return to: Eul 1 Eul 4 ent 1 eud 1 cir1 eul 1
eul 5 eul 10
eul 14 eul 17
eul 20 eul 24
Förster, 1851 comparative info return to: prev(Eul 13) prev(cir 2) prev(eul
(Includes Olynx Förster, Pseudolynx Girault, and Scotolinx
Ashmead) Flagellar formula 2,3,2 or 2,4,1 in most species, but a few with 2 funicular
segments; most species with the same formula in both sexes, but sometimes with 4
funicular segments in males and 3 in females. Mesosoma stout and arched in profile in most
species; notauli complete, proceeding as nearly straight lines to end at or near scutellar
margin, leaving a distinct scapular flange that reaches or nearly reaches the scutellar
margin; axillae only slightly advanced; scutellum convex, parallel
submedian grooves absent or present and very close together. Stigma elongate,
with uncus arising more than its own length from stigmal apex
[look at both wings to determine for sure, as this is distinctive but variable]. Compare
with: Cirrospilus, Paraolinx.
1a-b: Aulogymnus arsames (Walker) forewing (left), and A.
trilineatus (Mayr) forewing (right)
2a-d: Aulogymnus gallarum (L.) antenna (left), and A.
skianeuros (Ratzeburg) male and female antennae (center), and Aulogymnus mesosomatic
described species. This genus is not as distinct as it may appear at first assessment, as
an elongate stigma occurs in several other groups of Eulophinae, such as Dicladocerus,
Dahlbominus, some Necremnus, and others. The character does appear to
distinguish it from forms with complete notauli that lack submedian scutellar grooves or
only have parallel ones, but it is a difficult character to rely upon in some cases, as it
is difficult to determine whether the stigma is elongate or not and in some series the
stigma can range from distinctly elongate to small like in Cirrospilus. I have
used the uncus length as a determinant, but it should be noted that a few Aulogymnus lack
a distinct uncus, and that this does not work every time, regardless. It is interesting
that nearly all Aulogymnus have a similar distinctive bodily sculpture and shape,
being very finely sculpted and stout-bodied, arched in profile, but these characters are
not easily related in print and require experience to be reliable. While the notauli are
sometimes weakly complete in the other genera with an elongate stigma, such as Dicladocerus,
in these cases the notauli are strongly curved and usually end in the anterior half of the
dorsal surface of the axillae, which are strongly advanced. In Aulogymnus, I am
aware of no species with indistinctly complete notauli, and the notauli are straight and
extending to the scutellar border or ending very near it in the axillar border. While this
distinction may seem complex in print, it is very useful and can be easily ascertained by
Cirrospilus: Flagellum always with 2
funicular segments. Uncus subapical, separated by about its own length from stigmal apex
[look at both wings]. Body flattened in most species (stout and arched in most Aulogymnus).
About half dorsal surface of axillae advanced anteriad of scutellar margin. Scutellar
grooves often very far apart. A few problematic species appear to lie between Cirrospilus
and Aulogymnus, and no satisfactory characters exist for their placement at
Paraolinx: Stigma not elongate. Females
with transverse white stripe present on face at level of toruli, bordered
above and below by dark stripes, although this pattern is sometimes reduced to a
simple white spot near each eye. Mandibles long, with many tiny
denticles. Flagellar formula 2,4,3 in females, 1,4,2 in males; flagellar segments
expanded in males. Head much broader relative to body.
return to top
Askew, R.R. 1968. Hymenoptera 2. Chalcidoidea section (b). Handbooks
for the Identification of British Insects. 8(2)b.
Gordh, G. 1977. A new species of North American Scotolinx
with taxonomic notes on the genus. Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 53:
Pujade i Villar, J. 1991. Nuevas aportaciones al conocimiento de Aulogymnus
Förster, 1851 (Hym., Chal., Eulophidae) para la Peninsula Iberica, con la
descripcion de una especie nueva, Aulogymnus balani sp. n. Graellsia. 47:
Schauff, M.E. & J. LaSalle. 1993. Nomenclatural notes on genera
of North American Eulophidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Proceedings of the
Entomological Society of Washington. 95(3): 488-503.
Image credits: 1a-b, 2a-c: Pujade i Villar (1991), 1b modified. 2d:
This page corrected by Olivier Plantard, effective September 21,
2002 (re: spelling of Aulogymnus arsames).