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subgenus Zaommomyia Ashmead, 1904 comparative
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Transverse frontal groove strongly v-shaped; scrobal grooves reaching transverse
groove separately, very close-together throughout their length, extending
below toruli as distinct grooves; interscrobal ridge always meeting
transverse groove in females; triangular area present immediately above
transverse suture different color and/or sculpture from rest of frons,
sometimes sharply angled and set off by an arched dorsal ridge. Males with a basal
whorl of erect setae on each funicular segment; peg sensilla of flagellum
symmetrical (type 1) (C. Hansson, personal comm.). Postmarginal vein 1.6-2.3x stigmal vein
length. Propodeum variable, at least usually with median carina or submedian carinae, some
species with plicae. Compare with: Proacrias, Closterocerus,
Chrysocharis sensu strictu, Ionympha, Omphale.
1a-c: Chrysocharis (Zaommomyia) maya Hansson
face (left), female antenna (center), and male antenna (right)
2a-c: Chrysocharis (Zaommomyia) propodea with petioles: C.
(Z.) beckeri Yoshimoto (left), C. (Z.) sulcata
(center), and C. (Z.) vonones (Walker) (right)
(1991) synonymized this group with Chrysocharis, based in part on the assumption
that Omphale varia (Hansson) and O. gracilicornis (Hansson) were true Chrysocharis
as Hansson (1987) had indicated at the time. Hansson (1997) reinstated Zaommomyia
as a subgenus based on the characters given above. The final placement of this group
awaits further study, including exploration of its relationship to Closterocerus,
Ionympha, and the Omphale group. Air-dried specimens are
usually strongly collapsed, and difficult to identify. The specially colored and/or
sculpted area of the upper frons is difficult to distinguish with any strong certainty,
and should not be relied upon too heavily.
Proacrias: Propodeum with median carina
modified: either broadened and flattened, or posteriorly
Closterocerus: Postmarginal vein in nearly
all species <1.5x stigmal vein length. Other differences by subgenus or species group:
subgenus Closterocerus with pedicel carinate dorsally and ventrally, subgenus Achrysocharis
with straight transverse frontal suture, former Neochrysocharis either with
some transverse flagellomeres and without distinct triangular area above the transverse
frontal suture, former Asecodes either with a short stigmal vein, with 2 setal
tracks extending from stigmal apex, or with broadly flattened flagellum.
Chrysocharis sensu strictu:
Interscrobal ridge not meeting transverse groove in females (and nearly
all males). Scrobal grooves not extending ventrally below toruli. Male
flagellum without whorls of erect setae. The differences between females of these groups
are subtle, especially if the head is collapsed, but in all cases I have been able to
successfully use these characters in distinguishing specimens of known identity in these
Ionympha: Mandibles very long and
narrow, with several tiny dorsal teeth and 2 large apical ones. Occiput
with median furrow.Gena with strong incision for base of mandible to fit
into when open. Scape with sensory pores present only at apex in males.
Omphale: Clypeus usually set off by
distinct sutures (dorsal suture rarely missing), often different color
from frons, usually transverse ridge also present separating lower face
from center of face. Heads of flagellar peg sensilla always slanting,
asymmetrical, sometimes strongly asymmetrical. Petiole always broader than long. Propodeum
without median carina, submedian carinae, or channels.
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Hansson, C. 1986. A revision of the Nearctic species of the genus Zaommomyia
Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of
Washington. 88(2): 244-252.
Hansson, C. 1987. Revision of the New World Chrysocharis Förster
(Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Entomologica Scandinavica supplement 31.
Hansson, C. 1996. Taxonomic revision of the Nearctic species of Omphale
Haliday (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Entomologica Scandinavica supplement 49.
Hansson, C. 1997. Survey of Chrysocharis Förster and Neochrysocharis
Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Mexico, including eight new species. Miscellania
Zoologica (Barcelona). 20(1): 81-95.
Schauff, M.E. 1991. The Holarctic genera of Entedoninae
(Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 26.
Image credits: 1a-c: Hansson (1997). 2a-c: Hansson (1986).