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Aulogymnus Förster, 1851 comparative info return to: prev(Eul 13) prev(cir 2) prev(eul 10) home
(Includes Olynx Förster, Pseudolynx Girault, and Scotolinx Ashmead) Flagellar formula 2,3,2 or 2,4,1 in most species, but a few with 2 funicular segments (and 3 claval segments); most species with the same formula in both sexes, but sometimes with 4 funicular segments in males and 3 in females. Mesosoma stout and arched in profile in most species; notauli complete, proceeding as nearly straight lines to end at or near scutellar margin, leaving a distinct scapular flange that reaches or nearly reaches the scutellar margin; axillae only slightly advanced; scutellum convex, parallel submedian grooves absent or present and very close together. Stigma elongate, with uncus arising more than its own length from stigmal apex [look at both wings to determine for sure, as this is distinctive but variable]. Compare with: Cirrospilus, Paraolinx.

aulogymnus arsames forewing.JPG (12466 bytes)aulogymnus_trilineatus2.JPG (16952 bytes)
1a-b: Aulogymnus arsames (Walker) forewing (left), and A. trilineatus (Mayr) forewing (right)

aulogymnus gallarum antenna.JPG (9682 bytes)       aulogymnus skianeuros antennae.JPG (13216 bytes)aulogymnus mesosoma.JPG (14013 bytes)
2a-d: Aulogymnus gallarum (L.) antenna (left), and A. skianeuros (Ratzeburg) male and female antennae (center), and Aulogymnus mesosomatic dorsum (right)

Biology: Parasitoids of gall-makers.

Comments: 27 described species. This genus is not as distinct as it may appear at first assessment, as an elongate stigma occurs in several other groups of Eulophinae, such as Dicladocerus, Dahlbominus, some Necremnus, and others. The character does appear to distinguish it from forms with complete notauli that lack submedian scutellar grooves or only have parallel ones, but it is a difficult character to rely upon in some cases, as it is difficult to determine whether the stigma is elongate or not and in some series the stigma can range from distinctly elongate to small like in Cirrospilus. I have used the uncus length as a determinant, but it should be noted that a few Aulogymnus lack a distinct uncus, and that this does not work every time, regardless. It is interesting that nearly all Aulogymnus have a similar distinctive bodily sculpture and shape, being very finely sculpted and stout-bodied, arched in profile, but these characters are not easily related in print and require experience to be reliable. While the notauli are sometimes weakly complete in the other genera with an elongate stigma, such as Dicladocerus, in these cases the notauli are strongly curved and usually end in the anterior half of the dorsal surface of the axillae, which are strongly advanced. In Aulogymnus, I am aware of no species with indistinctly complete notauli, and the notauli are straight and extending to the scutellar border or ending very near it in the axillar border. While this distinction may seem complex in print, it is very useful and can be easily ascertained by comparing figures.

Comparative information:

Cirrospilus: Flagellum always with 2 funicular segments. Uncus subapical, separated by about its own length from stigmal apex [look at both wings]. Body flattened in most species (stout and arched in most Aulogymnus). About half dorsal surface of axillae advanced anteriad of scutellar margin. Scutellar grooves often very far apart. A few problematic species appear to lie between Cirrospilus and Aulogymnus, and no satisfactory characters exist for their placement at this time.

Paraolinx: Stigma not elongate. Females with transverse white stripe present on face at level of toruli, bordered above and below by dark stripes, although this pattern is sometimes reduced to a simple white spot near each eye. Mandibles long, with many tiny denticles. Flagellar formula 2,4,3 in females, 1,4,2 in males; flagellar segments expanded in males. Head much broader relative to body.

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Askew, R.R. 1968. Hymenoptera 2. Chalcidoidea section (b). Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects. 8(2)b.

Gordh, G. 1977. A new species of North American Scotolinx with taxonomic notes on the genus. Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 53: 205-210.

Pujade i Villar, J. 1991. Nuevas aportaciones al conocimiento de Aulogymnus Förster, 1851 (Hym., Chal., Eulophidae) para la Peninsula Iberica, con la descripcion de una especie nueva, Aulogymnus balani sp. n. Graellsia. 47: 139-154.

Schauff, M.E. & J. LaSalle. 1993. Nomenclatural notes on genera of North American Eulophidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 95(3): 488-503.

Image credits: 1a-b, 2a-c: Pujade i Villar (1991), 1b modified. 2d: Askew (1968).

This page corrected by Olivier Plantard, effective September 21, 2002 (re: spelling of Aulogymnus arsames).