The 15 April 2005 issue of Science on page 364-365, vol. 308, has an article by Nicholas Harden of Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada; email:, “Of Grainy Heads and Broken Skins.” This describes the latest advances in epidermis repair as vital to survival of all animals. It views the insect integument as a barrier to microbe invasion and describes the signaling pathways that regulate repair of damaged integument. He makes the point that the repair process in mice and insects use similar mechanisms; another example of conservation of genetic function across Phyla.


Dr. Harden recommends the web page of Paul Martin (Bristol University, UK); email: , for further information:

Dr. Martin says there are animations as parts of supplemental materials in some of his publications.

Integument Topics


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