutz, D.A. & Patterson, R.S. (eds), Biocontrol of Arthropods Affecting Livestock and Poultry, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.


Axtell, R. C. & I-Wu Chu-Wang.  1972.  Electron microscopy of sensory receptors.  Naval Research Reviews.  XXV(4): 12-22.


Axtell, R. C., R. Foelix, L. B. Coons & M. A. Roshday.  1971. Sensory receptors in ticks and mites.  Proc. Third Int'l Congress Acarology Aug. 31-Sept. 6, 1971, Prague, Czech. Publ. W. Junk, Hague. p. 35-40.


Axtell, R. C., & J. C. Dukes & T. D. Edwards.  1975a.  Rigid canopy trap  for Tabanidae (Diptera).  J. Georgia Ent. Soc. 10(1): 67-73.


Axtell, R. C., D. A. Rutz, M. R. Overcash & F. J. Humenik.  1975b.  Mosquito production and control in animal waste lagoons.  Pages 15-18, 21 in Managing Livestock Wastes, Proc. Third Internat. Symp. on Livestock Wastes, ASAE Pub. PROC-275.  631pp.


Axtell, R. C., D. A. Rutz & T. D. Edwards.  1975c.  Chemical control of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus in swine waste lagoons (Abstract).  Proc. 62nd Ann. Mtg. N.J. Mosq. Exterm. Assoc. p. 234-5.


Axtell, R. C., J. C. Dukes & T. D. Edwards.  1979.  Field tests of diflubenzuron, methoprene, Flit MLOR and chlorpyrifos for the control of Aedes taeniorhynchus larvae in diked dredged spoil areas.  Mosquito News 39(3): 520-527.


Axtell, R. C. & D. A. Rutz & T. D. Edwards.  1980.  Field tests of insecticides and insect growth regulators for the control of Culex quinquefasciatus in anaerobic animal waste lagoons.  Mosquito News 40(1):  36-42.


Axtell, R. C., S. T. Jaronski & T. L. Merriam.  1982.  Efficacy of the mosquito fungal pathogen, Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes:  Lagenidiales).  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Cont. Assoc. 50: 41-42.





Ayal, Y. 1987.  The foraging strategy of Diaeretiella rapae. 1. The concept of the elementary unit of foraging.  Journal of Animal Ecology, 56: 1057-1068.


Ayala, F. J.  1969.  Experimental invalidation of the principle of competitive exclusion.  Nature 224:  1076-79.


Ayala, F. J.  1972.  Competition between species.  Amer. Scient. 60:  348-57.



Ayala, F. J., M.E. Gilpin, and  J. G. Ehrenfield. 1974.  Competition between species: theoretical models and experimental tests. Theoretical Population Biology, 4: 331-356.


Ayala, F. J. & J. A. Kiger, Jr.  1984.  Modern Genetics, 2nd ed.  The Benjamin/Cummings Publ. Co., Inc. Menlo Park, CA.  923 p.


Ayala, F. J., J. R. Powell & T. Dobzhansky.  1971.  Polymorphism in continental and island populations of Drosophila willistoni.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 68:  2480-83.


Ayala, F. J., M. E. Gilpin & J. G. Ehrenfield.  1974.  Competition between species:  theoretical models and experimental tests.  Theor. Popul. Biol. 4:  311-56.


Aycock, G.  1974.  Tobacco insect pest management in North Carolina-- a farmer's view.  Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. Habitat Management 5:  77-79.


Ayers, H.  1884.  On the development of Oecanthus and its parasite  Teleas.  Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 3:  261-72.


Ayers, W.A. andP.B. Adams. 1981.  Mycoparasitismand its application tobioiogical control ofplantdiseases, pp. 91-105.In:Papavizas, G.C., (ed.). Biological Control in Crop Production.  Beltsville Symposium in Agric. Res. 5,Allenheld, Osmum Publishing, Totowa, New Jersey, U.S.A.


Ayre, G. L.  1959.  Food habits of Formica subnitens Creighton (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) at Westbank, British Columbia. I.  Insectes Sociaux 4(2):  105-14.


Ayre, G. L.  1962.  Pseudometageo schwarzii (Ashm.) (Eucharitidae: Hymenoptera) a parasite of Lasius neoniger Emery (Formicidae: Hymenoptera).  Canad. J. Zool. 40(2):  157-64.


Ayre, G. L.  1963.  Feeding behaviour and digestion in Camponotus herculeanus (L.) [Hymenoptera: Formicidae].  Ent. Exp. Appl. 6:  165-70.


Ayre, G. L.  1966.  Colony size and food consumption of three species of Formica.  Ent. Expt. & appl. 9:  461-67.


Ayre, G. L.  1968.  Comparative studies on the behaviour of three species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) I.  Prey finding, capture, and transport.  Canad. Ent. 100:  165-72.


Ayre, G. L. & D. E. Hitchon.  1968.  The predation of tent caterpillars, Malacosoma americana (Lep.: Lasiocampidae) by ants.  Canad. Ent. 100:  823-26.


Ayres, H.  1884.  On the development of Oecanthus nieveus and its parasite Teleas.  Mem. Boston Soc. Natl. Hist. 3:  261-72.


Aytoun, R. S. C.  1953.  The genus Trichoderma:  its relationship with Armillaria mellea and Polyporus schweinitzii together with preliminary observations on its woodland ecology.  Proc. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh 36:  99-114.


Ayuzawa, C.  1963.  The occurrence of nuclear polyhedrosis by the exposure to a low temperature in the virus-inoculated larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L.  J. Sericult. Sci. Japan 32:  219-25.  [in Japanese].


Ayuzawa, C. & T. Sato.  1964.  Inactivation of the infectious flacherie virus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. by the ultraviolet irradiation.  Sansi-Kenkyç 49:  96-7.  [in Japanese].


Ayuzawa, C. & F. Yusa.  1964.  On the inactivation of the viruses of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. by the 60 Co-r ray irradiation.  J. Sericult. Sci. Japan 33:  130-2.  [in Japanese].


Ayyappa, P. K. & P. S. Cheema.  1952.  An ectoparasite of the larva of Anthrenus vorax Waterhouse.  Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Sect. B. 36(5):  215-22.


Ayyar, T. V. R.  1919.  The nim mealy scale (Pulvinaria maxima Green).  Mem. Dept. Agr. Ind. Ent., Ser. 8, 12:  127-55.


Ayyar, P. N.  1940.  Investigations on Spathius critolaus Nixon, an important braconid parasite of the cotton-stem weevil, Pempheres affinis Fst., of South India.  Indian J. Agr. Sci. 10:  879-900.


Ayyar, T. V. R.  1929.  Notes on some Indian Lepidoptera with abnormal habits.  Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. J. 33:  668-75.


Ayyar, T. V. R.  1931.  The Coccidae of the prickly-pear in south India and their economic importance.  Agr. & Livestock in India 1:  229-37.





Azab, A. K., M. S. F. Tawfik & K. T. Awadallah.  1963.  Insect enemies of common flies in Giza region.  Bull. Ent. Soc. d'Egypte 47:  277-86.


Azab, A. K., M. F. H. Tawfik & K. T. Awadallah.  1970.  Biology of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).  Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 51:  469-82.


Azam, K. M. & N. H. Anderson.  1969.  Life history and habits of Sialis rotunda and S. californica in western Oregon.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 62:  549-58.


Azim, A.  1962.  Studies on the eggs, larvae and pupae of the genus Aphytis (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae).  Proc. Assoc. Plant Prot., Kyushu 8:  22-24.  [in Japanese].


Azim, A.  1963a.  The biology of Microterys okitsuensis Compere and its oviposition behaviour (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).  Mushi 37(6):  67-78.


Azim, A.  1963b.  Systematic and biological studies on the genus Aphytis Howard (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) of Japan. Part 1. Taxonomy.  J. Fac. Agr. Kyushu Univ 12(4);  267-90.


Azim, A.  1963c.  Systematic and biological studies on the genus Aphytis Howard (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) of Japan.  Part II.  Biology and mass production.  J. Fac. Agr., Kyushu Univ. 12(4):  291-321.


Azim, A.  1963d.  Aphytis cylindratus Compere (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae), an effective parasite of Pseudaonidia duplex Cockerell.  Mushi, Fukuoka 37:  53-63.


Azim, A.  1964.  Microterys amamensis n. sp. a parasite of Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus Green in Japan and its egg (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).  Mushi 38:  11-17.


Azim, A. & M. K. Ahmed.  1966-1967.  Studies on Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius, a predator of aphids in Pakistan.  Agr. Pak. 17:  309-16.


Azizov, N.  1972.  Some details on the biology of Spalangia nigroaenea (Hymenoptera, Spalangiidae).  Zool. Zurn. 51(6):  925-26.  [in Russian].


Azuma, R. & S. Kitaoka.  1965.  Cultivation and properties of Bacillus larvae and decrease in its proteolytic activity on glucose media.  Quart. Natl. Inst. Anim. Hlth., Tokyo 5:  138-45.